Psyche: A Journal of Entomology The latest articles from Hindawi Publishing Corporation © 2016 , Hindawi Publishing Corporation . All rights reserved. Life History of an Endangered Marine Insect Halovelia septentrionalis Esaki (Hemiptera: Veliidae) Thu, 24 Dec 2015 12:59:42 +0000 Halovelia septentrionalis Esaki is one of the endangered marine water striders found along the Japanese coast. It is of primary importance to investigate its life history in the field so as to develop conservation measures as well as to understand how this species has adapted to marine environments. We studied its life history in Misaki on the southern part of the Miura Peninsular near Tokyo, ca. 35°N, probably the northernmost locality not only for H. septentrionalis but also for any Halovelia species, most of which are found in warm tropical or subtropical waters. The southern part of the Miura Peninsular has jagged coastlines with deep inner bays. Adults and nymphs were found skating along the rocky shore of inner bays with overhanging vegetation nearby. This species appeared to have at least 2 generations a year and to overwinter in the adult stage. We discussed its overwintering strategy in comparison to those of two other Japanese marine water striders. Terumi Ikawa and Aika Nakazawa Copyright © 2015 Terumi Ikawa and Aika Nakazawa. All rights reserved. Neochrysocharis okazakii (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae) as a Major Parasitoid Wasp of Stone Leek Leaf Miner Liriomyza chinensis (Diptera: Agromyzidae) in Central Vietnam Mon, 21 Dec 2015 11:12:44 +0000 Liriomyza chinensis is a major pest of Welsh onion Allium fistulosum in Asia but little is known about the abundance of its natural enemies. A field survey was made to explore the major parasitoids of L. chinensis leaf miner in central Vietnam. An eulophid parasitoid, Neochrysocharis okazakii, comprised more than 95% of parasitoids reared from leaf miner larvae collected in the onion field and 98.3% of leaf miner parasitoids found during searches of onion plants. The mean number of female N. okazakii on plants was greater in onion fields with a higher density of L. chinensis, and, during searches, a greater proportion of N. okazakii was found on onion with more L. chinensis mines, suggesting density-dependent parasitoid aggregation. Melanized dead larvae of L. chinensis were more frequently found in onion fields with more parasitoids, demonstrating that melanized leaf miners are a good indicator of parasitoid activity. Mean instant rate of host encounter by N. okazakii in the field was estimated at 0.077, and the likelihood of a parasitoid finding a host increased with host density. Taken together, these results show that N. okazakii is the major parasitoid of L. chinensis. Usefulness of this parasitoid in stone leek leaf miner management is discussed. Takatoshi Ueno and Dang Hoa Tran Copyright © 2015 Takatoshi Ueno and Dang Hoa Tran. All rights reserved. Pimachrysa (Neuroptera: Chrysopidae: Nothochrysinae): Larval Description and Support for Generic Relationships Mon, 21 Dec 2015 07:32:23 +0000 We describe the previously unknown larval characteristics of Pimachrysa (second and third instars), and we provide new comparative data on the Nothochrysa californica Banks larvae that were described earlier. The Pimachrysa larvae (identified as Pimachrysa fusca Adams) express the numerous features that characterize the chrysopid subfamily Nothochrysinae. They resemble Hypochrysa larvae in many respects, but several differences support retaining the two genera as separate. It now appears that the reputedly more archaic, small bodied, nothochrysine genera (e.g., Dictyochrysa, Hypochrysa, and Pimachrysa) have naked larvae that differ distinctly from the larvae of Nothochrysa species, all of which are debris-carriers. In addition, the pattern of variability in Nothochrysa larval features supports the proposal that this genus has a closer relationship with the other chrysopid subfamilies than do the small-bodied nothochrysine genera. The findings are consistent with the hypothesis that larval nakedness (as opposed to debris-carrying) was the ancestral life style for the extant chrysopid clade. Catherine A. Tauber and David K. Faulkner Copyright © 2015 Catherine A. Tauber and David K. Faulkner. All rights reserved. Temporal and Spatial Foraging Behavior of the Larvae of the Fall Webworm Hyphantria cunea Mon, 07 Dec 2015 13:04:04 +0000 During their first three larval stadia, caterpillars of Hyphantria cunea (Lepidoptera: Arctiidae) are patch-restricted foragers, confining their activity to a web-nest they construct in the branches of the host tree. Activity recordings of eight field colonies made over 46 colony-days showed that the later instars become central place foragers, leaving their nests at dusk to feed at distant sites and then returning to their nests in the morning. Colonies maintained in the laboratory showed that same pattern of foraging. In Y-choice laboratory experiments, caterpillars were slow to abandon old, exhausted feeding sites in favor of new food finds. An average of approximately 40% of the caterpillars in five colonies still selected pathways leading to exhausted sites at the onset of foraging bouts over those leading to new sites after feeding exclusively at the new sites on each of the previous four days. On returning to their nests in the morning, approximately 23% of the caterpillars erred by selecting pathways that led them away from the nest rather than toward it and showed no improvement over the course of the study. The results of these Y-choice studies indicate that, compared to other previously studied species of social caterpillars, the webworm employs a relatively simple system of collective foraging. Terrence D. Fitzgerald Copyright © 2015 Terrence D. Fitzgerald. All rights reserved. Morphometric Analysis of the Host Effect on Phenotypical Variation of Belminus ferroae (Hemiptera: Triatominae) Tue, 24 Nov 2015 13:26:43 +0000 The Triatominae subfamily includes hematophagous insects, well known for their role as vectors for the Trypanosoma cruzi parasite, etiologic agent of Chagas’ disease. Belminus ferroae is a triatomine that showed an increased demographic fitness when cockroaches were used as hosts. Here we compare the centroid size (CS) and wing shape between B. ferroae parents and three successive generations (O1, O2, and O3) of their offspring fed on cockroaches or mice under laboratory conditions. Morphometric analysis of the wings bugs fed on cockroaches showed a significant reduction in CS in both sexes among all generations. Sexual size dimorphism (SSD) was observed in the insects fed on cockroaches (O2 and O3), as well as those bugs fed on mice (O2). Differences in the shape of wings were observed between parental and offspring wings when fed on mice, but not in males (O1, O2, and O3) or females (O1 and O2) fed on cockroaches. There was a greater wing shape similarity between the cockroach-fed offspring and their parents according to the Mahalanobis distances. Our results support the idea of higher adaptation of this Triatominae with arthropod hosts. Claudia Magaly Sandoval Ramirez, Elsa Evelia Nieves Blanco, Reinaldo Gutiérrez Marin, Diego Alexander Jaimes Mendez, Nelcy Ortiz Rodríguez, Fernando Otálora-Luna, and Elis José Aldana Copyright © 2015 Claudia Magaly Sandoval Ramirez et al. All rights reserved. Dipterofauna Associated with Sus scrofa Linné, 1758, Carcasses in Urban and Coastal Regions of São Paulo State, Brazil Sun, 22 Nov 2015 07:01:29 +0000 Cadaverous entomofauna successions vary according to the region, environment, and climate, and such differences may occur within the same country due to seasonal variations. The present study aimed to analyze and compare the dipterofauna that visit or colonize carcasses in the urban and coastal areas of São Paulo, Brazil, during summer and winter seasons. Four swine (Sus scrofa Linné, 1758) carcasses of approximately 12 kg were used. The animals were previously euthanized and then placed in metal cages covered with a flight intercept trap (Shannon, modified). In total, 10,495 flies from 39 families were collected, with 15 species belonging to the Calliphoridae family, 14 species belonging to the Fanniidae family, 43 species belonging to the Muscidae family, and 22 species belonging to the Sarcophagidae family. Flies from these four families visited all carcasses; however, they did not show the highest visitation frequencies in all of the trials. Species variations occurred between the experiments that were performed at different locations and in different seasons. Furthermore, difference in the number of insects attracted to each stage of decomposition was observed. In addition to the four families highlighted above, the families Phoridae, Sepsidae, Otitidae, and Piophilidae were observed in all carcasses. Maria Luiza Cavallari, Fabio Navarro Baltazar, Silvio Shigueo Nihei, Daniel Romero Muñoz, and José Eduardo Tolezano Copyright © 2015 Maria Luiza Cavallari et al. All rights reserved. Observations on the Biology and Anatomy of Myerslopiidae (Hemiptera, Membracoidea) Thu, 19 Nov 2015 08:27:08 +0000 Adults and nymphs of Mapuchea chilensis (Nielson), from the poorly known family Myerslopiidae, were collected from the litter horizon of temperate forests and shrub bogs in southern Chile. The species apparently feeds on roots and creeping stems of angiosperms. Salivary sheaths of captive specimens terminated in vascular bundles. Indirect evidence suggests feeding on phloem sap. Both nymphs and adults are strong jumpers and both actively disperse, as evidenced by their capture in pan traps. The Malpighian tubules of this species produce no brochosomes and, unlike in most previously studied Membracoidea, comprise no specialized secretory segment. Each tubule comprises secretory cells scattered among excretory ones, a condition not previously known among Hemiptera. Roman Rakitov Copyright © 2015 Roman Rakitov. All rights reserved. Broad