About this Journal Submit a Manuscript Table of Contents
Psychiatry Journal
Volume 2013 (2013), Article ID 849346, 6 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2013/849346
Clinical Study

Association between Neurocognitive Impairment and the Short Allele of the 5-HTT Promoter Polymorphism in Depression: A Pilot Study

1Institute of Behavioural Sciences, University of Helsinki, P.O. Box 9, 00014 University of Helsinki, Finland
2Department of Pharmacology, Drug Development and Therapeutics, University of Turku, 20014 Turku, Finland
3Department of Psychiatry, Helsinki University Central Hospital, P.O. Box 590, 00029 HUS, Finland
4Department of Psychiatry, University of Helsinki, P.O. Box 22, 00014 University of Helsinki, Finland

Received 19 September 2012; Revised 20 November 2012; Accepted 20 November 2012

Academic Editor: José F. Navarro

Copyright © 2013 Hely Kalska et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Linked References

  1. H. O. F. Veiel, “A preliminary profile of neuropsychological deficits associated with major depression,” Journal of Clinical and Experimental Neuropsychology, vol. 19, no. 4, pp. 587–603, 1997. View at Scopus
  2. R. J. Porter, P. Gallagher, J. M. Thompson, and A. H. Young, “Neurocognitive impairment in drug-free patients with major depressive disorder,” British Journal of Psychiatry, vol. 182, pp. 214–220, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  3. K. B. Boone, I. M. Lesser, B. L. Miller et al., “Cognitive functioning in older depressed outpatients: relationship of presence and severity of depression to neuropsychological test scores,” Neuropsychology, vol. 9, no. 3, pp. 390–398, 1995. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  4. R. Purcell, P. Maruff, M. Kyrios, and C. Pantelis, “Neuropsychological function in young patients with unipolar major depression,” Psychological Medicine, vol. 27, no. 6, pp. 1277–1285, 1997. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  5. M. P. Austin, P. Mitchell, and G. M. Goodwin, “Cognitive deficits in depression: possible implications for functional neuropathology,” British Journal of Psychiatry, vol. 178, pp. 200–206, 2001. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  6. R. Elliott, “The neuropsychological profile in unipolar depression,” Trends in Cognitive Sciences, vol. 2, no. 11, pp. 447–484, 1998. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  7. A. R. Hariri and A. Holmes, “Genetics of emotional regulation: the role of the serotonin transporter in neural function,” Trends in Cognitive Sciences, vol. 10, no. 4, pp. 182–191, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  8. K.-P. Lesch, D. Bengel, A. Heils et al., “Association of anxiety-related traits with a polymorphism in the serotonin transporter gene regulatory region,” Science, vol. 274, no. 5292, pp. 1527–1531, 1996. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  9. A. Caspi, K. Sugden, T. E. Moffitt et al., “Influence of life stress on depression: moderation by a polymorphism in the 5-HTT gene,” Science, vol. 301, no. 5631, pp. 386–389, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  10. K. Karg, M. Burmeister, K. Shedden, and S. Sen, “The serotonin transporter promoter variant (5-HTTLPR), stress, and depression meta-analysis revisited: evidence of genetic moderation,” Archives of General Psychiatry, vol. 68, no. 5, pp. 444–454, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  11. T. Canli and K. P. Lesch, “Long story short: the serotonin transporter in emotion regulation and social cognition,” Nature Neuroscience, vol. 10, no. 9, pp. 1103–1109, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  12. M. C. Eker, O. Kitis, H. Okur et al., “Smaller hippocampus volume is associated with short variant of 5-HTTLPR polymorphism in medication-free major depressive disorder patients,” Neuropsychobiology, vol. 63, no. 1, pp. 22–28, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  13. A. S. R. Sierksma, D. L. A. van den Hove, H. W. M. Steinbusch, and J. Prickaerts, “Major depression, cognitive dysfunction and Alzheimer's disease: is there a link?” European Journal of Pharmacology, vol. 626, no. 1, pp. 72–82, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  14. J. Borg, S. Henningsson, T. Saijo et al., “Serotonin transporter genotype is associated with cognitive performance but not regional 5-HT1A receptor binding in humans,” International Journal of Neuropsychopharmacology, vol. 12, no. 6, pp. 783–792, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  15. D. E. Anderson, T. A. Bell, and E. Awh, “Polymorphisms in the 5-HTTLPR gene mediate storage capacity of visual working memory,” Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience, vol. 24, no. 5, pp. 1–8, 2012.
  16. M. Hamilton, “A rating scale for depression,” Journal of neurology, neurosurgery, and psychiatry, vol. 23, pp. 56–62, 1960. View at Scopus
  17. M. B. First, M. Gibbon, R. C. Spitzer, J. B. W. Williams, and L. S. Benjamin, Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV, Clinician Version (SCID-CV), American Psychiatric Press, Washington, DC, USA, 1997.
  18. M. B. First, M. Gibbon, R. C. Spitzer, J. B. W. Williams, and L. S. Benjamin, Structured Clinical Interview For DSM-IV Axis-II—Personality Disorders (SCID-II), American Psychiatric Press, Washington, DC, USA, 1997.
  19. A. T. Beck, R. Steer, and G. K. Brown, The Beck Depression Inventory-II Manual, Psychological Corporation, San Antonio, Tex, USA, 1996.
  20. A. T. Beck, A. Weissman, D. Lester, and L. Trexler, “The measurement of pessimism: the hopelessness scale,” Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, vol. 42, no. 6, pp. 861–865, 1974. View at Scopus
  21. A. T. Beck, N. Epstein, G. Brown, and R. A. Steer, “An inventory for measuring clinical anxiety: psychometric properties,” Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, vol. 56, no. 6, pp. 893–897, 1988. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  22. M. Lezak, D. B. Howieson, and D. W. Loring, Neuropsychological Assessment, Oxford University Press, New York, NY, USA, 2004.
  23. D. Wechsler, Manual for the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale—Revised, The Psychological Corporation, Cleveland, Ohio, USA, 1981.
  24. D. Wechsler, Manual For the Wechsler Memory Scale—Revised, The Psychological Corporation, San Antonio, Tex, USA, 1987.
  25. D. Wechsler, The Wechsler Memory Scale-III Manual, The Psychological Corporation, San Antonio, Tex, USA, 1997.
  26. R. M. Reitan and D. Wolfson, The Halsted-Reitan Neuropsychological Test Battery: Theory and Clinical Interpretation, Neuropsychology Press, Tucson, Ariz, USA, 1993.
  27. M. J. Anderson, “A new method for non-parametric multivariate analysis of variance,” Austral Ecology, vol. 26, no. 1, pp. 32–46, 2001. View at Scopus
  28. B. H. McArdle and M. J. Anderson, “Fitting multivariate models to community data: a comment on distance-based redundancy analysis,” Ecology, vol. 82, no. 1, pp. 290–297, 2001. View at Scopus
  29. B. F. J. Manly, Randomization, Bootstrap, and Monte Carlo Methods in Biology, Chapman & Hall, London, UK, 3rd edition, 2007.
  30. R. Development Core Team, “R: a language and environment for statistical computing,” R Foundation for Statistical Computing, Vienna, Austria, 2009, http://www.r-project.org/.
  31. J. Oksanen, F. Guillaume, R. Kindt, et al., “Vegan: community ecology package,” R package version 1. 17-2, 2010, http://CRAN.R-project.org/package=vegan/.
  32. A. C. Cameron and P. K. Trivedi, Regression Analysis of Count Data, Cambridge Press, New York,NY, USA, 1998.
  33. S. Marini, S. Bagnoli, V. Bessi et al., “Implication of serotonin-transporter (5-HTT) gene polymorphism in subjective memory complaints and mild cognitive impairment (MCI),” Archives of Gerontology and Geriatrics, vol. 52, no. 2, pp. e71–e74, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  34. R. O’Hara, J. Thompson, J. Flournoy, J. Hallmayer, and C. Depp, “HTTLPR Short allele, resilience, and successful aging in older adults,” American Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry, vol. 20, pp. 452–456, 2012.
  35. X. Hu, G. Oroszi, J. Chun, T. L. Smith, D. Goldman, and M. A. Schuckit, “An expanded evaluation of the relationship of four alleles to the level of response to alcohol and the alcoholism risk,” Alcoholism: Clinical and Experimental Research, vol. 29, no. 1, pp. 8–16, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  36. T. Frodl, P. Zill, T. Baghai et al., “Reduced hippocampal volumes associated with the long variant of the tri- and diallelic serotonin transporter polymorphism in major depression,” American Journal of Medical Genetics, Part B, vol. 147, no. 7, pp. 1003–1007, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  37. H. J. Cho, I. Meira-Lima, Q. Cordeiro et al., “Population-based and family-based studies on the serotonin transporter gene polymorphisms and bipolar disorder: a systematic review and meta-analysis,” Molecular Psychiatry, vol. 10, no. 8, pp. 771–781, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  38. K. S. Kendler, C. O. Gardner, M. C. Neale, and C. A. Prescott, “Genetic risk factors for major depression in men and women: similar or different heritabilities and same or partly distinct genes?” Psychological Medicine, vol. 31, no. 4, pp. 617–625, 2001.
  39. A. R. Hariri, E. M. Drabant, K. E. Munoz et al., “A susceptibility gene for affective disorders and the response of the human amygdala,” Archives of General Psychiatry, vol. 62, no. 2, pp. 146–152, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  40. T. E. Goldberg and D. R. Weinberger, “Genes and the parsing of cognitive processes,” Trends in Cognitive Sciences, vol. 8, no. 7, pp. 325–336, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus