Psyche: A Journal of Entomology The latest articles from Hindawi Publishing Corporation © 2015 , Hindawi Publishing Corporation . All rights reserved. The Ant Cardiocondyla elegans as Host of the Enigmatic Endoparasitic Fungus Myrmicinosporidium durum Thu, 11 Jun 2015 09:06:24 +0000 Data on host species and the distribution of the endoparasitic fungus Myrmicinosporidium durum increased continuously in recent decades. Here, we add the ant Cardiocondyla elegans as new host species. Colonies of the monogynous species were found infested in the region of Languedoc-Roussillon (South France). Samples from the nest indicate high infection rates. All castes and sexes were infected by the spores. Variations of infection rates between sampling methods and species are discussed. Julia Giehr, Jürgen Heinze, and Alexandra Schrempf Copyright © 2015 Julia Giehr et al. All rights reserved. Busy Bees: Variation in Insect Flower-Visiting Rates across Multiple Plant Species Tue, 09 Jun 2015 14:18:42 +0000 We quantified insect visitation rates by counting how many flowers/inflorescences were probed per unit time for five plant species (four native and one garden: California lilac, bramble, ragwort, wild marjoram, and ivy) growing in Sussex, United Kingdom, by following individual insects () from nine functional groups (honey bees (Apis mellifera), bumble bees (Bombus spp.), hoverflies, flies, butterflies, beetles, wasps, non-Apidae bees, and moths). Additionally, we made a census of the insect diversity on the studied plant species. Overall we found that insect groups differed greatly in their rate of flower visits (), with bumble bees and honey bees visiting significantly more flowers per time (11.5 and 9.2 flowers/minute, resp.) than the other insect groups. Additionally, we report on a within-group difference in the non-Apidae bees, where the genus Osmia, which is often suggested as an alternative to honey bees as a managed pollinator, was very speedy (13.4 flowers/minute) compared to the other non-Apidae bees (4.3 flowers/minute). Our census showed that the plants attracted a range of insects, with the honey bee as the most abundant visitor (34%). Therefore, rate differences cannot be explained by particular specializations. Lastly, we discuss potential implications of our conclusions for pollination. Margaret J. Couvillon, Chandra M. Walter, Eluned M. Blows, Tomer J. Czaczkes, Karin L. Alton, and Francis L. W. Ratnieks Copyright © 2015 Margaret J. Couvillon et al. All rights reserved. Search Rate and Functional Response of a Eusocial Insect (Oecophylla longinoda) in a Tanzanian Mango Orchard Sat, 28 Feb 2015 12:49:08 +0000 Weaver ants, Oecophylla spp., are famous for being efficient biological control agents as they prey on a variety of insects, and they are capable of suppressing a large number of pest species. Here, the search rate and functional response of Oecophylla longinoda were investigated in a Tanzanian mango orchard using feeding experiments. This was done by following the removal of prey, which constituted the foundation for estimating the search rate by aid of the Nicholson-Bailey and Lotka-Volterra models. The overall mean search rate was and over 30 minutes, when calculating the search rate using the Nicholson-Bailey equation and the Lotka-Volterra equation (modified Holling equation), respectively. The functional response investigations showed a linear relationship between removed prey and available prey, suggesting type I functional response or, alternatively, the initial phase of type II functional response. The results presented here are probably the first attempt to identify the functional response type of a colony of living predatory eusocial insects. Thora Samsø Fast, Jørgen Aagaard Axelsen, Gina Kier Lynegaard, Maulid Mwatawala, and Joachim Offenberg Copyright © 2015 Thora Samsø Fast et al. All rights reserved. Cryptocephaline Egg Case Provides Incomplete Protection from Generalist Predators (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) Tue, 30 Dec 2014 07:06:05 +0000 The egg case of Cryptocephalus rufipes (Goeze) is described and illustrated. In laboratory trials, eggs of field-collected C. rufipes were observed for larval emergence (untreated control) or exposed to two species of generalist predators, Chrysoperla carnea (Stephens) or Xylocoris flavipes (Reuter) in no-choice experiments. The behaviour of the predators upon contact with the C. rufipes eggs was observed. The number of hatching larvae was counted and compared. In the presence of each of the two species of predators, larval emergence was significantly reduced. Eggs that were not protected by an egg case were completely consumed by the predators. C. rufipes eggs were therefore incompletely protected from the studied generalist predators. This is the first study showing