About this Journal Submit a Manuscript Table of Contents
Psyche
Volume 2012 (2012), Article ID 821591, 14 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2012/821591
Review Article

Positive-Strand RNA Viruses Infecting the Red Imported Fire Ant, Solenopsis invicta

USDA-ARS, Center for Medical, Agricultural and Veterinary Entomology, 1600 SW 23rd Drive, Gainesville, FL 32608, USA

Received 6 June 2011; Accepted 15 August 2011

Academic Editor: Alain Lenoir

Copyright © 2012 Steven M. Valles. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Linked References

  1. W. S. Creighton, “The new world species of the genus Solenopsis (Hymenoptera: Formicidae),” Proceedings of the American Academy of Arts of Sciences, vol. 66, no. 1, pp. 39–151, 1930.
  2. W. R. Tschinkel, The Fire Ants, The Belknap Press of Harvard University Press, Cambridge, Mass, USA, 2006.
  3. A. M. Callcott and H. L. Collins, “Invasion and range expansion of imported fire ants (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) in North America from 1918–1995,” The Florida Entomologist, vol. 79, no. 2, pp. 240–248, 1996. View at Scopus
  4. D. F. Williams, H. L. Collins, and D. H. Oi, “The red imported fire ant (Hymenoptera: Formicidae): an historical perspective of treatment programs and the development of chemical baits for control,” The American Entomologist, vol. 47, no. 3, pp. 146–159, 2001.
  5. R. M. Pereira, “Areawide suppression of fire ant populations in pastures: project update,” Journal of Agricultural and Urban Entomology, vol. 20, no. 3, pp. 123–130, 2003. View at Scopus
  6. S. D. Porter, H. G. Fowler, and W. P. Mackay, “Fire ant mound densities in the United States and Brazil (Hymenoptera: Formicidae),” Journal of Economic Entomology, vol. 85, no. 4, pp. 1154–1161, 1992.
  7. S. D. Porter, D. F. Williams, R. S. Patterson, and H. G. Fowler, “Intercontinental differences in the abundance of Solenopsis fire ants (Hymenoptera: Formicidae): escape from natural enemies?” Environmental Entomology, vol. 26, no. 2, pp. 373–384, 1997. View at Scopus
  8. M. E. Torchin, K. D. Lafferty, A. P. Dobson, V. J. McKenzie, and A. M. Kuris, “Introduced species and their missing parasites,” Nature, vol. 421, no. 6923, pp. 628–630, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  9. J. Prenter, C. MacNeil, J. T. A. Dick, and A. M. Dunn, “Roles of parasites in animal invasions,” Trends in Ecology and Evolution, vol. 19, no. 7, pp. 385–390, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  10. D. F. Williams, D. H. Oi, S. D. Porter, R. M. Pereira, and J. A. Briano, “Biological control of imported fire ants (Hymenoptera: Formicidae),” The American Entomologist, vol. 49, no. 3, pp. 150–163, 2003.
  11. D. P. Jouvenaz, “Natural enemies of fire ants,” The Florida Entomologist, vol. 66, no. 1, pp. 111–121, 1983.
  12. D. P. Jouvenaz, G. E. Allen, W. A. Banks, and D. P. Wojcik, “A survey for pathogens of fire ants, Solenopsis spp. in the southeastern United States,” The Florida Entomologist, vol. 60, pp. 275–279, 1977.
  13. D. P. Jouvenaz, C. S. Lofgren, and W. A. Banks, “Biological control of imported fire ants; a review of current knowledge,” Bulletin of the Entomological Society of America, vol. 27, no. 2, pp. 203–208, 1981.
  14. D. P. Wojcik, D. P. Jouvenaz, and W. A. Banks, “Biological control agents of fire ants in Brazil,” in Chemistry and Biology of Social Insects, J. Eder and H. Rembold, Eds., pp. 627–628, Peperny, Munich, Germany, 1987.
  15. D. P. Jouvenaz and J. W. Kimbrough, “Myrmecomyces annellisae gen. nov., sp. nov. (Deuteromycotina: Hypomycetes), an endoparasitic fungus of fire ants, Solenopsis spp. (Hymenoptera: Formicidae),” Mycological Research, vol. 95, no. 12, pp. 1395–1401, 1991.
  16. R. M. Pereira, “Occurrence of Myrmicinosporidium durum in red imported fire ant, Solenopsis invicta, and other new host ants in eastern United States,” Journal of Invertebrate Pathology, vol. 86, no. 1-2, pp. 38–44, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  17. J. D. Knell and G. E. Allen, “Light and electron microscope study of Thelohania solenopsae n. sp. (Microsporida: Protozoa) in the red imported fire ant, Solenopsis invicta,” Journal of Invertebrate Pathology, vol. 29, no. 2, pp. 192–200, 1977. View at Scopus
  18. D. F. Williams, G. J. Knue, and J. J. Becnel, “Discovery of Thelohania solenopsae from the red imported fire ant, Solenopsis invicta, in the United States,” Journal of Invertebrate Pathology, vol. 71, no. 2, pp. 175–176, 1998. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  19. R. M. Pereira, D. F. Williams, J. J. Becnel, and D. H. Oi, “Yellow-head disease caused by a newly discovered Mattesia sp. in populations of the red imported fire ant, Solenopsis invicta,” Journal of Invertebrate Pathology, vol. 81, no. 1, pp. 45–48, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  20. S. M. Valles and R. M. Pereira, “Use of ribosomal DNA sequence data to characterize and detect a neogregarine pathogen of Solenopsis invicta (Hymenoptera: Formicidae),” Journal of Invertebrate Pathology, vol. 84, no. 2, pp. 114–118, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  21. J. Kathirithamby and J. S. Johnston, “Stylopization of Solenopsis invicta (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) by Caenocholax fenyesi (Strepsiptera: Myrmecolacidae) in Texas,” Annals of the Entomological Society of America, vol. 85, no. 2, pp. 293–297, 2001.
  22. A. M. Callcott, S. D. Porter, R. D. Weeks Jr., L. C. Graham, S. J. Johnson, and L. E. Gilbert, “Fire ant decapitating fly cooperative release programs (1994–2008): two Pseudacteon species (P. tricuspis, P. curvatus) rapidly expand across imported fire ant populations in the southeastern United States,” Journal of Insect Science, vol. 11, no. 19, pp. 1–25, 2010.
  23. S. D. Porter, “Biology and behavior of Pseudacteon decapitating flies (Diptera: Phoridae) that parasitize Solenopsis fire ants (Hymenoptera: Formicidae),” The Florida Entomologist, vol. 81, no. 3, pp. 292–309, 1998. View at Scopus
  24. S. M. Valles and Y. Hashimoto, “Isolation and characterization of Solenopsis invicta virus 3, a new postive-strand RNA virus infecting the red imported fire ant, Solenopsis invicta,” Virology, vol. 388, no. 2, pp. 354–361, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  25. S. M. Valles, C. A. Strong, P. M. Dang et al., “A picorna-like virus from the red imported fire ant, Solenopsis invicta: initial discovery, genome sequence, and characterization,” Virology, vol. 328, no. 1, pp. 151–157, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  26. S. M. Valles, C. A. Strong, and Y. Hashimoto, “A new positive-strand RNA virus with unique genome characteristics from the red imported fire ant, Solenopsis invicta,” Virology, vol. 365, no. 2, pp. 457–463, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  27. C. C. Yang, Y. C. Yu, S. M. Valles et al., “Loss of microbial (pathogen) infections associated with recent invasions of the red imported fire ant Solenopsis invicta,” Biological Invasions, vol. 12, no. 9, pp. 3307–3318, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  28. S. D. Porter, L. A. Nogueira de Sa, and L. W. Morrison, “Establishment and dispersal of the fire ant decapitating fly Pseudacteon tricuspis in North Florida,” Biological Control, vol. 29, no. 2, pp. 179–188, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  29. C. S. Lofgren, “History of imported fire ants in the United States,” in Fire Ants and Leaf-Cutting Ants Biology and Management, C. S. Lofgren and R. K. Vander Meer, Eds., pp. 36–47, Westview Press, Boulder, Colo, USA, 1986.
  30. L. A. Lacey, R. Frutos, H. K. Kaya, and P. Vail, “Insect pathogens as biological control agents: do they have a future?” Biological Control, vol. 21, no. 3, pp. 230–248, 2001. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  31. S. W. Avery, D. P. Jouvenaz, W. A. Banks, and D. W. Anthony, “Virus-like particles in a fire ant, Solenopsis sp., (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) from Brazil,” The Florida Entomologist, vol. 60, no. 1, pp. 17–20, 1977.
  32. S. B. Vinson and L. Greenberg, “The biology, physiology, and ecology of imported fire ants,” in Economic Impact and Control of Social Insects, S. B. Vinson, Ed., pp. 193–226, Praeger Scientific, New York, NY, USA, 1986.
  33. S. M. Valles, C. A. Strong, W. B. Hunter et al., “Expressed sequence tags from the red imported fire ant, Solenopsis invicta: annotation and utilization for discovery of viruses,” Journal of Invertebrate Pathology, vol. 99, no. 1, pp. 74–81, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  34. S. F. Altschul, T. L. Madden, A. A. Schäffer et al., “Gapped BLAST and PSI-BLAST: a new generation of protein database search programs,” Nucleic Acids Research, vol. 25, no. 17, pp. 3389–3402, 1997. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  35. O. Le Gall, P. Christian, C. M. Fauquet et al., “Picornavirales, a proposed order of positive-sense single-stranded RNA viruses with a pseudo-T = 3 virion architecture,” Archives of Virology, vol. 153, no. 4, pp. 715–727, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  36. S. Cherry and N. Silverman, “Host-pathogen interactions in drosophila: new tricks from an old friend,” Nature Immunology, vol. 7, no. 9, pp. 911–917, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  37. X. H. Wang, R. Aliyari, W. X. Li et al., “RNA interference directs innate immunity against viruses in adult Drosophila,” Science, vol. 312, no. 5772, pp. 452–454, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  38. J. Mari, B. T. Poulos, D. V. Lightner, and J. R. Bonami, “Shrimp Taura syndrome virus: genomic characterization and similarity with members of the genus Cricket paralysis-like viruses,” Journal of General Virology, vol. 83, part 4, pp. 915–926, 2002. View at Scopus
  39. N. Nakashima and N. Shibuya, “Multiple coding sequences for the genome-linked virus protein (VPg) in dicistroviruses,” Journal of Invertebrate Pathology, vol. 92, no. 2, pp. 100–104, 2006.
  40. A. V. Paul, “Possible unifying mechanism of pircornavirus genome replication,” in Molecular Biology of Picornaviruses, B. L. Semler and E. Wimmer, Eds., pp. 227–246, American Society for Microbiology, Washington, DC, USA, 2003.
  41. N. Nakashima and Y. Nakamura, “Cleavage sites of the “P3 region” in the nonstructural polyprotein precursor of a dicistrovirus,” Archives of Virology, vol. 153, no. 10, pp. 1955–1960, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  42. S. M. Valles and Y. Hashimoto, “Characterization of structural proteins of Solenopsis invicta virus 1,” Virus Research, vol. 136, no. 1-2, pp. 189–191, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  43. A. V. Pisarev, N. E. Shirokikh, and C. U. T. Hellen, “Translation initiation by factor-independent binding of eukaryotic ribosomes to internal ribosomal entry sites,” Critical Reviews in Biology, vol. 328, no. 7, pp. 589–605, 2005.
  44. E. Jan, “Divergent IRES elements in invertebrates,” Virus Research, vol. 119, no. 1, pp. 16–28, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  45. G. Lanzi, J. R. de Miranda, M. B. Boniotti et al., “Molecular and biological characterization of deformed wing virus of honeybees (Apis mellifera L.),” Journal of Virology, vol. 80, no. 10, pp. 4998–5009, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  46. L. Liljas, J. Tate, T. Lin, P. Christian, and J. E. Johnson, “Evolutionary and taxonomic implications of conserved structural motifs between picornaviruses and insect picorna-like viruses,” Archives of Virology, vol. 147, no. 1, pp. 59–84, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  47. J. R. de Miranda, M. Drebot, S. Tyler et al., “Complete nucleotide sequence of Kashmir bee virus and comparison with acute bee paralysis virus,” Journal of General Virology, vol. 85, part 8, pp. 2263–2270, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  48. E. Maori, S. Lavi, R. Mozes-Koch et al., “Isolation and characterization of Israeli acute paralysis virus, a dicistrovirus affecting honeybees in Israel: evidence for diversity due to intra- and inter-species recombination,” Journal of General Virology, vol. 88, part 12, pp. 3428–3438, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  49. N. Sabath, N. Price, and D. Graur, “A potentially novel overlapping gene in the genomes of Israeli acute paralysis virus and its relatives,” Virology Journal, vol. 6, no. 6, article 144, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  50. B. C. Bonning, “The dicistroviridae: an emerging family of invertebrate viruses,” Virologica Sinica, vol. 24, no. 5, pp. 415–427, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  51. B. C. Bonning and W. A. Miller, “Dicistroviruses,” Annual Review of Entomology, vol. 55, pp. 129–150, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  52. N. Nakashima and T. Uchiumi, “Functional analysis of structural motifs in dicistroviruses,” Virus Research, vol. 139, no. 2, pp. 137–147, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  53. M. I. Hertz and S. R. Thompson, “In vivo functional analysis of the Dicistroviridae intergenic region internal ribosome entry sites,” Nucleic Acids Research, vol. 39, no. 16, pp. 7276–7288, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  54. E. Maori, E. Tanne, and I. Sela, “Reciprocal sequence exchange between non-retro viruses and hosts leading to the appearance of new host phenotypes,” Virology, vol. 362, no. 2, pp. 342–349, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  55. E. Tanne and I. Sela, “Occurrence of a DNA sequence of a non-retro RNA virus in a host plant genome and its expression: evidence for recombination between viral and host RNAs,” Virology, vol. 332, no. 2, pp. 614–622, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  56. S. Crochu, S. Cook, H. Attoui et al., “Sequences of flavivirus-related RNA viruses persist in DNA form integrated in the genome of Aedes spp. mosquitoes,” Journal of General Virology, vol. 85, no. 7, pp. 1971–1980, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  57. S. M. Valles and B. Bextine, “Examination of host genome for the presence of integrated fragments of Solenopsis invicta virus 1,” Journal of Invertebrate Pathology, vol. 107, no. 3, pp. 212–215, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  58. S. M. Valles, C. A. Strong, D. H. Oi et al., “Phenology, distribution, and host specificity of Solenopsis invicta virus-1,” Journal of Invertebrate Pathology, vol. 96, no. 1, pp. 18–27, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  59. C. Allen, J. A. Briano, L. Varone, D. H. Oi, and S. M. Valles, “Exploitation of a high genomic mutation rate in Solenopsis invicta virus 1 to infer demographic information about its host, Solenopsis invicta,” Journal of Invertebrate Pathology, vol. 105, no. 1, pp. 105–111, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  60. S. M. Valles, L. Varone, L. Ramírez, and J. Briano, “Multiplex detection of Solenopsis invicta viruses -1, -2, and -3,” Journal of Virological Methods, vol. 162, no. 1-2, pp. 276–279, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  61. H. R. Allen, S. M. Valles, and D. M. Miller, “Characterization of Solenopsis invicta (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) populations in Virginia: social form genotyping and pathogen/parasitoid detection,” The Florida Entomologist, vol. 93, no. 1, pp. 80–88, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  62. S. M. Valles and S. D. Porter, “Identification of polygyne and monogyne fire ant colonies (Solenopsis invicta) by multiplex PCR of Gp-9 alleles,” Insectes Sociaux, vol. 50, no. 2, pp. 199–200, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  63. S. M. Valles, D. H. Oi, and S. D. Porter, “Seasonal variation and the co-occurrence of four pathogens and a group of parasites among monogyne and polygyne fire ant colonies,” Biological Control, vol. 54, no. 3, pp. 342–348, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  64. C. Allen, S. M. Valles, and C. A. Strong, “Multiple virus infections occur in individual polygyne and monogyne Solenopsis invicta ants,” Journal of Invertebrate Pathology, vol. 107, no. 2, pp. 107–111, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  65. Y. P. Chen, N. Nakashima, P. Christian, B. C. Bonning, S. M. Valles, and D. V. Lightner, “Dicistroviridae,” in Virus Taxonomy, Ninth Report of the ICTV, A. M. King, Ed., Elsevier, London, UK, in press.
  66. C. J. Jang and J. Eric, “Modular domains of the Dicistroviridae intergenic internal ribosome entry site,” RNA, vol. 16, no. 6, pp. 1182–1195, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  67. S. M. Valles and C. A. Strong, “Solenopsis invicta virus-1A (SINV-1A): distinct species or genotype of SINV-1?” Journal of Invertebrate Pathology, vol. 88, no. 3, pp. 232–237, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  68. D. M. Tufts, W. B. Hunter, and B. Bextine, “Discovery and effects of Texas Solenopsis invicta virus [SINV-1 (TX5)] on red imported fire ant populations,” Journal of Invertebrate Pathology, vol. 104, no. 3, pp. 180–185, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  69. E. Domingo and J. J. Holland, “RNA virus mutations and fitness for survival,” Annual Review of Microbiology, vol. 51, pp. 151–178, 1997. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  70. J. J. Holland, K. Spindler, F. Horodyski, E. Grabau, S. Nichol, and S. VandePol, “Rapid evolution of RNA genomes,” Science, vol. 215, no. 4540, pp. 1577–1585, 1982.
  71. S. M. Valles, “Ethanol preservation of fire ants allows retrospective screening for solenopsis invicta virus-1,” The Florida Entomologist, vol. 90, no. 3, pp. 577–578, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  72. S. M. Valles and S. D. Porter, “Pseudacteon decapitating flies: potential vectors of a fire ant virus?” The Florida Entomologist, vol. 90, no. 1, pp. 268–270, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  73. Y. Hashimoto and S. M. Valles, “Solenopsis invicta virus-1 tissue tropism and intra-colony infection rate in the red imported fire ant: a quantitative PCR-based study,” Journal of Invertebrate Pathology, vol. 96, no. 2, pp. 156–161, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  74. Y. Hashimoto, S. M. Valles, and C. A. Strong, “Detection and quantitation of Solenopsis invicta virus in fire ants by real-time PCR,” Journal of Virological Methods, vol. 140, no. 1-2, pp. 132–139, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  75. J. R. de Miranda, G. Cordoni, and G. Budge, “The Acute bee paralysis virus-Kashmir bee virus-Israeli acute paralysis virus complex,” Journal of Invertebrate Pathology, vol. 103, no. 1, pp. S30–S47, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  76. Y. Chen, J. J. Becnel, and S. M. Valles, “RNA viruses infecting pest insects,” in Insect Pathology, F. Vega and H. K. Kaya, Eds., Academic Press, San Diego, Calif, USA, in press.
  77. Y. Suzuki, S. Toriyama, I. Matsuda, and M. Kojima, “Detection of a picorna-like virus, himetobi P virus, in organs and tissues of Laodelphax striatellus by immunogold labeling and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay,” Journal of Invertebrate Pathology, vol. 62, no. 1, pp. 99–104, 1993. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  78. N. Lautie-Harivel, “Drosophila C virus cycle during the development of two Drosophila melanogaster strains (Charolles and Champetieres) after larval contamination by food,” Biology of the Cell, vol. 76, no. 2, pp. 151–157, 1992. View at Scopus
  79. O. A. Muscio, J. L. LaTorre, and E. A. Scodeller, “Small nonoccluded viruses from triatomine bug Triatoma infestans (hemiptera: Reduviidae),” Journal of Invertebrate Pathology, vol. 49, no. 2, pp. 218–220, 1987. View at Scopus
  80. O. Muscio, M. A. Bonder, J. L. La Torre, and E. A. Scodeller, “Horizontal transmission of Triatoma virus through the fecal-oral route in Triatoma infestans (Hemiptera: Triatomidae),” Journal of Medical Entomology, vol. 37, no. 2, pp. 271–275, 2000. View at Scopus
  81. D. H. Oi and S. M. Valles, “Fire ant control with entomopathogens in the USA,” in Use of Microbes for Control and Eradication of Invasive Arthropods, A. E. Hajek, T. R. Glare, and M. O'Callaghan, Eds., pp. 237–258, Springer Science, New York, NY, USA, 2009.
  82. S. B. Vinson and A. A. Sorensen, Imported Fire Ants: Life History and Impact, Texas A&M University, College Station, 1986.
  83. B. Holldobler and E. O. Wilson, The Ants, Harvard University Press, Cambridge, Mass, USA, 1990.
  84. N. Nakashima, J. Sasaki, K. Tsuda, C. Yasunaga, and H. Noda, “Properties of a new picorna-like virus of the brown-winged green bug, Plautia stali,” Journal of Invertebrate Pathology, vol. 71, no. 2, pp. 151–158, 1998. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  85. L. Bailey, B. V. Ball, and J. N. Perry, “The prevalence of viruses of honey bees in Britain,” Annals of Applied Biology, vol. 103, no. 1, pp. 13–20, 1981.
  86. A. C. F. Hung, “PCR detection of Kashmir bee virus in honey bee excreta,” Journal of Apicultural Research, vol. 39, no. 1-2, pp. 103–106, 2000. View at Scopus
  87. P. L. Guy, S. Toriyama, and S. Fuji, “Occurrence of a picorna-like virus in planthopper species and its transmission in Laodelphax striatellus,” Journal of Invertebrate Pathology, vol. 59, no. 2, pp. 161–164, 1992. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  88. V. R. Racaniello, “One hundred years of poliovirus pathogenesis,” Virology, vol. 344, no. 1, pp. 9–16, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  89. L. Bailey, “The incidence of virus diseases in the honey bee,” Annals of Applied Biology, vol. 60, no. 1, pp. 43–48, 1967. View at Scopus
  90. Y. P. Chen and R. Siede, “Honey bee viruses,” Advances in Virus Research, vol. 70, no. 1, pp. 33–80, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  91. J. R. de Miranda and E. Genersch, “Deformed wing virus,” Journal of Invertebrate Pathology, vol. 103, supplement 1, pp. S48–S61, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  92. Y.-C. Chen, L. Kafle, and C.-J. Shih, “Interspecific competition between Solenopsis invicta and two native ant species, Pheidole fervens and Monomorium chinense,” Journal of Economic Entomology, vol. 104, no. 2, pp. 614–621, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  93. M. S. Habayeb, S. K. Ekengren, and D. Hultmark, “Nora virus, a persistent vitus in Drosophila, defines a new picorna-like virus family,” Journal of General Virology, vol. 87, no. 10, pp. 3045–3051, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  94. E. V. Koonin and V. V. Dolja, “Evolution and taxonomy of positive-strand RNA viruses: implications of comparative analysis of amino acid sequences,” Critical Reviews in Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, vol. 28, no. 5, pp. 375–430, 1993. View at Scopus
  95. M. D. Ryan and M. Flint, “Virus-encoded proteinases of the picornavirus super-group,” Journal of General Virology, vol. 78, no. 4, pp. 699–723, 1997. View at Scopus
  96. Y. Hashimoto and S. M. Valles, “Detection and quantitation of Solenopsis invicta virus-2 genomic and intermediary replicating viral RNA in fire ant workers and larvae,” Journal of Invertebrate Pathology, vol. 98, no. 2, pp. 243–245, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  97. Y. Hashimoto and S. M. Valles, “Infection characteristics of Solenopsis invicta virus 2 in the red imported fire ant, Solenopsis invicta,” Journal of Invertebrate Pathology, vol. 99, no. 2, pp. 136–140, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  98. S. M. Valles, C. Allen, L. Varone, and J. Briano, “Complete genome sequence of an Argentinean isolate of Solenopsis invicta virus 3,” Virus Genes, vol. 40, no. 2, pp. 293–297, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  99. E. J. Caldera, K. G. Ross, C. J. DeHeer, and D. D. Shoemaker, “Putative native source of the invasive fire ant Solenopsis invicta in the USA,” Biological Invasions, vol. 10, no. 8, pp. 1457–1479, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  100. T. Wirth, A. Meyer, and M. Achtman, “Deciphering host migrations and origins by means of their microbes,” Molecular Ecology, vol. 14, no. 11, pp. 3289–3306, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  101. R. Biek, A. J. Drummond, and M. Poss, “A virus reveals population structure and demographic history of its carnivore host,” Science, vol. 311, no. 5760, pp. 538–541, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  102. E. B. Carstens and L. A. Ball, “Ratification vote on taxonomic proposals to the International Committee on Taxonomy of Viruses (2008),” Archives of Virology, vol. 154, no. 7, pp. 1181–1188, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  103. C. J. Hartley, D. R. Greenwood, R. J. C. Gilbert et al., “Kelp fly virus: a novel group of insect picorna-like viruses as defined by genome sequence analysis and a distinctive virion structure,” Journal of Virology, vol. 79, no. 21, pp. 13385–13398, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  104. P. D. Scotti, J. F. Longworth, N. Plus, G. Croizier, and C. Reinganum, “The biology and ecology of strains of an insect small RNA virus complex,” Advances in Virus Research, vol. 26, no. 1, pp. 117–143, 1981. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  105. P. D. Christian and P. D. Scotti, “The picorna-like viruses of insects,” in The Insect Viruses, L. Miller and A. Ball, Eds., pp. 301–336, Plenum Press, New York, NY, USA, 1998.
  106. T. Manousis and N. F. Moore, “Cricket paralysis virus, a potential control agent for the olive fruit fly, Dacus oleae Gmel,” Applied and Environmental Microbiology, vol. 53, no. 1, pp. 142–148, 1987. View at Scopus
  107. N. Plus and P. D. Scotti, “The biological properties of eight different isolates of cricket paralysis virus,” Annales de l'Institut Pasteur Virologie, vol. 135, no. 3, pp. 257–268, 1984. View at Scopus
  108. G. Fedière, R. Philippe, J. C. Veyrunes, and P. Monsarrat, “Biological control of the oil palm pest Latoia viridissima (Lepidoptera, Limacodidae) in Cote d'Ivoire, by a new picornavirus,” BioControl, vol. 35, no. 3, pp. 347–354, 1990.
  109. L. Kanga and G. Fediere, “Towards integrated control of Epicerura pergisea (Lepidoptera: Notodontidae), defoliator of Terminalia ivorensis and T. superba, in the Cote d'Ivoire,” Forest Ecology and Management, vol. 39, no. 1, pp. 73–79, 1991. View at Scopus
  110. J. C. Boyer and A. L. Haenni, “Infectious transcripts and cDNA clones of RNA viruses,” Virology, vol. 198, no. 2, pp. 415–426, 1994. View at Scopus
  111. M. Benjeddou, N. Leat, and S. Davison, “Black queen-cell virus RNA is infectious in honey bee pupae,” Journal of Invertebrate Pathology, vol. 81, no. 3, pp. 205–206, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  112. S. Boyapalle, R. J. Beckett, N. Pal, W. A. Miller, and B. C. Bonning, “Infectious genomic RNA of Rhopalosiphum padi virus transcribed in vitro from a full-length cDNA clone,” Virology, vol. 375, no. 2, pp. 401–411, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  113. N. Pal, S. Boyapalle, R. Beckett, W. A. Miller, and B. C. Bonning, “A baculovirus-expressed dicistrovirus that is infectious to aphids,” Journal of Virology, vol. 81, no. 17, pp. 9339–9345, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  114. D. M. Tufts, K. Spencer, W. B. Hunter, and B. Bextine, “Delivery system using sodium alginate virus loaded pellets to red imported fire ants (Solenopsis invicta, Hymenoptera: Formicidae),” The Florida Entomologist, vol. 94, no. 2, pp. 237–241, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar