Table 2: Parasitoid guilds associated with Agrilus woodborers in North America and Asia.

Parasitoid guildsOrder: FamilySpeciesRecorded Agrilus hostHabitatNative range in distributionLevel of parasitismReference sources

Egg parasitoidsHym: AphelinidaeAblerus sp.A. anxiusBirch treesNortheastern USA/Canada<0.2%[28]
Hym: EncyrtidaeAvetianella sp.A. anxius; A. subcinctus Birch trees; ash treesNortheastern USA/Canada<3.5%[28, 34]
Coccidencyrtus sp.A. liragusPoplar treesNortheastern USA/Canada~55%[35]
Ooencyrtus erionotaeA. sexsignatusEucalyptus treesSoutheast Asia (Philippines)32–57%[31, 32]
Ooencyrtus sp.A. anxiusBirch treesNortheastern USA/Canada<2.4%[28]
Oobius agriliA. planipennisAsh treesChina/northeast China-Jilin province>50%[15, 36]
Oobius agriliA. planipennisAsh treesUnited States/MichiganNot reported[19]
Oobius zahaikevitshiA. viridis and A. planipennisHazelnut and ash trees, resp.Northern Italy/Russian8 –58%[37, 38]
Orianos brazaiA. sexsignatusEucalyptus treesSoutheast Asia (Philippines)0–47%[39]
Signichorini tribeA. anxiusBirch treesNortheastern USA/Canada<1%[28]
Ptinobius magniflcusA. ruficollisRaspberry, Blackberry, DewberryNorth AmericaNot reported[40, 41]
Hym: SigniphoridaeThysanus sp.A. liragusPoplar treesNortheastern USA/Canada~12%[35]
Hym: EulophidaePediobius sp.A. planipennisAsh treesUnited States/MichiganNot reported [42]

