Table 1: Overview of available studies on Escovopsis virulence in gardens of fungus-growing ants, and our assortment of these studies into the four Tinbergen quadrats.

QuadratStudy focusReferences

OntogenyPathology, impact, and prevalence[32, 34, 35]
Genetic and chemical basis of Escovopsis recognition of cultivars[36, 3841, 43]
MechanismAnt behavioural defences[4447]
Chemical defences[47, 48]
Actinobacteria defences[4952]
Cultivar defences[40, 41, 43]
PhylogenyPopulation-level specificity[3841, 43]
Cross-phylogeny specificity[38, 51]
AdaptationSusceptibility/resistance to metapleural gland compounds([48], reviewed in [53, 54])
Degree of Actinobacteria specificity [5563]
Susceptibility/resistance to Actinobacteria secretions[50, 58, 60, 61, 64, 65]
Host cultivar use[3841, 43]