Protein Spectrum in Stored Pollen of Three Stingless Bees from the Chaco Dry Forest in South America (Hymenoptera, Apidae, Meliponini) and Its Ecological Implications Wed, 18 Nov 2015 11:18:31 +0000 Protein content of pollen stored by three meliponine species was variable from 9.78% (less than half the value considered as optimal to brood development in Apis mellifera) in type Capparis tweediana-C. speciosa to more than 26% in type Maytenus vitis-idaea and some Prosopis samples. This pollen of low protein value was occasionally foraged (only six out of 75 masses analyzed of G. argentina, but none in 86 masses of T. fiebrigi or in ten of M. orbignyi). However, it is likely that amino acid deficiencies of certain pollens are compensated by randomly foraging on a broad spectrum of pollen plants. The large amounts of pollen stored in their nests might also be important in compensating these deficiencies. The only sample studied for M. orbignyi showed a protein value greater than the one required for A. mellifera and was dominated by types Acacia praecox and Prosopis. As this species also prefers Solanum and other protein-rich pollen, more samples would need to be analyzed to establish whether protein requirements are high for this Melipona species. Pollen showing the highest protein content (>26%) belonged to highly nectariferous plants well represented in meliponine and Apis honey such as Prosopis, Maytenus, and Ziziphus. Favio Gerardo Vossler Copyright © 2015 Favio Gerardo Vossler. All rights reserved. Diversity and Distribution of Aquatic Insects in Streams of the Mae Klong Watershed, Western Thailand Mon, 16 Nov 2015 13:48:13 +0000 The distribution and diversity of aquatic insects and water quality variables were studied among three streams of the Mae Klong Watershed. In each stream, two sites were sampled. Aquatic insects and water quality variables were randomly sampled seven times in February, May, September, and December 2010 and in January, April, and May 2011. Overall, 11,153 individuals belonging to 64 families and nine orders were examined. Among the aquatic insects collected from the three streams, the order Trichoptera was most diverse in number of individuals, followed by Ephemeroptera, Hemiptera, Odonata, Coleoptera, Diptera, Plecoptera, Megaloptera, and Lepidoptera. The highest Shannon index of diversity of 2.934 and 3.2 was recorded in Huai Kayeng stream and the lowest was in Huai Pakkok stream (2.68 and 2.62). The high diversity of insect fauna in streams is an indication of larger microhabitat diversity and better water quality conditions prevailing in the streams. The evenness value was recorded as high in most sites. The high species diversity and evenness in almost all sites indicated good water quality. Witwisitpong Maneechan and Taeng On Prommi Copyright © 2015 Witwisitpong Maneechan and Taeng On Prommi. All rights reserved. Morphology of the Preimaginal Stages of Lasioptera donacis Coutin (Diptera: Cecidomyiidae), a Candidate Biocontrol Agent for Giant Arundo Cane Mon, 02 Nov 2015 12:54:42 +0000 The larval stages of Lasioptera donacis Coutin consist of three instars which develop within the mesophyll of the leaf sheaths of Arundo donax (L.) (Poaceae). The larvae feed aggregatively on mycelia of an ambrosia fungus. The third instars are similar to other members of the genus except for a three-pronged spatula (typically two-pronged) and five lateral papillae (typically four) and with a nonbristled first instar. A related species, L. arundinis (Schiner) which breeds on fungus in Phragmites (Poaceae), also has a three-pronged spatula and five lateral papillae but has a bristled first instar. The third instar of L. donacis has a feeding and a nonfeeding prepupal stage. Papillae associated with the spatula are sensory organs, sensilla chaetica, sensilla trichodea, and sensilla ampullacea, perhaps related to extraoral digestion of the fungal mycelia. Pupation occurs in the host plant within a silken cocoon. Egression of the adult is through an escape hatch excavated by the third instar. Donald B. Thomas and John A. Goolsby Copyright © 2015 Donald B. Thomas and John A. Goolsby. All rights reserved. Behavioral Response of Plum Curculio, Conotrachelus nenuphar, to Synthetic Fruit Volatile Lures and the Male-Produced Aggregation Pheromone Thu, 29 Oct 2015 14:05:34 +0000 Plum curculio, Conotrachelus nenuphar Herbst (Coleoptera: Curculionidae), is a key pest of stone and pome fruits in North America. The behavioral response of adults of different physiological states (sex, age, diet, and mating status) to three commercially available synthetic lures, benzaldehyde (BZ) and plum essence (PE), the male-produced aggregation pheromone, grandisoic acid (GA), or their combinations, was studied in the laboratory. Four choice olfactometer bioassays demonstrated significant attraction of both sexes to PE lure. Both BZ and GA lures were not attractive to plum curculio when tested as commercially formulated. PE had higher release rate (1.51 mg/hr) than BZ (0.36 mg/hr) and GA (ca. 0.04 mg/hr), suggesting that the higher attractiveness of PE may be due to its relatively higher release rates. Tests with combined lures showed a neutral effect of combining GA with PE and an inhibitory effect of combining BZ with PE. The physiological conditions of the weevils had no significant effect on their response to the lures. Olfactometer tests with pure 1,2,4-trichlorobenzene (TCB) confirmed that this compound was inhibitory to plum curculio. These results are discussed in relation to the contrasting field reports which implicated BZ + GA as an effective attractant for plum curculio. Clement Akotsen-Mensah and Henry Y. Fadamiro Copyright © 2015 Clement Akotsen-Mensah and Henry Y. Fadamiro. All rights reserved. Effects of Pyriproxyfen on Life Table Indices of Plutella xylostella in Multigenerations Wed, 28 Oct 2015 07:07:23 +0000 The diamondback moth (DBM), Plutella xylostella (L.) (Lepidoptera: Plutellidae), is a major pest of Brassicaceae family in Iran. This study investigated the sublethal effects of pyriproxyfen, a juvenile hormone analogue, on DBM, for two subsequent generations. The leaf dip bioassay method was adopted in conducting this experiment. Sublethal concentrations resulted in a significant decrease in fecundity, oviposition period, and pupal weight of parents and offspring generations. Also, the development time of DBM was prolonged after exposure to pyriproxyfen. The biological parameters such as net reproductive rate () and intrinsic () and finite () rate of increase were lower than control in treatment groups, significantly. From our investigations, pyriproxyfen is a good choice for control of the diamondback moth population through continuous generations. Mohammad Mahmoudvand, Saeid Moharramipour, and Mehrdad Iranshahi Copyright © 2015 Mohammad Mahmoudvand et al. All rights reserved. Body Size of the Monomorphic Ant Lasius niger: Young Colonies along a Metal Pollution Gradient Tue, 20 Oct 2015 11:46:15 +0000 Metal pollution may cause the decrease in the individual body size. In ants, the morphological diversity within and between colonies may be much higher than that considered before, even in monomorphic ants. In this study we measured the body size, expressed as head width, of Lasius niger workers collected from 44 young colonies in their ergonomic stage along a well-known gradient exhibiting chronic metal pollution. We calculated statistics describing the body size distribution curve, namely, average, median, data range, skewness, and kurtosis. None of these statistics correlated with the pollution level. Contrary to our previous study performed on mature colonies, workers from young colonies do not display pollution-related morphological changes. The results stress the importance of developmental stage of colony on diversifying body size of the worker cast, in monomorphic ants living in metal-polluted areas. Irena M. Grześ, Mateusz Okrutniak, and Gracjan Antosik Copyright © 2015 Irena M. Grześ et al. All rights reserved. Taxonomy and DNA Sequencing of Crematogaster coriaria Mayr, 1872 (Hymenoptera: Formicidae), with Redescriptions of the Worker, Queen, and Male Castes Tue, 13 Oct 2015 16:54:40 +0000 Crematogaster coriaria Mayr, 1872, is revised based on the nest series samples. The following new synonymies are proposed: C. coriaria Mayr, 1872 =  C. coriaria fraudatrix Forel, 1911 syn. nov.  =  C. spengeli Forel, 1912 syn. nov.  =  C. spengeli taipingensis Forel, 1913 syn. nov. Worker, queen, and male castes of C. coriaria Mayr, 1872, are redescribed. The polymorphism of C. coriaria Mayr, 1872, was also discussed. DNA sequences were generated for C. coriaria Mayr, 1872, using an amplification of second half region of the mitochondrial gene COI with a total of 711 bp. The interspecific COI divergence is 17.4% for C. coriaria Mayr, 1872, and C. modiglianii Emery, 1900. Shingo Hosoishi and Kazuo Ogata Copyright © 2015 Shingo Hosoishi and Kazuo Ogata. All rights reserved. An Insight into Sweet Potato Weevils Management: A Review Thu, 01 Oct 2015 12:09:16 +0000 Sweet potato is an important food crop that is grown widely in tropical and subtropical regions. Sweet potato weevil is the most disastrous pest affecting sweet potato plantations, causing millions of dollars losses annually. An effective integrated pest management (IPM) method will help to prevent economic losses, and it is crucial to understand the factors that contribute to weevil infestation and strategies that are available to overcome them. This review summarizes the (1) mechanisms of action of weevil on sweet potato and (2) contributing factors in weevil infestation, followed by (3) discussion on current IPM practices used in the different regions, including intercropping, entomopathogenic fungi and bacteria, sex pheromones, and pesticides. Lastly, it also focuses on (4) applications of advanced biotechnology and genomics strategies towards reducing weevil’s infestation in sweet potato plantation. Seow-Mun Hue and Min-Yang Low Copyright © 2015 Seow-Mun Hue and Min-Yang Low. All rights reserved. The Ant Cardiocondyla elegans as Host of the Enigmatic Endoparasitic Fungus Myrmicinosporidium durum Thu, 11 Jun 2015 09:06:24 +0000 Data on host species and the distribution of the endoparasitic fungus Myrmicinosporidium durum increased continuously in recent decades. Here, we add the ant Cardiocondyla elegans as new host species. Colonies of the monogynous species were found infested in the region of Languedoc-Roussillon (South France). Samples from the nest indicate high infection rates. All castes and sexes were infected by the spores. Variations of infection rates between sampling methods and species are discussed. Julia Giehr, Jürgen Heinze, and Alexandra Schrempf Copyright © 2015 Julia Giehr et al. All rights reserved. Busy Bees: Variation in Insect Flower-Visiting Rates across Multiple Plant Species Tue, 09 Jun 2015 14:18:42 +0000 We quantified insect visitation rates by counting how many flowers/inflorescences were probed per unit time for five plant species (four native and one garden: California lilac, bramble, ragwort, wild marjoram, and ivy) growing in Sussex, United Kingdom, by following individual insects () from nine functional groups (honey bees (Apis mellifera), bumble bees (Bombus spp.), hoverflies, flies, butterflies, beetles, wasps, non-Apidae bees, and moths). Additionally, we made a census of the insect diversity on the studied plant species. Overall we found that insect groups differed greatly in their rate of flower visits (), with bumble bees and honey bees visiting significantly more flowers per time (11.5 and 9.2 flowers/minute, resp.) than the other insect groups. Additionally, we report on a within-group difference in the non-Apidae bees, where the genus Osmia, which is often suggested as an alternative to honey bees as a managed pollinator, was very speedy (13.4 flowers/minute) compared to the other non-Apidae bees (4.3 flowers/minute). Our census showed that the plants attracted a range of insects, with the honey bee as the most abundant visitor (34%). Therefore, rate differences cannot be explained by particular specializations. Lastly, we discuss potential implications of our conclusions for pollination. Margaret J. Couvillon, Chandra M. Walter, Eluned M. Blows, Tomer J. Czaczkes, Karin L. Alton, and Francis L. W. Ratnieks Copyright © 2015 Margaret J. Couvillon et al. All rights reserved. Search Rate and Functional Response of a Eusocial Insect (Oecophylla longinoda) in a Tanzanian Mango Orchard Sat, 28 Feb 2015 12:49:08 +0000 Weaver ants, Oecophylla spp., are famous for being efficient biological control agents as they prey on a variety of insects, and they are capable of suppressing a large number of pest species. Here, the search rate and functional response of Oecophylla longinoda were investigated in a Tanzanian mango orchard using feeding experiments. This was done by following the removal of prey, which constituted the foundation for estimating the search rate by aid of the Nicholson-Bailey and Lotka-Volterra models. The overall mean search rate was and over 30 minutes, when calculating the search rate using the Nicholson-Bailey equation and the Lotka-Volterra equation (modified Holling equation), respectively. The functional response investigations showed a linear relationship between removed prey and available prey, suggesting type I functional response or, alternatively, the initial phase of type II functional response. The results presented here are probably the first attempt to identify the functional response type of a colony of living predatory eusocial insects. Thora Samsø Fast, Jørgen Aagaard Axelsen, Gina Kier Lynegaard, Maulid Mwatawala, and Joachim Offenberg Copyright © 2015 Thora Samsø Fast et al. All rights reserved. Cryptocephaline Egg Case Provides Incomplete Protection from Generalist Predators (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) Tue, 30 Dec 2014 07:06:05 +0000 The egg case of Cryptocephalus rufipes (Goeze) is described and illustrated. In laboratory trials, eggs of field-collected C. rufipes were observed for larval emergence (untreated control) or exposed to two species of generalist predators, Chrysoperla carnea (Stephens) or Xylocoris flavipes (Reuter) in no-choice experiments. The behaviour of the predators upon contact with the C. rufipes eggs was observed. The number of hatching larvae was counted and compared. In the presence of each of the two species of predators, larval emergence was significantly reduced. Eggs that were not protected by an egg case were completely consumed by the predators. C. rufipes eggs were therefore incompletely protected from the studied generalist predators. This is the first study showing experimentally the protective function of cryptocephaline egg case. Matthias Schöller Copyright © 2014 Matthias Schöller. All rights reserved. Application of Asiatic Honey Bees (Apis cerana) and Stingless Bees (Trigona laeviceps) as Pollinator Agents of Hot Pepper (Capsicum annuum L.) at Local Indonesia Farm System Tue, 30 Dec 2014 00:10:11 +0000 In Indonesia, hot pepper (Capsicum annuum) is one of the most important spices. Despite the fact that high yield cultivars and fertilizers have been applied to increase the annual production of this spice, local farming is always unable to maintain constant production. Studies to find the explanation of this problem mostly focused on pest attack while possibility of low fruit production due to lack of pollination was neglected. In this study, the effect of pollinator visitation to fruit set and quality was assessed by application of two local domesticated honey bees, Asiatic honey bees (Apis cerana) and stingless bees (Trigona laeviceps) as potential pollinator agents at hot pepper plantation. This study found that both bees had similar visitation rate while A. cerana spend less time in flowers. Visitation by A. cerana and Trigona laeviceps improved fruit set, fruit production per plant, average fruit weight, and fruit size. This result confirms the importance of cross pollination for hot pepper production and both species could be used as pollination agent for hot pepper. Advantages and disadvantages for each species as pollination agent for local Indonesia farm system are discussed in this paper. Ramadhani Eka Putra, Agus Dana Permana, and Ida Kinasih Copyright © 2014 Ramadhani Eka Putra et al. All rights reserved. Chemical Composition and Acaricidal Effects of Essential Oils of Foeniculum vulgare Mill. (Apiales: Apiaceae) and Lavandula angustifolia Miller (Lamiales: Lamiaceae) against Tetranychus urticae Koch (Acari: Tetranychidae) Sun, 14 Dec 2014 00:10:29 +0000 Utilization of synthetic acaricides causes negative side-effects on nontarget organisms and environment and most of the mite species such as two spotted spider mite, Tetranychus urticae Koch, are becoming resistant to these chemicals. In the present study, essential oils of fennel, Foeniculum vulgare Mill., and lavender, Lavandula angustifolia Miller, were hydrodistilled using Clevenger apparatus and chemical composition of these oils was analyzed by GC-MS. Anethole (46.73%), limonene (13.65%), and α-fenchone (8.27%) in the fennel essential oil and linalool (28.63%), 1,8-cineole (18.65%), and 1-borneol (15.94%) in the lavender essential oil were found as main components. Contact and fumigant toxicity of essential oils was assessed against adult females of T. urticae after 24 h exposure time. The essential oils revealed strong toxicity in both contact and fumigant bioassays and the activity dependeds on essential oil concentrations. Lethal concentration 50% for the population of mite (LC50) was found as 0.557% (0.445–0.716) and 0.792% (0.598–1.091) in the contact toxicity and 1.876 μL/L air (1.786–1.982) and 1.971 μL/L air (1.628–2.478) in the fumigant toxicity for fennel and lavender oils, respectively. Results indicated that F. vulgare and L. angustifolia essential oils might be useful for managing of two spotted spider mite, T. urticae. Asgar Ebadollahi, Jalal Jalali Sendi, Alireza Aliakbar, and Jabraeil Razmjou Copyright © 2014 Asgar Ebadollahi et al. All rights reserved. Monitoring Spruce Budworm with Light Traps: The Effect of Trap Position Tue, 04 Nov 2014 11:47:35 +0000 Daily records of adult spruce budworms, Choristoneura fumiferana (Clemens) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae), captured at light traps at multiple locations in New Brunswick in the 1970s, are analyzed in relation to the physical position of light traps (tree canopies or forest clearings). Captures at light traps deployed in tree canopies were 4–400 times greater than those in forest clearings, especially for males. The phenology of captures (median date or duration of flight period) did not differ in relation to trap location. Captures of both males and females in tree canopies were highly correlated with egg densities, whereas no significant relationship was observed for either sex in forest clearings. Monitoring programs for spruce budworm adults using light traps should be standardized by deploying traps in tree canopies. Marc Rhainds and Edward G. Kettela Copyright © 2014 Marc Rhainds and Edward G. Kettela. All rights reserved. Age-Dependent Constraints of Sex Allocation in a Parasitoid Wasp Tue, 04 Nov 2014 07:43:59 +0000 The offspring sex ratios of parasitoid wasps often depend on the age of ovipositing females. Physiological constraints such as sperm depletion and senescence are a likely cause. Also, maternal control in response to female age may be an alternative explanation. Here valvifer or abdominal tip movements were used to assess whether age-dependent sex ratio was due to physiological constraints or maternal control with an ichneumonid wasp, Pimpla nipponica; the offspring sex ratio at the time of wasp emergence was compared with the sex ratio predicted from abdominal tip movements. When the female was relatively young, there was little difference between the sex ratios examined. However, as the age of the females increased, the realized offspring sex ratio at wasp emergence was more male-biased than the sex ratio predicted at the time of oviposition. Thus, there was an inconsistency between the sex ratios. Curiously, the predictions of continuous movements for male egg deposition were always perfect, regardless of maternal age; fertilization control failure was detected when the females had decided to lay female eggs. Thus, physiological constraints are a likely explanation for the inconsistency in relation to female age for P. nipponica. Takatoshi Ueno Copyright © 2014 Takatoshi Ueno. All rights reserved. Molecular Population Structure of Junonia Butterflies from French Guiana, Guadeloupe, and Martinique Sun, 12 Oct 2014 00:00:00 +0000 Up to 9 described species of Junonia butterflies occur in the Americas, but authorities disagree due to species similarities, geographical and seasonal variability, and possible hybridization. In dispute is whether Caribbean Junonia are conspecific with South American species. Cytochrome oxidase I (COI) barcodes, wingless (wg) sequences, and Randomly Amplified Fingerprints (RAF) were studied to reveal Junonia population structure in French Guiana, Guadeloupe, Martinique, and Argentina. Phylogenetic analysis of COI recovered 2 haplotype groups, but most Junonia species can have either haplotype, so COI barcodes are ambiguous. Analysis of nuclear wingless alleles revealed geographic patterns but did not identify Junonia species. Nuclear RAF genotyping distinguished 11 populations of Junonia arranged into 3 clusters. Gene flow occurs within clusters but is limited between clusters. One cluster included all Argentinian samples. Two clusters included samples from French Guiana, Martinique, and Guadeloupe and appear to be divided by larval host plant use (Lamiales versus Scrophulariales). Many Junonia taxa were distributed across populations, possibly reflecting patterns of genetic exchange. We had difficulty distinguishing between the Caribbean forms J. zonalis and J. neildi, but we demonstrate that Caribbean Junonia are genetically distinct from South American J. evarete and J. genoveva, supporting the taxonomic hypothesis that they are heterospecific. Amber P. Gemmell, Tanja E. Borchers, and Jeffrey M. Marcus Copyright © 2014 Amber P. Gemmell et al. All rights reserved. Report on a Large Collection of Merope tuber Newman, 1838 (Mecoptera: Meropeidae), from Arkansas, with Notes on Collection Technique, Sex Ratio, and Male Clasper Size Sun, 31 Aug 2014 08:48:40 +0000 A large collection of earwigflies, Merope tuber, is reported from Arkansas, and flight period and sex ratio are discussed. In contrast to previous studies, earwigflies were caught more frequently in pan traps than in Malaise traps and male clasper size was found not to be bimodal. Michael J. Skvarla, Jessica A. Hartshorn, and Ashley P. G. Dowling Copyright © 2014 Michael J. Skvarla et al. All rights reserved. Immature Stages and Life Cycle of the Wasp Moth, Cosmosoma auge (Lepidoptera: Erebidae: Arctiinae) under Laboratory Conditions Wed, 09 Jul 2014 12:00:27 +0000 Cosmosoma auge (Linnaeus 1767) (Lepidoptera: Erebidae) is a Neotropical arctiid moth common in Cuban mountainous areas; however, its life cycle remains unknown. In this work, C. auge life cycle is described for the first time; also, immature stages are described using a Cuban population. Larvae were obtained from gravid wild females caught in Viñales National Park and were fed with fresh leaves of its host plant, the climbing hempweed Mikania micrantha Kunth (Asterales: Asteraceae), which is a new host plant record. Eggs are hemispherical and hatching occurred five days after laying. Larval period had six instars and lasted between 20 and 22 days. First and last larval stages are easily distinguishable from others. First stage has body covered by chalazae and last stage has body covered by verrucae as other stages but has a tuft on each side of A1 and A7. Eggs and larvae features agree with Arctiinae pattern. Pupal stage lasted eight days, and, in general, females emerge before males as a result of pupal stage duration differences between sexes. Gunnary León-Finalé and Alejandro Barro Copyright © 2014 Gunnary León-Finalé and Alejandro Barro. All rights reserved. Evidence for the Absence of Worker Behavioral Subcastes in the Sociobiologically Primitive Australian Ant Nothomyrmecia macrops Clark (Hymenoptera: Formicidae: Myrmeciinae) Wed, 18 Jun 2014 06:10:01 +0000 Activity in three colonies of the nocturnally foraging Australian ant Nothomyrmecia macrops is investigated. Workers apprehended while foraging were marked, released, and later recaptured within nests following excavation. Every forager in each nest was encountered and marked. It was expected that unmarked, nonforaging, domestic-specialist workers would be discovered in the nests. This was unexpectedly not the case as all workers, apart from one or two in each colony, had been marked, and therefore had foraged at least once during the three-night experiment. The few unmarked individuals are considered to have been temporarily residential nest-entrance guards. Behavioral subcastes comprising “domestic” versus “foraging” workers were thus not indicated, evidencing absence of worker caste polyethism in Nothomyrmecia. The experiment predated emergence in the nests of adult workers from cocoon-enclosed pupae at a season when large feeding larvae of the current annual brood were still being provisioned by foragers. Because Nothomyrmecia is univoltine and emergence of current-brood adults had not yet occurred, all workers present were from preceding annual broods and defined as “postjuvenile.” A previous laboratory study separately evidenced absence of polyethism in Nothomyrmecia. Relevance of the apparent absence of food sharing in N. macrops is discussed. Robert W. Taylor Copyright © 2014 Robert W. Taylor. All rights reserved. Nothochrysinae (Neuroptera: Chrysopidae): New Larval Description and Generic Synonymy, with a Consideration of Generic Relationships Wed, 11 Jun 2014 09:32:29 +0000 Semaphorant B of Kimochrysa africana (Kimmins) expresses all of the larval synapomorphies that characterize the subfamily Nothochrysinae. Except for its head markings, the larva appears identical to that of Hypochrysa elegans (Burmeister). Based on consideration of both larval and adult similarities, Kimochrysa (Tjeder) is designated to be a subjective synonym of Hypochrysa Hagen (New Synonymy). The morphological basis for a previously proposed generic subdivision of Nothochrysinae is evaluated; the results indicate that the subfamily can be organized into two generic groupings each with distinct suites of shared adult characters. As yet, apomorphic support is not forthcoming from adult characters, and, unfortunately, larvae are known from only a few genera in the subfamily. Catherine A. Tauber Copyright © 2014 Catherine A. Tauber. All rights reserved. A Survey of Bedbug (Cimex lectularius) Infestation in Some Homes and Hostels in Gboko, Benue State, Nigeria Tue, 13 May 2014 15:44:13 +0000 A Survey of bed bug infestation in some homes and hostels, in Gboko, Benue State, Nigeria, was conducted from January to April, 2011. Bed frames, bunks, mattresses, pillows, chairs, and clothes were inspected. A total of 2,642 bed bugs were collected. 73.3% were from hostels while 26.7% were from homes. There was a significant difference between in the number of homes infested and those not infested (, , ). Nymphs were the most populated, with 292 (41.4%), followed by males 223 (31.6%), and females 190 (27.0%). There was no significant difference in the number of infested hostels and those not infested (, , ). The nymphs being the most populated with 901 (64.1%), followed by males 538 (36.1%), and then females 496 (35.3%). The greater number of infestation recorded in the hostels was as a result of poor hygiene, lack of adequate knowledge of the best control practices and the high population density. In homes, lack of the awareness of the resurgence of the emerging pest and lack of proper health education is responsible for the high infestation. Proactive approach should be taken towards public health education against bed bug infestation. Government and NGOs should take critical steps in preventing spread and stigma. Onah Isegbe Emmanuel, Alu Cyprian, and Omudu Edward Agbo Copyright © 2014 Onah Isegbe Emmanuel et al. All rights reserved. Age Stage Two-Sex Life Table Reveals Sublethal Effects of Some Herbal and Chemical Insecticides on Adults of Bemisia tabaci (Hem.: Aleyrodidae) Sun, 27 Apr 2014 12:20:47 +0000 The sweetpotato whitefly, Bemisia tabaci (Genn.) (Hem.: Aleyrodidae), is an important pest of agriculture in subtropical and tropical areas. In this study, we used the age-stage two-sex life table to evaluate the sublethal effects of the herbal extracts taken from Fumaria parviflora Lam. (Fumariaceae), Teucrium polium L. (Lamiaceae), Calotropis procera (Willd.) R. Br. (Asclepiadaceae), and Thymus vulgaris L. (Lamiaceae) as well as the two commercial synthetic insecticides, pymetrozin and neemarin. The whiteflies were exposed to each insecticide using leaf-dip method. Analysis of life table parameters revealed significant differences () in the net reproductive rate (, NRR), intrinsic rate of increase (), and finite rate of increase () among different insecticides. The lowest values of the three population parameters, , , and , were observed on whiteflies treated with pymetrozin (2.455, 0.036, and 1.036), T. polium (2.828, 0.044, and 1.045), and neemarin (2.998, 0.046, and 1.047), respectively. Results of this study highlights the satisfactory insecticidal effects of the extract taken from T. polium on B. tabaci, which is comparable to the two commonly used synthetic insecticides. Fatemeh Jafarbeigi, Mohammad Amin Samih, Mehdi Zarabi, and Saeideh Esmaeily Copyright © 2014 Fatemeh Jafarbeigi et al. All rights reserved.