About this Journal Submit a Manuscript Table of Contents
Psyche
Volume 2012 (2012), Article ID 198084, 19 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2012/198084
Review Article

Fire Ants (Solenopsis spp.) and Their Natural Enemies in Southern South America

USDA-ARS-South American Biological Control Laboratory, Bolívar 1559, B1686EFA Hurlingham, Argentina

Received 8 August 2011; Revised 4 October 2011; Accepted 14 October 2011

Academic Editor: Jean Paul Lachaud

Copyright © 2012 Juan Briano et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Linked References

  1. J. P. Pitts, A cladistic analysis of the Solenopsis saevissima species-group (Hymenoptera: Formicidae), Ph.D. thesis, University of Georgia, Athens, Ga, USA, 2002.
  2. C. R. Thompson, “Ants that have pest status in the United States,” in Applied Myrmecology: A World Perspective, R. K. Vander Meer, K. Jaffe, and A. Cedeño, Eds., pp. 51–67, Westview Press, Boulder, Colo, USA, 1990.
  3. W. F. Buren, “Revisionary studies on the taxonomy of the imported fire ants,” Journal Georgia Entomological Society, vol. 7, pp. 1–26, 1972.
  4. S. Lowe, M. Browne, S. Boudjelas, and D. M. de Poorter, “100 of the World's Worst Invasive Alien Species”, A selection from the Global Invasive Species Database, Invasive Species Specialist Group, Species Survival Commission, World Conservation Union, 2000.
  5. L. R. Davis, R. K. Vander Meer, and S. D. Porter, “Red imported fire ants expand their range across the West Indies,” Florida Entomologist, vol. 84, no. 4, pp. 735–736, 2001. View at Scopus
  6. R. Nattrass and C. Vanderwoude, “A preliminary investigation of the ecological effects of red imported fire ants (Solenopsis invicta) in Brisbane, Australia,” Ecological Management and Restoration, vol. 2, no. 3, pp. 220–223, 2001. View at Scopus
  7. A. Pascoe, “Turning up the heat on fire ants,” Biosecurity Magazine, vol. 32, p. 6, 2001.
  8. X. J. Wang, “Red imported fire ant from South America invaded Taiwan causing panic; scholars in mainland China remind government of taking strict precautions against its invasion,” Science Times, 2004.
  9. R. Zhang, Y. Li, N. Liu, and S. D. Porter, “An overview of the red imported fire ant (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) in mainland China,” Florida Entomologist, vol. 90, no. 4, pp. 723–731, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  10. http://www.biosecurity.govt.nz/pests/red-imported-fire-ant.
  11. D. F. Williams, H. L. Collins, and D. H. Oi, “The red imported fire ant (Hymenoptera: Formicidae): an historical perspective of treatments programs and the development of chemical baits for control,” American Entomologist, vol. 47, pp. 146–159, 2001.
  12. R. D. de Shazo, B. T. Butcher, and W. A. Banks, “Reactions to the stings of the imported fire ant,” New England Journal of Medicine, vol. 323, no. 7, pp. 462–466, 1990. View at Scopus
  13. C. R. Allen, E. A. Forys, K. G. Rice, and D. P. Wojcik, “Are red imported fire ants a threat to hatching sea turtles?” in Proceedings of the Imported Fire Ant Research Conference, p. 115, 1997.
  14. C. R. Allen, K. G. Rice, D. P. Wojcik, and H. F. Percival, “Effect of red imported fire ant envenomization on neonatal American alligators,” Journal of Herpetology, vol. 31, no. 2, pp. 318–321, 1997. View at Scopus
  15. G. R. Camilo and S. A. Philips, “Evolution of ant communities in response to invasion by the fire ant Solenopsis invicta,” in Applied Myrmecology: A World Perspective, R. K. Vander Meer, K. Jaffe, and A. Cedeño, Eds., pp. 190–198, Westview Press, Boulder, Colo, USA, 1990.
  16. S. D. Porter and D. A. Savignano, “Invasion of polygyne fire ants decimates native ants and disrupts arthropod community,” Ecology, vol. 71, no. 6, pp. 2095–2106, 1990. View at Scopus
  17. C. T. Adams, “Agricultural and medical impact of the imported fire ants,” in Fire Ants and Leaf-Cutting Ants: Biology and Management, C. S. Lofgren and R. K. Vander Meer, Eds., pp. 48–57, Westview Press, Boulder, Colo, USA, 1986.
  18. S. B. Vinson and W. P. Mackay, “Effects of the fire ant Solenopsis invicta on electrical circuits and equipment,” in Applied Myrmecology: A World Perspective, R. K. Vander Meer and A. Cedeño, Eds., pp. 496–503, Westview Press, Boulder, Colo, USA, 1990.
  19. T. E. Macom and S. D. Porter, “Comparison of polygyne and monogyne red imported fire ant (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) population densities,” Annals of the Entomological Society of America, vol. 89, no. 4, pp. 535–543, 1996. View at Scopus
  20. W. R. Tschinkel, The Fire Ants, Belknap Press, Cambridge, Mass, USA, 2006.
  21. C. S. Lofgren, “History of imported fire ants in the United States,” in Fire Ants and Leaf-Cutting Ants: Biology and Management, C. S. Lofgren and R. K. Vander Meer, Eds., pp. 36–47, Westview, Boulder, Colo, USA, 1986.