experimentally the protective function of cryptocephaline egg case. Matthias Schöller Copyright © 2014 Matthias Schöller. All rights reserved. Application of Asiatic Honey Bees (Apis cerana) and Stingless Bees (Trigona laeviceps) as Pollinator Agents of Hot Pepper (Capsicum annuum L.) at Local Indonesia Farm System Tue, 30 Dec 2014 00:10:11 +0000 In Indonesia, hot pepper (Capsicum annuum) is one of the most important spices. Despite the fact that high yield cultivars and fertilizers have been applied to increase the annual production of this spice, local farming is always unable to maintain constant production. Studies to find the explanation of this problem mostly focused on pest attack while possibility of low fruit production due to lack of pollination was neglected. In this study, the effect of pollinator visitation to fruit set and quality was assessed by application of two local domesticated honey bees, Asiatic honey bees (Apis cerana) and stingless bees (Trigona laeviceps) as potential pollinator agents at hot pepper plantation. This study found that both bees had similar visitation rate while A. cerana spend less time in flowers. Visitation by A. cerana and Trigona laeviceps improved fruit set, fruit production per plant, average fruit weight, and fruit size. This result confirms the importance of cross pollination for hot pepper production and both species could be used as pollination agent for hot pepper. Advantages and disadvantages for each species as pollination agent for local Indonesia farm system are discussed in this paper. Ramadhani Eka Putra, Agus Dana Permana, and Ida Kinasih Copyright © 2014 Ramadhani Eka Putra et al. All rights reserved. Chemical Composition and Acaricidal Effects of Essential Oils of Foeniculum vulgare Mill. (Apiales: Apiaceae) and Lavandula angustifolia Miller (Lamiales: Lamiaceae) against Tetranychus urticae Koch (Acari: Tetranychidae) Sun, 14 Dec 2014 00:10:29 +0000 Utilization of synthetic acaricides causes negative side-effects on nontarget organisms and environment and most of the mite species such as two spotted spider mite, Tetranychus urticae Koch, are becoming resistant to these chemicals. In the present study, essential oils of fennel, Foeniculum vulgare Mill., and lavender, Lavandula angustifolia Miller, were hydrodistilled using Clevenger apparatus and chemical composition of these oils was analyzed by GC-MS. Anethole (46.73%), limonene (13.65%), and α-fenchone (8.27%) in the fennel essential oil and linalool (28.63%), 1,8-cineole (18.65%), and 1-borneol (15.94%) in the lavender essential oil were found as main components. Contact and fumigant toxicity of essential oils was assessed against adult females of T. urticae after 24 h exposure time. The essential oils revealed strong toxicity in both contact and fumigant bioassays and the activity dependeds on essential oil concentrations. Lethal concentration 50% for the population of mite (LC50) was found as 0.557% (0.445–0.716) and 0.792% (0.598–1.091) in the contact toxicity and 1.876 μL/L air (1.786–1.982) and 1.971 μL/L air (1.628–2.478) in the fumigant toxicity for fennel and lavender oils, respectively. Results indicated that F. vulgare and L. angustifolia essential oils might be useful for managing of two spotted spider mite, T. urticae. Asgar Ebadollahi, Jalal Jalali Sendi, Alireza Aliakbar, and Jabraeil Razmjou Copyright © 2014 Asgar Ebadollahi et al. All rights reserved. Monitoring Spruce Budworm with Light Traps: The Effect of Trap Position Tue, 04 Nov 2014 11:47:35 +0000 Daily records of adult spruce budworms, Choristoneura fumiferana (Clemens) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae), captured at light traps at multiple locations in New Brunswick in the 1970s, are analyzed in relation to the physical position of light traps (tree canopies or forest clearings). Captures at light traps deployed in tree canopies were 4–400 times greater than those in forest clearings, especially for males. The phenology of captures (median date or duration of flight period) did not differ in relation to trap location. Captures of both males and females in tree canopies were highly correlated with egg densities, whereas no significant relationship was observed for either sex in forest clearings. Monitoring programs for spruce budworm adults using light traps should be standardized by deploying traps in tree canopies. Marc Rhainds and Edward G. Kettela Copyright © 2014 Marc Rhainds and Edward G. Kettela. All rights reserved. Age-Dependent Constraints of Sex Allocation in a Parasitoid Wasp Tue, 04 Nov 2014 07:43:59 +0000 The offspring sex ratios of parasitoid wasps often depend on the age of ovipositing females. Physiological constraints such as sperm depletion and senescence are a likely cause. Also, maternal control in response to female age may be an alternative explanation. Here valvifer or abdominal tip movements were used to assess whether age-dependent sex ratio was due to physiological constraints or maternal control with an ichneumonid wasp, Pimpla nipponica; the offspring sex ratio at the time of wasp emergence was compared with the sex ratio predicted from abdominal tip movements. When the female was relatively young, there was little difference between the sex ratios examined. However, as the age of the females increased, the realized offspring sex ratio at wasp emergence was more male-biased than the sex ratio predicted at the time of oviposition. Thus, there was an inconsistency between the sex ratios. Curiously, the predictions of continuous movements for male egg deposition were always perfect, regardless of maternal age; fertilization control failure was detected when the females had decided to lay female eggs. Thus, physiological constraints are a likely explanation for the inconsistency in relation to female age for P. nipponica. Takatoshi Ueno Copyright © 2014 Takatoshi Ueno. All rights reserved. Molecular Population Structure of Junonia Butterflies from French Guiana, Guadeloupe, and Martinique Sun, 12 Oct 2014 00:00:00 +0000 Up to 9 described species of Junonia butterflies occur in the Americas, but authorities disagree due to species similarities, geographical and seasonal variability, and possible hybridization. In dispute is whether Caribbean Junonia are conspecific with South American species. Cytochrome oxidase I (COI) barcodes, wingless (wg) sequences, and Randomly Amplified Fingerprints (RAF) were studied to reveal Junonia population structure in French Guiana, Guadeloupe, Martinique, and Argentina. Phylogenetic analysis of COI recovered 2 haplotype groups, but most Junonia species can have either haplotype, so COI barcodes are ambiguous. Analysis of nuclear wingless alleles revealed geographic patterns but did not identify Junonia species. Nuclear RAF genotyping distinguished 11 populations of Junonia arranged into 3 clusters. Gene flow occurs within clusters but is limited between clusters. One cluster included all Argentinian samples. Two clusters included samples from French Guiana, Martinique, and Guadeloupe and appear to be divided by larval host plant use (Lamiales versus Scrophulariales). Many Junonia taxa were distributed across populations, possibly reflecting patterns of genetic exchange. We had difficulty distinguishing between the Caribbean forms J. zonalis and J. neildi, but we demonstrate that Caribbean Junonia are genetically distinct from South American J. evarete and J. genoveva, supporting the taxonomic hypothesis that they are heterospecific. Amber P. Gemmell, Tanja E. Borchers, and Jeffrey M. Marcus Copyright © 2014 Amber P. Gemmell et al. All rights reserved. Report on a Large Collection of Merope tuber Newman, 1838 (Mecoptera: Meropeidae), from Arkansas, with Notes on Collection Technique, Sex Ratio, and Male Clasper Size Sun, 31 Aug 2014 08:48:40 +0000 A large collection of earwigflies, Merope tuber, is reported from Arkansas, and flight period and sex ratio are discussed. In contrast to previous studies, earwigflies were caught more frequently in pan traps than in Malaise traps and male clasper size was found not to be bimodal. Michael J. Skvarla, Jessica A. Hartshorn, and Ashley P. G. Dowling Copyright © 2014 Michael J. Skvarla et al. All rights reserved. Immature Stages and Life Cycle of the Wasp Moth, Cosmosoma auge (Lepidoptera: Erebidae: Arctiinae) under Laboratory Conditions Wed, 09 Jul 2014 12:00:27 +0000 Cosmosoma auge (Linnaeus 1767) (Lepidoptera: Erebidae) is a Neotropical arctiid moth common in Cuban mountainous areas; however, its life cycle remains unknown. In this work, C. auge life cycle is described for the first time; also, immature stages are described using a Cuban population. Larvae were obtained from gravid wild females caught in Viñales National Park and were fed with fresh leaves of its host plant, the climbing hempweed Mikania micrantha Kunth (Asterales: Asteraceae), which is a new host plant record. Eggs are hemispherical and hatching occurred five days after laying. Larval period had six instars and lasted between 20 and 22 days. First and last larval stages are easily distinguishable from others. First stage has body covered by chalazae and last stage has body covered by verrucae as other stages but has a tuft on each side of A1 and A7. Eggs and larvae features agree with Arctiinae pattern. Pupal stage lasted eight days, and, in general, females emerge before males as a result of pupal stage duration differences between sexes. Gunnary León-Finalé and Alejandro Barro Copyright © 2014 Gunnary León-Finalé and Alejandro Barro. All rights reserved. Evidence for the Absence of Worker Behavioral Subcastes in the Sociobiologically Primitive Australian Ant Nothomyrmecia macrops Clark (Hymenoptera: Formicidae: Myrmeciinae) Wed, 18 Jun 2014 06:10:01 +0000 Activity in three colonies of the nocturnally foraging Australian ant Nothomyrmecia macrops is investigated. Workers apprehended while foraging were marked, released, and later recaptured within nests following excavation. Every forager in each nest was encountered and marked. It was expected that unmarked, nonforaging, domestic-specialist workers would be discovered in the nests. This was unexpectedly not the case as all workers, apart from one or two in each colony, had been marked, and therefore had foraged at least once during the three-night experiment. The few unmarked individuals are considered to have been temporarily residential nest-entrance guards. Behavioral subcastes comprising “domestic” versus “foraging” workers were thus not indicated, evidencing absence of worker caste polyethism in Nothomyrmecia. The experiment predated emergence in the nests of adult workers from cocoon-enclosed pupae at a season when large feeding larvae of the current annual brood were still being provisioned by foragers. Because Nothomyrmecia is univoltine and emergence of current-brood adults had not yet occurred, all workers present were from preceding annual broods and defined as “postjuvenile.” A previous laboratory study separately evidenced absence of polyethism in Nothomyrmecia. Relevance of the apparent absence of food sharing in N. macrops is discussed. Robert W. Taylor Copyright © 2014 Robert W. Taylor. All rights reserved. Nothochrysinae (Neuroptera: Chrysopidae): New Larval Description and Generic Synonymy, with a Consideration of Generic Relationships Wed, 11 Jun 2014 09:32:29 +0000 Semaphorant B of Kimochrysa africana (Kimmins) expresses all of the larval synapomorphies that characterize the subfamily Nothochrysinae. Except for its head markings, the larva appears identical to that of Hypochrysa elegans (Burmeister). Based on consideration of both larval and adult similarities, Kimochrysa (Tjeder) is designated to be a subjective synonym of Hypochrysa Hagen (New Synonymy). The morphological basis for a previously proposed generic subdivision of Nothochrysinae is evaluated; the results indicate that the subfamily can be organized into two generic groupings each with distinct suites of shared adult characters. As yet, apomorphic support is not forthcoming from adult characters, and, unfortunately, larvae are known from only a few genera in the subfamily. Catherine A. Tauber Copyright © 2014 Catherine A. Tauber. All rights reserved. A Survey of Bedbug (Cimex lectularius) Infestation in Some Homes and Hostels in Gboko, Benue State, Nigeria Tue, 13 May 2014 15:44:13 +0000 A Survey of bed bug infestation in some homes and hostels, in Gboko, Benue State, Nigeria, was conducted from January to April, 2011. Bed frames, bunks, mattresses, pillows, chairs, and clothes were inspected. A total of 2,642 bed bugs were collected. 73.3% were from hostels while 26.7% were from homes. There was a significant difference between in the number of homes infested and those not infested (, , ). Nymphs were the most populated, with 292 (41.4%), followed by males 223 (31.6%), and females 190 (27.0%). There was no significant difference in the number of infested hostels and those not infested (, , ). The nymphs being the most populated with 901 (64.1%), followed by males 538 (36.1%), and then females 496 (35.3%). The greater number of infestation recorded in the hostels was as a result of poor hygiene, lack of adequate knowledge of the best control practices and the high population density. In homes, lack of the awareness of the resurgence of the emerging pest and lack of proper health education is responsible for the high infestation. Proactive approach should be taken towards public health education against bed bug infestation. Government and NGOs should take critical steps in preventing spread and stigma. Onah Isegbe Emmanuel, Alu Cyprian, and Omudu Edward Agbo Copyright © 2014 Onah Isegbe Emmanuel et al. All rights reserved. Age Stage Two-Sex Life Table Reveals Sublethal Effects of Some Herbal and Chemical Insecticides on Adults of Bemisia tabaci (Hem.: Aleyrodidae) Sun, 27 Apr 2014 12:20:47 +0000 The sweetpotato whitefly, Bemisia tabaci (Genn.) (Hem.: Aleyrodidae), is an important pest of agriculture in subtropical and tropical areas. In this study, we used the age-stage two-sex life table to evaluate the sublethal effects of the herbal extracts taken from Fumaria parviflora Lam. (Fumariaceae), Teucrium polium L. (Lamiaceae), Calotropis procera (Willd.) R. Br. (Asclepiadaceae), and Thymus vulgaris L. (Lamiaceae) as well as the two commercial synthetic insecticides, pymetrozin and neemarin. The whiteflies were exposed to each insecticide using leaf-dip method. Analysis of life table parameters revealed significant differences () in the net reproductive rate (, NRR), intrinsic rate of increase (), and finite rate of increase () among different insecticides. The lowest values of the three population parameters, , , and , were observed on whiteflies treated with pymetrozin (2.455, 0.036, and 1.036), T. polium (2.828, 0.044, and 1.045), and neemarin (2.998, 0.046, and 1.047), respectively. Results of this study highlights the satisfactory insecticidal effects of the extract taken from T. polium on B. tabaci, which is comparable to the two commonly used synthetic insecticides. Fatemeh Jafarbeigi, Mohammad Amin Samih, Mehdi Zarabi, and Saeideh Esmaeily Copyright © 2014 Fatemeh Jafarbeigi et al. All rights reserved. A New Species of Dikrella Oman, 1949 (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae: Typhlocybinae) Found on Caryocar brasiliense Cambess. (Caryocaraceae) in Minas Gerais State, Brazil Wed, 09 Apr 2014 09:09:33 +0000 A new species of Dikrella is described and figured based on specimens from Minas Gerais, Southeastern Brazil. The new species is diagnosed by the process of pygofer and the general form of aedeagus. Adult males, females, and also nymphs were found on pequi tree, suggesting that Dikrella caryocar n. sp. has its full life cycle in this plant. Luci Boa Nova Coelho, Germano Leão Demolin Leite, and Elidiomar Ribeiro Da-Silva Copyright © 2014 Luci Boa Nova Coelho et al. All rights reserved. Prospects for the Use of Pongamia pinnata Oil-Based Products against the Green Peach Aphid Myzus persicae (Sulzer) (Hemiptera: Aphididae) Mon, 07 Apr 2014 13:39:26 +0000 This study is devoted to an estimation of the action of preparations based on Pongamia pinnata oil on the life cycle (survival, fecundity) of green peach aphid Myzus persicae (Sulzer) (Hemiptera: Aphididae). The M. persicae is a widespread pest and damages more than 100 species of plants. All test formulations had aphicidal activity for M. persicae adults and larvae. Moreover, they possess prolonged action, exerting a negative influence on the offspring. The preparations differed in speed of onset of mortality. The single treatment with these formulations provides significant reduction in the number of aphids during the observation period, because of the efficiency rising in time. Elena A. Stepanycheva, Maria O. Petrova, Taisiya D. Chermenskaya, and Roman Pavela Copyright © 2014 Elena A. Stepanycheva et al. All rights reserved. Preemptive Circular Defence of Immature Insects: Definition and Occurrences of Cycloalexy Revisited Mon, 24 Mar 2014 14:01:16 +0000 Cycloalexy was coined by Vasconcellos-Neto and Jolivet in 1988 and further defined by Jolivet and collaborators in 1990 in reference to a specific type of circular defence. The term has been applied to numerous organisms, including adult insects, nymphs, and even vertebrates, but has lost precision with the accumulation of anecdotal reports not addressing key elements of the behaviour as first defined. We review the literature and propose three criteria that are sufficient and necessary to define the behaviour: (1) individuals form a circle; (2) defensive attributes of the individuals are positioned on the periphery of the circle, and as a result, the periphery of the circle uniformly contains either heads or abdomens; (3) animals preemptively adopt the circle as a resting formation, meaning it is not necessary to observe predation. When these considerations are taken into account, cycloalexy appears less common in nature than the literature suggests. We argue that unequivocal cases of cycloalexy have been found only in sawflies (Tenthredinoidea: Pergidae, Argidae), leaf beetles (Chrysolemidae: Galerucinae, Cassidinae, Chrysomelinae, Criocerinae), weevils (Curculionidae: Phelypera distigma), and midges (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae, Forcipomyia). Reports of cycloalexy in caterpillars (Saturniidae: Hemileucinae: Lonomia, Papilionidae) require further documentation. We report one new case of cycloalexy in thrips (Thysanoptera) and question reports of cycloalexic behaviour in other taxa. Guillaume J. Dury, Jacqueline C. Bede, and Donald M. Windsor Copyright © 2014 Guillaume J. Dury et al. All rights reserved. Efficacy of Neem Oil on Cardamom Thrips, Sciothrips cardamomi Ramk., and Organoleptic Studies Thu, 13 Mar 2014 08:41:35 +0000 The neem tree contains promising pest control substances which are effective against many pests. Oil extracted from neem seeds was used against cardamom thrips, Sciothrips cardamomi, a severe and economic pest of cardamom. Neem oil formulations, namely, Tamil Nadu Agricultural univeristy neem oil (TNAU NO) (acetic acid & citric acid), were found effective against the pest with a overall damage reduction of 30% after 14 days of treatment. The percent damage reduction in capsules over control after three consecutive sprays of TNAU NO(C) 2% and TNAU NO(A) 2% was 78.3 and 75.2 percent, respectively. The newly extracted and unformulated neem oil, though found inferior to the formulated one, still found to cause 50% and 70% reduction in damage caused by thrips at two and three rounds of sprays, making it useful in pest management. Organoleptic tests conducted on cardamom capsules sprayed with neem oil revealed no significant difference in taste, aroma, and overall acceptability of cow milk boiled with cardamom. Thus, TNAU NO (A and C) 2% was found effective against cardamom thrips with no adverse organoleptic properties and can be recommended. Johnson Stanley, G. Preetha, S. Chandrasekaran, K. Gunasekaran, and S. Kuttalam Copyright © 2014 Johnson Stanley et al. All rights reserved. Volatile Organic Compounds from the Clone Populus x canadensis “Conti” Associated with Megaplatypus mutatus Attack Thu, 06 Mar 2014 11:42:41 +0000 Megaplatypus mutatus (Chapuis) (Coleoptera, Platypodidae) is an ambrosia beetle native to South America. It builds internal galleries that weaken the tree trunks, causing them severe stem breakage and mortality in commercial poplar plantations. The host selection by male M. mutatus has previously been correlated with the increasing diameter. This work explores the possibility that differential susceptibility of individual plants to M. mutatus could be associated with volatiles emitted. The comparison of the VOCs profiles of attacked and nonattacked P. x canadensis “Conti” 12 during M. mutatus flying season showed both qualitative and quantitative differences. The attacked plants, but not the nonattacked ones, showed the following compounds: a long chain aldehyde, α-ylangene, δ-cadinene, α-gurjunene, and β-cubebene; on the other side, β-sesquiphellandrene and β-chamigrene were detected only in nonattacked plants. α-Copaene is a common component of all the samples analyzed, but its proportion is increased in attacked individuals. Behavioral bioassays showed that males but not females M. mutatus are attracted to α-copaene. The relative increase of α-copaene in attacked individuals and the positive behavioral answer of males to it suggest that this compound could play a role in the orientation of the pioneer male towards the most suitable host. Alejandro Lucia, Paola González-Audino, and Héctor Masuh Copyright © 2014 Alejandro Lucia et al. All rights reserved. Inflorescences of the Bromeliad Vriesea friburgensis as Nest Sites and Food Resources for Ants and Other Arthropods in Brazil Sun, 02 Mar 2014 12:52:24 +0000 For the first time, the usage of bromeliad inflorescences as nesting sites for ants and other arthropods was studied. Frequencies of occurrence of nests were recorded from hollow stems of dried infructescences of the bromeliad Vriesea friburgensis on Santa Catarina Island, southern Brazil. Three habitat types were studied: miconietum and two types of restinga, one with low (restinga-low) and one with high vegetation cover (restinga-high). Additionally, flower visitation by ants was examined in restinga-low. Out of 619 infructescences, 33% contained nests. Ants were the most frequent occupants (82–96% of nests), followed by termites (3–18%) and bees (0–0.6%). Species accumulation curves and diversity indices indicate that the diversity of stem-occupying ant species is highest in restinga-low (eight species observed, 18 predicted) and lowest in restinga-high (four observed and predicted). Highest similarity of compositions of infructescence-inhabiting ant species was recorded between miconietum and restinga-high, lowest between restinga-low and restinga-high. Similarity between compositions of inflorescence-visiting and infructescence-inhabiting species in restinga-low was even higher (compared with the cases described in the previous sentence) although 50% of the involved species were present in only one of the samples. Altogether, our results indicate that inflorescences are important resources for ants and other nest-building insects from flowering season to past-fruiting season. Volker S. Schmid, Simone Langner, Josefina Steiner, and Anne Zillikens Copyright © 2014 Volker S. Schmid et al. All rights reserved. An Ultrastructural and Fluorescent Study of the Teratocytes of Microctonus aethiopoides Loan (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) from the Hemocoel of Host Alfalfa Weevil, Hypera postica (Gyllenhal) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) Tue, 04 Feb 2014 13:11:30 +0000 The braconid wasp Microctonus aethiopoides Loan is an idiobiont endoparasitoid of alfalfa weevil adults Hypera postica (Gyllenhal). After oviposition and subsequent egg maturation, large trophic cells called teratocytes dissociate from the serosa and are released into the host hemocoel. These teratocytes are present in large numbers and are visible to the naked eye. It is thought that they accumulate host hemocoelic metabolites for later consumption by the parasitoid larvae. We have undertaken a microscopic study of these gargantuan and complex cells at approximately seven months after parasitization. Parasitized adult weevils were dissected into medium and teratocytes were fixed, embedded, and sectioned at 1 μm. Teratocytes were stained with various specific fluorescent dyes for plasma membrane, Golgi, nuclei, lysosomes, mitochondria, and endoplasmic reticulum (ER). The surface of each cell is covered with a dense microvillar layer. Analysis of fluorescent images showed that these cells do not have condensed nuclei. ER was abundant around the nuclear envelope. Lysosomes were positioned around the periphery of the nucleus and the Golgi apparatus was significantly enlarged, being located around the nuclear envelope. Kent S. Shelby, Javad Habibi, and Benjamin Puttler Copyright © 2014 Kent S. Shelby et al. All rights reserved. Notes on the Biology of the Cixiid Planthopper Cixius meridionalis (Hemiptera: Fulgoroidea) Mon, 03 Feb 2014 12:03:53 +0000 With the exception of a handful of economically important species, the biology of cixiid planthoppers (Hemiptera: Fulgoroidea: Cixiidae) is poorly known. The host plants and life history of Cixius meridionalis Beirne were investigated in a wetland in Soldotna, Alaska. Specimens were collected over the course of the growing season by hand, aspirator, Berlese funnel, and sweep net. A handful of live nymphs were placed in a terrarium containing potential host plants for direct observation of feeding. C. meridionalis was found to feed on roots of Picea mariana (Mill.) Britton, Sterns & Poggenb, Empetrum nigrum L., Chamaedaphne calyculata (L.) Moench, and Vaccinium vitis-idaea L. At least within the study area, C. meridionalis appears to require multiple years to reach adulthood, with overwintering in nymphal instars. C. meridionalis was occasionally tended by Myrmica alaskensis Wheeler. M. L. Bowser Copyright © 2014 M. L. Bowser. All rights reserved. Diversity and Composition of Beetles (Order: Coleoptera) of Durgapur, West Bengal, India Thu, 30 Jan 2014 13:56:02 +0000 A survey of beetle faunal diversity and composition was studied in Durgapur Municipal Corporation, Durgapur, West Bengal, from January to December 2012. Beetles were collected using standard trapping methods from three different sites selected on the basis of their specific habitat differences, identified up to the level of family, and counted monthly. A total of 9 families were reported from the study site. The second site, that is, Site B, showed the highest diversity. It is also noted that the highest diversity was found during monsoon in all the three sites. Moitreyee Banerjee Copyright © 2014 Moitreyee Banerjee. All rights reserved. The Effect of Conspecific Density on Emergence of Lestes bipupillatus Calvert, 1909 (Odonata: Lestidae) Thu, 30 Jan 2014 09:09:28 +0000 Conspecific density may influence adult recruitment and consequently population dynamics. Several studies have shown the density dependence of larvae growth rates in Odonata. However, few studies studied how conspecific density influence final instar larvae emergence date decisions. Considering that larvae may choose the date of emergence, the present study investigated if density affects larvae choice. For this, we reared eight final instar larvae in individual aquaria and other 24 larvae in aquaria with three larvae each. This way, we simulated environments with low and high larval densities. We then noted the days that larvae took to emerge and compared it between low and high density groups. The results showed that larvae seem to emerge earlier when in high densities (Mann-Whitney, , ). These results support the hypothesis that damselfly last instar larvae may postpone or hasten emergence in response to the social environment and related constraints. Ricardo Cardoso-Leite, Gabriel C. Vilardi, Rhainer Guillermo-Ferreira, and Pitágoras C. Bispo Copyright © 2014 Ricardo Cardoso-Leite et al. All rights reserved. Retracted: Climatic, Regional Land-Use Intensity, Landscape, and Local Variables Predicting Best the Occurrence and Distribution of Bee Community Diversity in Various Farmland Habitats in Uganda Tue, 28 Jan 2014 11:13:34 +0000 Psyche Copyright © 2014 Psyche. All rights reserved. Sex-Pheromone-Mediated Mating Disruption Technology for the Oriental Fruit Moth, Grapholita molesta (Busck) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae): Overview and Prospects Wed, 22 Jan 2014 12:01:12 +0000 A great deal of progress has been made over the last three decades in research on pheromone-mediated mating disruption technology for the oriental fruit moth, Grapholita molesta (Busck). Pheromones can interrupt normal orientation, and the most likely mechanism of pheromone disruption, competitive-attraction (false-plume following), invokes competition between point sources of pheromone formulation and females for males. This technology, performed by broadcasting pheromones into orchards to disrupt mate finding, has been successfully implemented in oriental fruit moth control. Reservoir-style dispensers made of polyethylene tubes, which release pheromone throughout the full growing season, are the current industry standard. Although reasonably effective, they require labor-intensive hand application. Recently, a new formulation, paraffin wax, which maximizes competition between point sources of synthetic pheromone and feral females for males, was shown to have high disruption performance. As this formulation is highly effective, inexpensive, and easy to produce, further study and development are advisable. Increased understanding of the principles of mating disruption will aid in the design of more effective dispensers. Continued research is needed to meet grower concerns with regard to risk, efficacy, and cost and to identify other semiochemicals that can be applied to this delivery system. Greater knowledge of the integration of different biological control methods is therefore essential. Wei N. Kong, J. Li, Ren J. Fan, Sheng C. Li, and Rui Y. Ma Copyright © 2014 Wei N. Kong et al. All rights reserved. Ovicidal Activity of Couroupita guianensis (Aubl.) against Spodoptera litura (Fab.) Mon, 20 Jan 2014 09:30:39 +0000 Hexane, chloroform, and ethyl acetate extracts of Couroupita guianensis leaves were studied for ovicidal activity against S. litura. All the extracts showed ovicidal activity against S. litura. Maximum activity was noticed in hexane extract and it showed the least LC50 and LC90 values; the regression equation was also higher than the other extracts. All the analyzed values showed homogeneity variance. The active hexane extract was fractionated and eight fractions were isolated. The fractions were studied at different concentrations. Among the fractions, fraction 8 showed maximum ovicidal activity with least LC50 and LC90 values. Fraction 8 differed statistically from the other fractions; the regression equation value was higher than the other fractions. All the P values obtained from regression analysis were significant. The results of the present investigation clearly suggest that the active fraction could be purified to isolate active compound(s) and could be used to develop an insecticidal formulation to control economically important agricultural pests. Kathirvelu Baskar, Chelliah Muthu, and Savarimuthu Ignacimuthu Copyright © 2014 Kathirvelu Baskar et al. All rights reserved. A Modular Cage System Design for Continuous Medium to Large Scale In Vivo Rearing of Predatory Mites (Acari: Phytoseiidae) Thu, 09 Jan 2014 11:00:54 +0000 A new stackable modular system was developed for continuous in vivo production of phytoseiid mites. The system consists of cage units that are filled with lima beans,  Phaseolus lunatus, or red beans, P. vulgaris, leaves infested with high levels of the two-spotted spider mites, Tetranychus urticae. The cage units connect with each other through a connection cup, which also serves for monitoring and collection. Predatory mites migrate upwards to new cage units as prey is depleted. The system was evaluated for production of Phytoseiulus persimilis. During a 6-month experimental period, (mean ± standard deviation) predators were produced per week. The production consisted of % nymphs and % adults. A mean of predatory mites were collected per harvested cage and the mean interval length between harvests was days. The potential for commercial and experimental applications is discussed. Juan Alfredo Morales-Ramos and Maria Guadalupe Rojas Copyright © 2014 Juan Alfredo Morales-Ramos and Maria Guadalupe Rojas. All rights reserved. Does Experience Affect the Outcome of Male-Male Contests in the Burying Beetle, Nicrophorus quadripunctatus? Thu, 28 Nov 2013 18:35:24 +0000 The bigger individual in a fight usually wins unless the smaller individual is a resident or has recently won a fight. I conducted three experiments on the effects of body size, residency, and fight history on the outcome of male-male fights in a burying beetle. Fights were staged between an intruding male and the male of a male-female pair. When males differed in size, the larger male usually won regardless of residency or individual fight histories. Residents and winners of previous fights won only when competing males were similar in size. Hence, male body size largely determines the outcomes of fights in this beetle. Seizi Suzuki Copyright © 2013 Seizi Suzuki. All rights reserved.