About this Journal Submit a Manuscript Table of Contents
Psyche
Volume 2012 (2012), Article ID 791395, 9 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2012/791395
Research Article

Might Heterostyly Underlie Spider Occurrence on Inflorescences? A Case Study of Palicourea rigida (Rubiaceae), a Common Shrub from Brazilian Cerrado

1Programa de Pós-Graduação em Ecologia, Instituto de Biologia, UNICAMP, Caixa Postal 6109, 13083-970 Campinas, SP, Brazil
2Unidade Universitária de Morrinhos, Universidade Estadual de Goiás, 75650-000 Morrinhos, GO, Brazil
3Laboratório de Ecologia ComportamentaL e de Interações—LECI, Instituto de Biologia, Universidade Federal de Uberlândia, CP 593, 38400-902 Uberlândia, MG, Brazil
4UNICEUB/FACES, 70790-075, Brasília, DF, Brazil
5Instituto de Ciências Naturais, Humanas e Sociais, Universidade Federal de Mato Grosso, Campus Universitário de Sinop, 78557-267 Sinop, MT, Brazil

Received 3 August 2012; Revised 15 October 2012; Accepted 16 October 2012

Academic Editor: Kleber Del-Claro

Copyright © 2012 Suzana Diniz et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Linked References

  1. R. F. Foelix, Biology of Spiders, Oxford University Press, Oxford, UK, 1996.
  2. G. Q. Romero, “Aranhas como agentes de controle biológico em agroecossistemas,” in Ecologia e Comportamento de Aranhas, M. O. Gonzaga, A. Santos, and H. F. Japyassú, Eds., pp. 301–315, Editora Interciência, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, 2007.
  3. G. Q. Romero, J. C. Souza, and J. Vasconcellos-Neto, “Anti-herbivore protection by mutualistic spiders and the role of plant glandular trichomes,” Ecology, vol. 89, no. 11, pp. 3105–3115, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  4. J. Halaj, D. W. Ross, and A. R. Moldenke, “Importance of habitat structure to the arthropod food-web in Douglas-fir canopies,” Oikos, vol. 90, no. 1, pp. 139–152, 2000. View at Scopus
  5. L. Nahas, M. O. Gonzaga, and K. Del-Claro, “Emergent Impacts of ant and spiders interactions: herbivory reduction in a tropical savanna tree,” Biotropica, vol. 44, no. 4, pp. 498–505, 2012.
  6. A. L. Teixeira De Souza and R. P. Martins, “Distribution of plant-dwelling spiders: inflorescences versus vegetative branches,” Austral Ecology, vol. 29, no. 3, pp. 342–349, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  7. A. L. T. Souza and R. P. Martins, “Foliage density of branches and distribution of plant-dwelling spiders,” Biotropica, vol. 37, no. 3, pp. 416–420, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  8. C. L. Hatley and J. A. Macmahon, “Spider community organization: seasonal variation and the role of vegetation architecture,” Environmental Entomology, vol. 9, pp. 632–639, 1980.
  9. T. A. Evans, “Distribution of social crab spiders in eucalypt forests,” Austral Ecology, vol. 22, no. 1, pp. 107–111, 1997. View at Scopus
  10. R. A. Balfour and A. L. Rypstra, “The influence of habitat structure on spider density in a no-till soybean agroecosystem,” Journal of Arachnology, vol. 26, no. 2, pp. 221–226, 1998. View at Scopus
  11. J. Raizer and M. E. C. Amaral, “Does the structural complexity of aquatic macrophytes explain the diversity of associated spider assemblages?” Journal of Arachnology, vol. 29, no. 2, pp. 227–237, 2001. View at Scopus
  12. M. Scheidler, “Influence of habitat structure and vegetation architecture on spiders,” Zoologischer Anzeiger, vol. 225, no. 5-6, pp. 333–340, 1990. View at Scopus
  13. R. F. Denno, D. L. Finke, and G. A. Langellotto, “Direct and indirect effects of vegetation structure and habitat complexity on predator-prey and predator-predator interactions,” in Ecology of Predator-Prey Interactions, P. Barbosa and I. Castellanos, Eds., pp. 211–239, Oxford University Press, Oxford, UK, 2005.
  14. W. Nentwig, Spiders of Panama, Flora & Fauna Handbook 12, Sandhill Crane Press, Gainesville, Fla, USA, 1993.
  15. A. L. T. Souza, “Influência da estrutura do habitat na distribuição de aranhas,” in Ecologia e Comportamento de Aranhas, M. O. Gonzaga, A. Santos, and H. F. Japyassú, Eds., pp. 25–43, Editora Interciência, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, 2007.
  16. S. A. Chien and D. H. Morse, “The roles of prey and flower quality in the choice of hunting sites by adult male crab spiders Misumena vatia (Araneae, Thomisidae),” Journal of Arachnology, vol. 26, no. 2, pp. 238–243, 1998. View at Scopus