Larval ParasitoidsHym: BraconidaeAtanycolus charusA. anxius and A. liragus Birch and poplar treesNortheastern USA/Canada0.3–52%[29, 35]
Atanycolus cappaertiA. planipennis; A. liragus and A. bilineatusAsh trees; poplar and chestnut treesNortheastern USA/Canada9–71%[33]
Atanycolus disputabilisA. planipennis and other North American native woodborersOak treesNortheastern USA/Canada<1%[43]
Atanycolus simplexA. planipennis; A. liragus and A. bilineatusAsh trees; poplar and chestnut treesNortheastern USA/Canada<1%[35, 44]
Atanycolus hicorieA. planipennis and other native Agrilus woodborers Ash treesNortheastern USA/Canada<2% [45, 46]
Atanycolus nigropopygaA. planipennis and other North American native woodborers Ash treesNortheastern US/Canada<3%JJD (unpublished)
Atanycolus picipesA. planipennisAsh treesVladivostok, Russia<5%JJD (unpublished), [25]
Doryctes farthusA. anxius and A. liragus Birch and poplar treesNortheastern US/Canada<0.1%[44]
Doryctes rufipesA. anxius and A. liragus Birch and poplar treesNortheastern USA/Canada<0.1%[44]
Doryctes atripesA. anxiusBirch treeNortheastern USA/Canada<0.1%[44]
Iphiaulaz impostorA. biguttatusPoplar treesEurope~13%[47]
Leluthia astigmaA. planipennis; A. difficilis and other Agrilus spp. Ash trees; honey locust treesUSA~2.1%[48, 49]
Spathius agriliA. planipennisAsh treesChina60–90%[5056]
Spathius agriliA. planipennisAsh treesUSA/MichiganNot reported[21, 57]
Spathius agrilivorusA. planipennisAsh treesVladivostok, Russia~64%JJD (unpublished), [25]
Spathius curvicaudisA. biguttatusOak treesEurope~25%[47, 58]
Spathius floridanusA. planipennis and other North American native woodborersAsh treesUSA<0.5%JJD (unpublished)
Spathius laflammeiA. planipennis and other North American native woodborersAsh treesUSA<1%JJD (unpublished)
Spathius simillimusA. anxius and A. liragus/; A. planipennisBirch and poplar tree; ash treesUSA/Canada<0.5%[18]
Wroughtonia (Helconidea) ligatorA. anxius, A. liragus and A. bilineatus Birch, poplar and chestnut treesnortheastern USA/Canada<1% [29, 44]
Ecphylus sp.A. subcinctus Ash treesUSANot reported[34]
Heterospilus sp.A. subcinctus Ash treesUSANot reported[34]
Pareucorystes varinervisA. viridisHazelnutEurope/RussiaNot reported[59]
Monogonogastra agriliA. arcuatusHickory, pecanNorth AmericaNot reported[60]
Microbracon xanthostigmusA. ruficollisRaspberry, blackberry, dewberryNorth AmericaNot reported[40, 41]
Hym: ChalcididaePhasgonophora sulcataA. anxius, A. bilineatus and A. liragus; A. planipennisBirch, chestnut and poplar tree; ash treesUSA/Canada2–20%[2830, 35]
Hym: EulophidaeTetrastichus nr.rugglesi A. anxius and A. liragus; A. planipennisBirch and poplar trees; ash treesUSA/Canada<0.1%[29, 35]
Tetrastichus heeringiA. sinuatus and A.aurichalceusPear trees and raspberries, resp.Europe55–75% [6163]
Tetrastichus heeringiA. ribesiBlack currentEuropeNot reported[64]
Tetrastichus sp.A. sexignatusEucalyptus treesSoutheast Asia (Philippines)2–50% [31, 32]
Tetrastichus planipennisiA. planipennisAsh treesNortheastern China/Russian Far East22–40%[15, 65, 66]
Tetrastichus planipennisiA. planipennisAsh treesUSA Michigan0.80%[27, 57, 67]
Baryscapus agrilorumA. aurichalceusRaspberryEurope/HungaryNot reported[62, 68]
near HadrotrichodesA. subcinctusAsh treesUSANot reported[34]
Entodon epicharisA. surorovi/PoplarChinaNot reported[69]
Entodon zanaraA. suroroviPoplarChinaNot reported[69]
Hym: EupelmidaeBalcha indicaA. planipennis and other Asia and North American woodborersAsh treesSoutheast Asia/North America<4%[7072]
Calosota elongataA. auroguttatusOak treesUSA/Mexico15%[6]
Eupelmus piniA. planipennisAsh trees and weevilsNorth America<0.2%[70]
Metapelma sp.A. subcinctusAsh treesUSANot reported[34]
Calosota agriliA. salicisWillowEurope/Poland and RussiaNot reported[73, 74]
Pentacladia hatayensisAgrilus sp. FigTurkeyNot reported[75]
Hym: EurytomidaeBephratoides agriliA. anxiusBirch treesNorth America<1%[29]
Eurytoma rosaeA. rubicola and A. bilineatus Rose and chestnut treesNot reported
Eurytoma sp.A. anxiusBirch treesNorth America<1%[29]
Eurytoma sp.A. subcinctusAsh treesNorth AmericaNot reported[34]
Hym: IchneumonidaeCunocephalus sp.A. planipennisAsh trees—to be confirmedNorth America<0.2%[70]
Dolichomitus messorperlongusA. anxius and A. liragus Birch treesNorth America<0.4%[29]
Dolichomitus vitticrusA. planipennis and other native woodborersAsh treesNorth America<0.2%[70]
Ephialtes sp.A. anxius and A. liragus Birch treesNorth America<0.4%[35]
Glypta sp.A. anxiusBirch treesNorth America<1%[44]
Ichneumon sp.A. anxiusBirch treesNorth America<1%[44]
Olesicampe sp.A. anxiusBirch treesNorth America<1%[44]
Unknown spp.A. suvorovi-populneus Poplar treesEurope/Hungary4-5%[76]
Orthizema sp.A. anxius; A. planipennis Birch trees; ash treesNorth America<1%[44, 70]
Pimploterus sp.A. anxiusBirch treesNorth America<1%[44]
Labena apicaulisA. arcuatusHickory, pecanNorth AmericaNot reported[60]
Hym: StephanidaeFoenatopus sp.A. sexsignatusEucalyptus treesSoutheast Asia (Philippines)2–50%[31, 32]
Hym: PteromalidaeZatropus sp.A. arcuatusHickory, pecanNorth AmericaNot reported[60]
Oodera sp.A. subcinctus Ash treesUSANot reported[34]
Hym: BethylidaeSclerodermus pupariaeA. planipennis Ash treesChinaNot reported[77]