821591.fig.005
Figure 5: Routes proposed for SINV-1 (and possibly SINV-2 and SINV-3) colony acquisition and dissemination [81]. SINV-1 exhibits a tissue tropism toward the midgut, and large quantities of virus are detected in the midgut contents of adults and larvae of infected colonies. Thus, colony dissemination of SINV-1 appears to coincide with the food distribution route for the colony. Black arrows illustrate the flow of food throughout the colony and red arrows the corresponding movement of SINV-1. Two modes of virus acquisition are likely environmental (from outside sources entering the colony by way of foragers) and vertical (from infected queens). The vertical route of distribution is illustrated by broken red lines. The food flow diagram was adapted from Vinson and Sorensen [82].