  17. J. Carlos-Santos and K. Del-claro, “Interações entre formigas, herbívoros e nectários extraflorais em Tocoyena formosa (Rubiaceae) em vegetação de cerrado,” Revista Brasileira de Zoociências, vol. 3, no. 1, pp. 77–92, 2001.
  18. A. F. Almeida and F. N. M. Sarmento, Parque Estadual da Serra de Caldas—Plano de Manejo. CTE, (Centro Tecnológico de Engenharia Ltda), FEMAGO—Fundação Estadual do Meio Ambiente, Goiânia, Brazil, 1998.
  19. J. F. Ribeiro and B. M. T. Walter, “Fitofisionomias do bioma Cerrado,” in Cerrado: Ambiente e Flora, S. M. Sano and S. P. Almeida, Eds., pp. 89–166, EMBRAPA. Planaltina, 1998.
  20. J. A. Ratter, S. Bridgewater, and J. F. Ribeiro, “Analysis of the floristic composition of the Brazilian cerrado vegetation III: comparison of the woody vegetation of 376 areas,” Edinburgh Journal of Botany, vol. 60, no. 1, pp. 57–109, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  21. A. O. Machado, Ções florais e heterostilia em Palicourea rigida (rubiaceae) nos Cerrados do Brasil central (Master of Science Dissertation) Universidade Federal de Uberlândia, Uberlândia, Brazil, 2007.
  22. A. P. Silva, Biologia reprodutiva e polinização de Palicourea rigida H.B.K. (Rubiaceae), (Master of Science Dissertation), Universidade de Brasília, Brasília, Brazil, 1995.
  23. G. J. Shepherd, Fitopac 2.1.2.85. Manual do Usuário, Departamento de Botânica, Universidade Estadual de Campinas, Campinas, Brazil, 2010.
  24. R. K. Colwell, EstimateS: Statistical estimation of species richness and shared species from samples (Software and User's Guide, Version 7.5, 2005, http://viceroy.eeb.uconn.edu/estimates/.
  25. R. H. MacArthur, “On the relative abundance of bird species,” Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the USA, vol. 43, pp. 293–295, 1957.
  26. J. H. Lawton, “Plant architecture and the diversity of phytophagous insects,” Annual Review of Entomology, vol. 28, pp. 23–39, 1983. View at Scopus
  27. E. D. Mccoy and S. S. Bell, “Habitat structure: the evolution and diversifications of a complex topic,” in Habitat Structure: The Physical Arrangement of Objects in Space, S. S. Bell, E. D. McCoy, and R. H. Mushinsky, Eds., pp. 3–27, Chapman & Hall, London, UK, 1991.
  28. D. L. Finke and R. F. Denno, “Intraguild predation diminished in complex-structured vegetation: implications for prey suppression,” Ecology, vol. 83, no. 3, pp. 643–652, 2002. View at Scopus
  29. D. L. Finke and R. F. Denno, “Spatial refuge from intraguild predation: implications for prey suppression and trophic cascades,” Oecologia, vol. 149, no. 2, pp. 265–275, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  30. C. M. Hodges, “Optimal foraging in bumblebees: hunting by expectation,” Animal Behaviour, vol. 29, no. 4, pp. 1166–1171, 1981. View at Scopus
  31. L. S. Best and P. Bierzychudek, “Pollinator foraging on foxglove (Digitalis purpurea): a test of a new model,” Evolution, vol. 36, pp. 70–79, 1982.
  32. G. Dalby-Ball and A. Meats, “Effects of fruit abundance within a tree canopy on the behaviour of wild and cultured Queensland fruit flies, Bactrocera tryoni (Froggatt) (Diptera: Tephritidae),” The Australian Journal of Entomology, vol. 39, no. 3, pp. 201–207, 2000. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  33. L. B. Mendonça and L. Dos Anjos, “Flower morphology, nectar features, and hummingbird visitation to Palicourea crocea (Rubiaceae) in the Upper Paraná River floodplain, Brazil,” Anais da Academia Brasileira de Ciencias, vol. 78, no. 1, pp. 45–57, 2006. View at Scopus
  34. S. M. Louda, “Inflorescence spiders: a cost/benefit analysis for the host plant, Haplopappus venetus Blake (Asteraceae),” Oecologia, vol. 55, no. 2, pp. 185–191, 1982. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  35. D. H. Morse, Predator upon a Flower, Life History and Fitness in a Crab Spider, Harvard University Press, London, UK, 2007.
  36. K. Del-Claro, V. Berto, and W. Réu, “Effect of herbivore deterrence by ants on the fruit set of an extrafloral nectary plant, Qualea multiflora (Vochysiaceae),” Journal of Tropical Ecology, vol. 12, no. 6, pp. 887–892, 1996. View at Scopus
  37. D. H. Wise, Spiders in Ecological Webs, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, UK, 1993.
  38. R. G. Breene, D. A. Dean, M. Nyffeler, and G. B. Edwards, Biology, Predation Ecology, and Significance of Spiders in Texas Cotton Ecosystems with a Key to the Species, Texas Agricultural Experiment Station, Texas,Tex, USA, 1993.
  39. S. E. Riechert and T. Lockley, “Spiders as biological control agents,” Annual Review of Entomology, vol. 29, pp. 299–320, 1984. View at Scopus