  22. G. E. Allen and W. F. Buren, “Microsporidian and fungal diseases of S. invicta Buren in Brazil,” Journal of the New York Entomological Society, vol. 82, pp. 125–130, 1974.
  23. G. E. Allen and A. S. Guido, “Occurrence of microsporidia in Solenopsis invicta and Solenopsis sp. in Uruguay and Argentina,” Florida Entomologist, vol. 57, pp. 327–329, 1974.
  24. R. N. Williams and W. H. Whitcomb, “Parasites of fire ants in South America,” in Proceedings of the Annual Tall Timbers Conference on Ecological Animal Control by Habitat Management, vol. 5, pp. 49–59, 1974.
  25. D. P. Wojcik, “Survey for biocontrol agents in Brazil: a final report, with comments on preliminary research in Argentina,” in Proceedings of the Imported Fire Ant Conference, pp. 50–62, Athens, Ga, USA, 1988.
  26. K. L. Hays, “The present status of the imported fire ant in Argentina,” Journal of Economic Entomology, vol. 51, pp. 111–112, 1958.
  27. N. Kusnezov, Hormigas Argentinas: Clave para su Identificación, Fundación Miguel Lillo, Tucumán, Argentina, 1978.
  28. J. C. Trager, “A revision of the fire ants, Solenopsis geminata group (Hymenoptera: Formicidae: Myrmicinae),” Journal of the New York Entomological Society, vol. 99, pp. 141–198, 1991.
  29. L. A. Calcaterra, R. K. Vander Meer, J. P. Pitts, J. P. Livore, and N. D. Tsutsui, “Survey of Solenopsis fire ants and their parasitoid flies (Diptera: Phoridae: Pseudacteon spp.) in Central Chile and Central Western Argentina,” Annals of the Entomological Society of America, vol. 100, no. 4, pp. 512–521, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  30. L. A. Calcaterra, Distribución y abundancia de la hormiga colorada Solenopsis invicta en Argentina: sus interacciones con hormigas competidoras y moscas parasitoides (Pseudacteon spp.), Doctoral Dissertation, Universidad de Buenos Aires, Buenos Aires, Argentina, 2010.
  31. M. S. Ascunce, C. Yang, J. Oakey et al., “Global invasion history of the fire ant Solenopsis invicta,” Science, vol. 331, pp. 1066–1068, 2011.
  32. S. D. Porter, D. F. Williams, R. S. Patterson, and H. G. Fowler, “Intercontinental differences in the abundance of Solenopsis fire ants (Hymenoptera: Formicidae): escape from natural enemies?” Environmental Entomology, vol. 26, no. 2, pp. 373–384, 1997. View at Scopus
  33. D. P. Jouvenaz, W. A. Banks, and J. D. Atwood, “Incidence of pathogens in fire ants, Solenopsis spp. in Brazil,” Florida Entomologist, vol. 63, pp. 345–346, 1980.
  34. D. P. Jouvenaz, “Natural enemies of fire ants,” Florida Entomologist, vol. 66, pp. 111–121, 1983.
  35. D. P. Jouvenaz, “Diseases of fire ants: problems and opportunities,” in Fire Ants and Leaf-Cutting Ants: Biology and Management, C. S. Lofgren and R. K. Vander Meer, Eds., pp. 327–338, Westview, Boulder, Colo, USA, 1986.
  36. D. F. Williams, D. H. Oi, S. D. Porter, R. M. Pereira, and J. A. Briano, “Biological control of imported fire ants (Hymenoptera: Formicidae),” American Entomologist, vol. 49, pp. 150–163, 2003.
  37. P. J. Folgarait, P. D'adamo, and L. E. Gilbert, “A grassland ant community in Argentina: the case of Solenopsis richteri and Camponotus punctulatus (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) attaining high densities in their native ranges,” Annals of the Entomological Society of America, vol. 97, no. 3, pp. 450–457, 2004. View at Scopus
  38. E. G. LeBrun, C. V. Tillberg, A. V. Suarez, P. J. Folgarait, C. R. Smith, and D. A. Holway, “An experimental study of competition between fire ants and Argentine ants in their native range,” Ecology, vol. 88, no. 1, pp. 63–75, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  39. L. A. Calcaterra, J. P. Livore, A. Delgado, and J. A. Briano, “Ecological dominance of the red imported fire ant, Solenopsis invicta, in its native range,” Oecologia, vol. 156, no. 2, pp. 411–421, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  40. D. H. Feener Jr, M. R. Orr, K. M. Wackford, J. M. Longo, W. W. Benson, and L. E. Gilbert, “Geographic variation in resource dominance discovery in Brazilian ant communities,” Ecology, vol. 89, no. 7, pp. 1824–1836, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  41. L. A. Calcaterra, F. Cuezzo, S. M. Cabrera, and J. A. Briano, “Ground ant diversity in the Iberá natural reserve: the largest wetland of Argentina,” Annals of the Entomological Society of America, vol. 103, no. 1, pp. 71–83, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  42. L. A. Calcaterra, S. M. Cabrera, F. Cuezzo, I. J. Perz, and J. A. Briano, “Habitat and grazing influence on terrestrial ants in subtropical grasslands and savannas of Argentina,” Annals of the Entomological Society of America, vol. 103, no. 4, pp. 635–646, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  43. E. J. Caldera, K. G. Ross, C. J. DeHeer, and D. D. Shoemaker, “Putative native source of the invasive fire ant Solenopsis invicta in the USA,” Biological Invasions, vol. 10, no. 8, pp. 1457–1479, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  44. G. E. Allen, W. F. Buren, R. N. Williams, M. de Menezes, and W. H. Whitcomb, “The red imported fire ant, Solenopsis invicta: distribution and habitat in Mato Grosso, Brazil,” Annals of the Entomological Society of America, vol. 67, pp. 43–46, 1974.
