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Volume 2012 (2012), Article ID 940315, 9 pages
Behavior of Paussus favieri (Coleoptera, Carabidae, Paussini): A Myrmecophilous Beetle Associated with Pheidole pallidula (Hymenoptera, Formicidae)
1Department of Environmental Biology, University “Roma Tre”, Viale G. Marconi 446, 00146 Rome, Italy
2Azorean Biodiversity Group, University of Azores, CITA-A, Largo da Igreja, Terra Chã, 9700-851 Angra do Heroísmo, Portugal
3Water Ecology Team, Department of Biotechnology and Biosciences, University of Milano Bicocca, Piazza della Scienza 2, 20126 Milan, Italy
4Department of Entomology, University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ 85721-0036, USA
Received 21 September 2011; Accepted 8 December 2011
Academic Editor: Jean Paul Lachaud
Copyright © 2012 Emanuela Maurizi et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
Supplementary Material 1: Short movie on “rewarding behavior” performed by P. favieri interacting with minor worker of P. pallidula. The minor worker actively licks the apical part and the posterior side of the beetle's antennal club.
Supplementary Material 2: Short movie showing phases of the “cleaning behavior” performed by P. favieri inside the nest of P. pallidula: 1) “antennal cleaning”: the foreleg cleans the ventral side of the antenna, in particular the tarsus rubs the apex and posterior part of the antennal club, while the fore tibia cleans the dorsal side of antennal surface; 2) “leg cleaning”: the fore and middle tarsi are rubbed together repeatedly. Moreover, the middle and hind legs are rubbed reciprocally; 3) “elytral cleaning”: the middle and hind tibiae and tarsi rub on the elytra in the anteroposterior direction.
Supplementary Material 3: Short movie on the “courtship behavior” performed by male and female of P. favieri inside the nest of P. pallidula. The male approaches the female by using a frontal approach, then reaching the inverted phase, dorsally positioning himself in the opposite direction of the female. Afterwards the male turns, reaching the typical dorsal phase, that last a few seconds. The female rejects the male, but the male tries again to climb up on the female by using the lateral approach. During the courtship male and female move the antennae and the hind legs repeatedly.