  45. J. D. Knell, G. E. Allen, and E. I. Hazard, “Light and electron microscope study of Thelohania solenopsae n. sp. (Microsporida: Protozoa) in the red imported fire ant, Solenopsis invicta,” Journal of Invertebrate Pathology, vol. 29, no. 2, pp. 192–200, 1977. View at Scopus
  46. D. P. Jouvenaz and E. A. Ellis, “Vairimorpha invictae n. sp. (Microspora: Microsporida), a parasite of the red imported fire ant, Solenopsis invicta Buren (Hymenoptera: Formicidae),” Journal of Protozoology, vol. 33, no. 4, pp. 457–461, 1986. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  47. Y. Sokolova and J. R. Fuxa, “Development of Thelohania solenopsae in red imported fire ants Solenopsis invicta from polygynous colonies results in formation of three spore types,” in Proceedings of the 7th International Workshops on Opportunistic Protists, vol. 58S, Cincinnati, Ohio, USA, 2001.
  48. Y. Y. Sokolova, L. R. Mcnally, and J. R. Fuxa, “PCR-based analysis of apores isolated from smears by laser pressure catapult microdissection confirms genetic identity of spore morphotypes of the microsporidian Thelohania solenopsae,” Journal of Eukaryotic Microbiology, vol. 50, pp. 584–585, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  49. Y. Y. Sokolova, L. R. McNally, J. R. Fuxa, and S. B. Vinson, “Spore morphotypes of Thelohania solenopsae (microsporidia) described microscopically and confirmed by PCR of individual spores microdissected from smears by position ablative laser microbeam microscopy,” Microbiology, vol. 150, no. 5, pp. 1261–1270, 2004. View at Scopus
  50. A. M. Shapiro, J. J. Becnel, D. H. Oi, and D. F. Williams, “Ultrastructural characterization and further transmission studies of Thelohania solenopsae from Solenopsis invicta pupae,” Journal of Invertebrate Pathology, vol. 83, no. 2, pp. 177–180, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  51. J. A. Briano, Effect of the pathogen Thelohania sp. (Microsporida: Thelohaniidae) on field populations of the fire ant Solenopsis richteri (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) in Argentina, M.S. thesis, University of Florida, Gainesville, Fla, USA, 1993.
  52. J. A. Briano, D. P. Jouvenaz, D. P. Wojcik, H. A. Cordo, and R. S. Patterson, “Protozoan and fungal disease in Solenopsis richteri and S.quionquecuspis (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) in Buenos Aires province, Argentina,” Florida Entomologist, vol. 78, no. 3, pp. 531–537, 1995. View at Scopus
  53. J. A. Briano and D. F. Williams, “Natural occurrence and laboratory studies of the fire ant pathogen Vairimorpha invictae (Microsporida: Burenellidae) in Argentina,” Environmental Entomology, vol. 31, no. 5, pp. 887–894, 2002. View at Scopus
  54. S. M. Valles and J. A. Briano, “Presence of Thelohania solenopsae and Vairimorpha invictae in South American populations of Solenopsis invicta,” Florida Entomologist, vol. 87, no. 4, pp. 625–627, 2004. View at Scopus
  55. J. A. Briano, R. S. Patterson, and H. A. Cordo, “Relationship between colony size of Solenopsis richteri (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) and infection with Thelohania solenopsae (Microsporida: Thelohaniidae) in Argentina,” Journal of Economic Entomology, vol. 88, pp. 1233–1237, 1995.
  56. D. F. Williams, G. J. Knue, and J. J. Becnel, “Discovery of Thelohania solenopsae from the red imported fire ant, Solenopsis invicta, in the United States,” Journal of Invertebrate Pathology, vol. 71, no. 2, pp. 175–176, 1998. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  57. J. A. Briano, L. A. Calcaterra, R. Vander Meer, S. M. Valles, and J. P. Livore, “New survey for the fire ant microsporidia Vairimorpha invictae and Thelohania solenopsae in southern South America, with observations on their field persistence and prevalence of dual infections,” Environmental Entomology, vol. 35, no. 5, pp. 1358–1365, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  58. J. A. Briano, R. S. Patterson, J. J. Becnel, and H. A. Cordo, “The black imported fire ant, Solenopsis richteri, infected with Thelohania solenopsae: intracolonial prevalence of infection and evidence for transovarial transmission,” Journal of Invertebrate Pathology, vol. 67, no. 2, pp. 178–179, 1996. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  59. R. S. Patterson and J. A. Briano, “Potential of three biological control agents for suppression of Solenopsis invicta, the red imported fire ant,” in Proceedings of the 1st International Conference on Insect Pests in Urban Environments, pp. 35–43, Exeter, UK, 1993.
  60. J. A. Briano, R. S. Patterson, and H. A. Cordo, “Long-term studies of the black imported fire ant (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) infected with a microsporidium,” Environmental Entomology, vol. 24, no. 5, pp. 1328–1332, 1995. View at Scopus
  61. J. A. Briano, R. S. Patterson, and H. A. Cordo, “Colony movement of the black imported fire ant (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) in Argentina,” Environmental Entomology, vol. 24, no. 5, pp. 1131–1134, 1995. View at Scopus
  62. J. A. Briano and D. F. Williams, “Effect of the microsporidium Thelohania solenopsae (Microsporida: Thelohaniidae) on the longevity and survival of Solenopsis richteri (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) in the laboratory,” Florida Entomologist, vol. 80, no. 3, pp. 366–376, 1997. View at Scopus
  63. J. A. Briano, “Long-term studies of the red imported fire ant, Solenopsis invicta, infected with the microsporidia Vairimorpha invictae and Thelohania solenopsae in Argentina,” Environmental Entomology, vol. 34, no. 1, pp. 124–132, 2005. View at Scopus
  64. D. F. Williams, D. H. Oi, and G. J. Knue, “Infection of red imported fire ant (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) colonies with the entomopathogen Thelohania solenopsae (Microsporidia: Thelohaniidae),” Journal of Economic Entomology, vol. 92, no. 4, pp. 830–836, 1999. View at Scopus
  65. D. H. Oi, J. J. Becnel, and D. F. Williams, “Evidence of intracolony transmission of Thelohania solenopsae (Microsporidia: Thelohaniidae) in red imported fire ants (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) and the first report of spores from pupae,” Journal of Invertebrate Pathology, vol. 78, no. 3, pp. 128–134, 2001. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  66. D. H. Oi and D. F. Williams, “Thelohania solenopsae (Microsporidia: Thelohaniidae) infection in reproductives of red imported fire ants (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) and its implication for intercolony transmission,” Environmental Entomology, vol. 32, no. 5, pp. 1171–1176, 2003. View at Scopus
  67. D. H. Oi, J. A. Briano, S. M. Valles, and D. F. Williams, “Transmission of Vairimorpha invictae (Microsporidia: Burenellidae) infections between red imported fire ant (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) colonies,” Journal of Invertebrate Pathology, vol. 88, no. 2, pp. 108–115, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  68. J. A. Briano, D. F. Williams, D. H. Oi, and L. R. Davis, “Field host range of the fire ant pathogens Thelohania solenopsae (Microsporida: Thelohaniidae) and Vairimorpha invictae (Microsporida: Burenellidae) in South America,” Biological Control, vol. 24, no. 1, pp. 98–102, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  69. M. S. Ascunce, S. M. Valles, D. H. Oi et al., “Molecular diversity of the microsporidium Kneallhazia solenopsae reveals an expanded host range among fire ants in North America,” Journal of Invertebrate Pathology, vol. 105, no. 3, pp. 279–288, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  70. S. D. Porter, S. M. Valles, T. S. Davis et al., “Host specificity of the microsporidian pathogen Vairimorpha invictae at five field sites with infected Solenopsis invicta fire ant colonies in northern Argentina,” Florida Entomologist, vol. 90, no. 3, pp. 447–452, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  71. D. H. Oi, S. M. Valles, and J. A. Briano, “Laboratory host specificity testing of the fire ant microsporidian pathogen Vairimorpha invictae (Microsporidia: Burenellidae),” Biological Control, vol. 53, no. 3, pp. 331–336, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  72. G. O. Poinar, S. D. Porter, S. Tang, and B. C. Hyman, “Allomermis solenopsi n. sp. (Nematoda: Mermithidae) parasitising the fire ant Solenopsis invicta Buren (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) in Argentina,” Systematic Parasitology, vol. 68, no. 2, pp. 115–128, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  73. D. P. Jouvenaz and D. P. Wojcik, “Parasitic nematode observed in the fire ant Solenopsis richteri, in Argentina,” Florida Entomologist, vol. 73, pp. 674–675, 1990.
  74. D. P. Wojcik, D. P. Jouvenaz, and R. S. Patterson, “Nematode parasites of fire ants from South America,” in Proceedings of the Imported Fire Ants Conference, pp. 73–81, Stone Mountain Memorial Park, Atlanta, Ga, USA, 1991.
  75. G. O. J. Poinar and G. G. Gyfisco, “Studies on the bionomics of Hexamermis arvalis Poinar and Gyrisco, a mermithid parasite of the alfalfa weevil, Hypera postica (Gyllenhal),” Journal of Invertebrate Pathology, vol. 4, pp. 469–483, 1962.
  76. F. P. Cuthbert, “Bionomics of a mermithid (Nematode) parasite of soil-inhabiting larvae of certain chrysomelids (Coleoptera),” Journal of Invertebrate Pathology, vol. 12, no. 3, pp. 283–287, 1968. View at Scopus
  77. J. J. Petersen, “Biology of Octomyomermis muspratti, a parasite of mosquitoes as it relates to mass production,” Journal of Invertebrate Pathology, vol. 30, no. 2, pp. 155–159, 1977. View at Scopus
  78. Y. Tanada and H. K. Kaya, Insect Pathology, Academic Press, San Diego, Calif, USA, 1993.
  79. J. J. Petersen, H. C. Chapman, and D. B. Woodard, “Preliminary observations on the incidence and biology of a mermithid nematode of Aedes sollicitans (Walker) in Louisiana,” Mosquito News, vol. 27, pp. 493–498, 1967.
  80. J. Muspratt, “The laboratory culture of a nematode parasite of mosquito larvae,” Journal of the Entomological Society of South Africa, vol. 10, pp. 131–132, 1947.
  81. J. J. Petersen and R. Willis, “Procedures for the mass rearing of a mermithid parasite of mosquitoes,” Mosquito News, vol. 32, pp. 226–230, 1972.
  82. C. S. Creighton and G. Fassuliotis, “A laboratory technique for culturing Filipjevimermis leipsandra, a nematode parasite of Diabrotica balteata larvae (Insecta: Coleoptera),” Journal of Nematology, vol. 13, pp. 226–227, 1981.
  83. S. W. Avery, D. P. Jouvenaz, W. A. Banks, and D. W. Anthony, “Virus-like particles in a fire ant, Solenopsis sp., (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) from Brazil,” Florida Entomologist, vol. 60, pp. 17–20, 1977.
  84. S. M. Valles, C. A. Strong, P. M. Dang et al., “A picorna-like virus from the red imported fire ant, Solenopsis invicta: initial discovery, genome sequence, and characterization,” Virology, vol. 328, no. 1, pp. 151–157, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  85. S. M. Valles and C. A. Strong, “Solenopsis invicta virus-1A (SINV-1A): distinct species or genotype of SINV-1?” Journal of Invertebrate Pathology, vol. 88, no. 3, pp. 232–237, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  86. S. M. Valles, C. A. Strong, and Y. Hashimoto, “A new positive-strand RNA virus with unique genome characteristics from the red imported fire ant, Solenopsis invicta,” Virology, vol. 365, no. 2, pp. 457–463, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  87. S. M. Valles, C. A. Strong, D. H. Oi et al., “Phenology, distribution, and host specificity of Solenopsis invicta virus-1,” Journal of Invertebrate Pathology, vol. 96, no. 1, pp. 18–27, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  88. Y. Hashimoto and S. M. Valles, “Infection characteristics of Solenopsis invicta virus 2 in the red imported fire ant, Solenopsis invicta,” Journal of Invertebrate Pathology, vol. 99, no. 2, pp. 136–140, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  89. S. M. Valles and Y. Hashimoto, “Isolation and characterization of Solenopsis invicta virus 3, a new positive-strand RNA virus infecting the red imported fire ant, Solenopsis invicta,” Virology, vol. 388, no. 2, pp. 354–361, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  90. D. H. Oi and S. M. Valles, “Fire ant control with entomopathogens in the USA,” in Use of Microbes for Control and Eradication of Invasive Arthropods, A. E. Hajek, T. R. Glare, and M. O'Callaghan, Eds., pp. 237–258, Springer Science, New York, NY, USA, 2009.
  91. S. M. Valles, L. Varone, L. Ramírez, and J. Briano, “Multiplex detection of Solenopsis invicta viruses -1, -2, and -3,” Journal of Virological Methods, vol. 162, no. 1-2, pp. 276–279, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  92. R. J. W. Patrock, S. D. Porter, L. E. Gilbert, and P. J. Folgarait, “Distributional patterns of Pseudacteon associated with the Solenopsis saevissima complex in South America,” Journal of Insect Science, vol. 9, article 60, 2009. View at Scopus
  93. R. M. Plowes, E. G. Lebrun, B. V. Brown, and L. E. Gilbert, “A review of Pseudacteon (diptera: Phoridae) that parasitize ants of the Solenopsis geminata complex (hymenoptera: Formicidae),” Annals of the Entomological Society of America, vol. 102, no. 6, pp. 937–958, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  94. R. H. L. Disney, Scuttle Flies: The Phoridae, Chapman and Hall, London, UK, 1994.
  95. D. H. Feener Jr and B. V. Brown, “Diptera as parasitoids,” Annual Review of Entomology, vol. 42, pp. 73–97, 1997. View at Scopus
  96. S. D. Porter and L. E. Gilbert, “Assessing host specificity and field release potential of fire ant decapitating flies (Phoridae: Pseudacteon),” in Assessing Host Ranges to Parasitoids and Predators Used for Classical Biological Control: A Guide to Best Practice, R. G. van Driesche, T. Murray, and R. Reardon, Eds., pp. 152–176, USDA Forest Service, Morgantown, WVa, USA, 2004.
  97. S. D. Porter and M. A. Pesquero, “Illustrated key to Pseudacteon decapitating flies (Diptera: Phoridae) that attack Solenopsis saevissima complex fire ants in South America,” Florida Entomologist, vol. 84, no. 4, pp. 691–699, 2001. View at Scopus
  98. R. N. Williams, J. R. Panaia, D. Gallos, and W. H. Whitcomb, “Fire ants attacked by phorid flies,” Florida Entomologist, vol. 56, pp. 259–262, 1973.
  99. R. N. Williams, “Insect natural enemies of fire ants in South America with several new records,” in Proceedings of the Annual Tall Timbers Conference on Ecological Animal Control by Habitat Management, vol. 7, pp. 123–134, 1980.
  100. L. A. Calcaterra, S. D. Porter, and J. A. Briano, “Distribution and abundance of fire ant decapitating flies (Diptera: Phoridae: Pseudacteon spp.) in three regions of southern South America,” Annals of the Entomological Society of America, vol. 98, no. 1, pp. 85–95, 2005. View at Scopus
  101. E. G. Lebrun, R. M. Plowes, and L. E. Gilbert, “Indirect competition facilitates widespread displacement of one naturalized parasitoid of imported fire ants by another,” Ecology, vol. 90, no. 5, pp. 1184–1194, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  102. L. A. Calcaterra, “Pseudacteon calderensis, a new fly species (Diptera: Phoridae) attacking the fire ant Solenopsis interrupta (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) in northwestern Argentina,” Annals of the Entomological Society of America, vol. 100, no. 4, pp. 470–473, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  103. B. V. Brown, P. Folgarait, and L. Gilbert, “A new species of Pseudacteon attacking Solenopsis fire ants (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) in Argentina,” Sociobiology, vol. 41, no. 3, pp. 685–688, 2003. View at Scopus
  104. L. A. Calcaterra, A. Delgado, and N. D. Tsutsui, “Activity pattern of red imported fire ant decapitating flies (Diptera: Phoridae: Pseudacteon spp.) in northeastern Argentina,” Annals of the Entomological Society of America, vol. 101, pp. 539–550, 2008.
  105. F. Dedeine, M. Ahrens, L. Calcaterra, and D. D. Shoemaker, “Social parasitism in fire ants (Solenopsis spp.): a potential mechanism for interspecies transfer of Wolbachia,” Molecular Ecology, vol. 14, no. 5, pp. 1543–1548, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  106. S. M. Valles and S. D. Porter, “Pseudacteon decapitating flies: potential vectors of a fire ant virus?” Florida Entomologist, vol. 90, no. 1, pp. 268–270, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  107. D. H. Oi, S. D. Porter, S. M. Valles, J. A. Briano, and L. A. Calcaterra, “Pseudacteon decapitating flies (Diptera: Phoridae): Are they potential vectors of the fire ant pathogens Kneallhazia (=Thelohania) Solenopsae (Microsporidia: Thelohaniidae) and Vairimorpha invictae (Microsporidia: Burenellidae)?” Biological Control, vol. 48, no. 3, pp. 310–315, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  108. R. M. Plowes, E. G. LeBrun, and L. E. Gilbert, “Introduction of the fire ant decapitating fly Pseudacteon obtusus in the United States: factors influencing establishment in Texas,” BioControl, vol. 56, pp. 295–304, 2010.
  109. E. G. LeBrun, R. M. Plowes, and L. E. Gilbert, “Dynamic expansion in recently introduced populations of fire ant parasitoids (Diptera: Phoridae),” Biological Invasions, vol. 10, pp. 989–999, 2007.
  110. L. E. Gilbert, C. L. Barr, A. A. Calixto et al., “Introducing phorid fly parasitoids of red imported fire ant workers from South America to Texas: outcomes vary by region and by Pseudacteon species released,” Southwestern Entomologist, vol. 33, no. 1, pp. 15–29, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  111. A. M. A. Callcott, S. D. Porter, R. D. Weeks Jr., L. C. Graham, S. J. Johnson, and L. E. Gilbert, “Fire ant decapitating fly cooperative release programs (1994–2008): two Pseudacteon species, P. tricuspis and P. curvatus, rapidly expand across imported fire ant populations in the southeastern United States,” Journal of Insect Science, vol. 11, article 19, 2011.
  112. S. D. Porter, L. A. N. De Sa, and L. W. Morrison, “Establishment and dispersal of the fire ant decapitating fly Pseudacteon tricuspis in North Florida,” Biological Control, vol. 29, no. 2, pp. 179–188, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  113. S. D. Porter, “Host specificity and risk assessment of releasing the decapitating fly Pseudacteon curvatus as a classical biocontrol agent for imported fire ants,” Biological Control, vol. 19, no. 1, pp. 35–47, 2000. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  114. R. J. Vazquez, S. D. Porter, and J. A. Briano, “Field release and establishment of the decapitating fly Pseudacteon curvatus on red imported fire ants in Florida,” BioControl, vol. 51, no. 2, pp. 207–216, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  115. S. D. Porter, L. C. Graham, S. J. Johnson, L. G. Thead, and J. A. Briano, “The large decapitating fly Pseudacteon litoralis (Diptera: Phoridae): successfully established on fire ant populations in Alabama,” Florida Entomologist, vol. 94, pp. 208–213, 2011.
  116. R. J. Vazquez and S. D. Porter, “RE-confirming host specificity of the fire ant decapitating fly Pseudacteon curvatus (Diptera: Phoridae) after field release in Florida,” Florida Entomologist, vol. 88, no. 1, pp. 107–110, 2005. View at Scopus
  117. L. W. Morrison and S. D. Porter, “Post-release host-specificity testing of Pseudacteon tricuspis, a phorid parasitoid of Solenopsis invicta fire ants,” BioControl, vol. 51, no. 2, pp. 195–205, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  118. R. M. Pereira and S. D. Porter, “Range expansion of the fire ant decapitating fly, v, eight to nine years after releases in North Florida,” Florida Entomologist, vol. 89, no. 4, pp. 536–538, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  119. D. C. Henne, S. J. Johnson, and S. D. Porter, “Status of the fire ant decapitating fly Pseudacteon tricuspis (Diptera: Phoridae) in Louisiana,” Florida Entomologist, vol. 90, no. 3, pp. 565–569, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  120. L. W. Morrison and S. D. Porter, “Phenology and parasitism rates in introduced populations of Pseudacteon tricuspis, a parasitoid of Solenopsis invicta,” BioControl, vol. 50, pp. 127–141, 2005.
  121. L. W. Morrison and S. D. Porter, “Testing for population-level impacts of introduced Pseudacteon tricuspis flies, phorid parasitoids of Solenopsis invicta fire ants,” Biological Control, vol. 33, no. 1, pp. 9–19, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  122. J. B. Johnson, T. D. Miller, J. M. Heraty, and F. W. Merickel, “Observations on the biology of two species of Orasema (Hymenoptera: Eucahritidae),” Proceedings of the Entomological Society of Washington, vol. 88, pp. 542–549, 1986.
  123. J. M. Heraty, D. P. Wojcik, and D. P. Jouvenaz, “Species of Orasema parasitic on the Solenopsis saevissima-complex in South America (Hymenoptera: Eucharitidae, Formicidae),” Journal of Hymentopteran Research, vol. 2, pp. 169–182, 1993.
  124. J. M. Heraty, “Classification and evolution of the Oraseminae in the old world, including revision of two closely related genera of Eucharitinae (Hymenoptera: Eucharitidae),” Life Sciences Contributions, Royal Ontario Museum, vol. 157, 174 pages, 1994.
  125. C. P. Clausen, “The habits of the Eucharidae,” Psyche, vol. 48, pp. 57–69, 1941.
  126. L. Varone and J. A. Briano, “Bionomics of Orasema simplex (Hymenoptera: Eucharitidae), a parasitoid of Solenopsis fire ants (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) in Argentina,” Biological Control, vol. 48, no. 2, pp. 204–209, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  127. W. M. Wheeler, “The polymorphism of ants, with an account of some singular abnormalities due to parasitism,” Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History, vol. 23, pp. 1–93, 1907.
  128. C. P. Clausen, “The oviposition habits of the Eucharidae (Hymenoptera),” Journal of the Washington Academy of Sciences, vol. 30, pp. 504–516, 1940.
  129. H. L. Parker, “Oviposition habits and early stages of Orasema sp,” Proceedings of the Entomological Society of Washington, vol. 44, pp. 142–145, 1942.
  130. A. Tocchetto, “Bicho costureiro,” Revista da Agronomia, Porto Alegre, vol. 6, pp. 587–588, 1942.
  131. R. K. Vander Meer, D. P. Jouvenaz, and D. P. Wojcik, “Chemical mimicry in a parasitoid (Hymenoptera: Eucharitidae) of fire ants (Hymenoptera: Formicidae),” Journal of Chemical Ecology, vol. 15, no. 8, pp. 2247–2261, 1989. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  132. D. W. Johnson, “Eucharitidae (Hymenoptera: Chalcidoidea): biology and potential for biological control,” Florida Entomologist, vol. 71, pp. 528–537, 1988.
  133. J. M. Heraty, “A revision of the Eucharitidae (Hymenoptera: Chalcidoidea) of the world,” Memoirs of the American Entomological Institute, vol. 68, pp. 1–359, 2002.
  134. A. Silveria-Guido, P. San Martin, C. Crisci, and J. Carbonell, Investigations on the biology and biological control of the fire ant, Solenopsis saevissima richteri Forel in Uruguay, Third report, Departmento de Sanidad Vegetal, Facultad de Agronomía, Universidad de la República, Montevideo, Uruguay, 1964.
  135. D. P. Wojcik, D. P. Jouvenaz, and C. S. Lofgren, “First report of a parasitic fly (Diptera: Phoridae) from a red imported fire ant alate female (Hymenoptera: Formicidae),” Florida Entomologist, vol. 70, pp. 181–182, 1987.
  136. D. P. Wojcik, “Behavioral interactions between ants and their parasites,” Florida Entomologist, vol. 72, pp. 43–51, 1989.
  137. J. M. Heraty, “Biology and importance of two eucharitid parasites of Wasmannia and Solenopsis,” in Exotic Ants: Biology, Impact and Control of Introduced Species, pp. 104–120, Westview Press, Boulder, Colo, USA, 1994.
  138. L. Varone, J. M. Heraty, and L. A. Calcaterra, “Distribution, abundance and persistence of species of Orasema (Hym: Eucharitidae) parasitic on fire ants in South America,” Biological Control, vol. 55, no. 1, pp. 72–78, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  139. W. A. Banks, C. S. Lofgren, D. P. Jouvenaz et al., Techniques for Collecting, Rearing, and Handling Imported Fire Ants, USDA, SEA, AATS-S-21, 1981.
  140. D. H. Oi, D. F. Williams, R. M. Pereira et al., “Combining biological and chemical controls for the management of red imported fire ants (Hymenoptera: Formicidae),” American Entomologist, vol. 54, no. 1, pp. 44–53, 2008.
  141. J. L. Cook, S. B. Vinson, and R. E. Gold, “Developmental stages of Caenocholax fenyesi Pierce (Strepsiptera: Myrmecolacidae): descriptions and significance to the higher taxonomy of Strepsiptera,” International Journal of Insect Morphology and Embryology, vol. 27, no. 1, pp. 21–26, 1998. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  142. J. Kathirithamby and J. S. Johnston, “The discovery after 94 years of the elusive female of a myrmecolacid (Strepsiptera), and the cryptic species of Caenocholax fenyesi Pierce sensu lato,” Proceedings of the Royal Society of London, vol. 271, supplement 3, pp. S5–S8, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  143. J. S. Johnston, L. D. Ross, L. Beani, D. P. Hughes, and J. Kathirithamby, “Tiny genomes and endoreduplication in Strepsiptera,” Insect Molecular Biology, vol. 13, no. 6, pp. 581–585, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  144. J. L. Cook, L. A. Calcaterra, and L. Nuñez, “First record of Caenocholax fenyesi (Strepsiptera: Myrmecolacidae) parasitizing Solenopsis invicta (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) in Argentina, with a discussion on its distribution and host range,” Entomological News, vol. 115, no. 2, pp. 61–66, 2004. View at Scopus
  145. J. Kathirithamby and D. P. Hughes, “Caenocholax fenyesi (Strepsiptera: Myrmecolacidae) parasitic in Camponotus planatus (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) in Mexico: is this the original host?” Annals of the Entomological Society of America, vol. 95, no. 5, pp. 558–563, 2002. View at Scopus
  146. J. Kathirithamby, “Host-parasitoid associations in Strepsiptera,” Annual Review of Entomology, vol. 54, pp. 227–249, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  147. A. Hayward, D. P. McMahon, and J. Kathirithamby, “Cryptic diversity and female host specificity in a parasitoid where the sexes utilize hosts from separate orders,” Molecular Ecology, vol. 20, pp. 1508–1528, 2011.
  148. C. Bruch, “Notas preliminares acerca de Labauchena daguerrei Santschi,” Revista de la Sociedad Entomológica Argentina, vol. 3, pp. 73–82, 1930.
  149. L. A. Calcaterra, J. A. Briano, and D. F. Williams, “Field studies of the parasitic ant Solenopsis daguerrei (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) on fire ants in Argentina,” Environmental Entomology, vol. 28, no. 1, pp. 88–95, 1999. View at Scopus
  150. A. Silveira-Guido, J. Carbonell, and C. Crisci, “Animals associated with the Solenopsis (fire ants) complex, with special reference to Labauchena daguerrei,” in Proceedings of the Annual Tall Timbers Conference on Ecological Animal Control by Habitat Management, vol. 4, pp. 41–52, 1973.
  151. L. A. Calcaterra, J. A. Briano, D. F. Williams, and D. H. Oi, “Observations on the sexual castes of the fire ant parasite Solenopsis daguerrei (Hymenoptera: Formicidae),” Florida Entomologist, vol. 84, no. 3, pp. 446–448, 2001. View at Scopus
  152. M. F. Sledge, F. R. Dani, R. Cervo, L. Dapporto, and S. Turillazzi, “Recognition of social parasites as nest-mates: adoption of colony-specific host cuticular odors by the paper wasp parasite Polistes sulcifer,” Proceedings of the Royal Society of London, Series B-Biological Sciences, vol. 268, pp. 2253–2260, 2001.
  153. J. A. Briano, L. A. Calcaterra, D. F. Williams, and D. H. Oi, “Attempts to artificially propagate the fire ant parasite Solenopsis daguerrei (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) in Argentina,” Florida Entomologist, vol. 85, no. 3, pp. 518–520, 2002. View at Scopus
  154. J. A. Briano, L. A. Calcaterra, D. P. Wojcik, D. F. Williams, W. A. Banks, and R. S. Patterson, “Abundance of the parasitic ant, Solenopsis daguerrei (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) in South America, a potential candidate for the biological control of the red Imported fire ant in the United States,” Environmental Entomology, vol. 26, no. 5, pp. 1143–1148, 1997. View at Scopus
  155. B. Hölldobler and E. O. Wilson, The Ants, Belknap Press, Cambridge, Mass, USA, 1990.
  156. L. A. Calcaterra, J. A. Briano, and D. F. Williams, “New host for the parasitic ant Solenopsis daguerrei (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) in Argentina,” Florida Entomologist, vol. 83, no. 3, pp. 363–365, 2000. View at Scopus
  157. D. D. Shoemaker, M. E. Ahrens, and K. G. Ross, “Molecular phylogeny of fire ants of the Solenopsis saevissima species-group based on mitochondrial DNA sequences,” Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution, vol. 38, no. 1, pp. 200–215, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  158. C. Emery, “Über den Ursprung der dulotischen, parasitischen und myrmekophilen Ameisen,” Biologische Centralblatt, vol. 29, pp. 352–362, 1909.
  159. A. F. G. Bourke and N. R. Franks, “Alternative adaptations, sympatric speciation and the evolution of parasitic, inquiline ants,” Biological Journal of the Linnean Society, vol. 43, no. 3, pp. 157–178, 1991. View at Scopus
  160. A. Buschinger, “Sympatric speciation and radiative evolution of socially parasitic ants—heretic hypotheses and their factual background,” Zeitschrift Fur Zoologische Systematik Und Evolutionsforschung, vol. 28, pp. 241–260, 1990.
  161. R. Savolainen and K. Vepsäläinen, “Sympatric speciation through intraspecific social parasitism,” Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, vol. 100, no. 12, pp. 7169–7174, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  162. S. Sumner, D. K. Aanen, J. Delabie, and J. J. Boomsma, “The evolution of social parasitism in Acromyrmex leaf-cutting ants: a test of Emery's rule,” Insectes Sociaux, vol. 51, no. 1, pp. 37–42, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus