Psychiatry Journal The latest articles from Hindawi Publishing Corporation © 2015 , Hindawi Publishing Corporation . All rights reserved. The Potential Utility of Pharmacogenetic Testing in Psychiatry Wed, 17 Dec 2014 12:31:40 +0000 Over the last decade, pharmacogenetics has become increasingly significant to clinical practice. Psychiatric patients, in particular, may benefit from pharmacogenetic testing as many of the psychotropic medications prescribed in practice lead to varied response rates and a wide range of side effects. The use of pharmacogenetic testing can help tailor psychotropic treatment and inform personalized treatment plans with the highest likelihood of success. Recently, many studies have been published demonstrating improved patient outcomes and decreased healthcare costs for psychiatric patients who utilize genetic testing. This review will describe evidence supporting the clinical utility of genetic testing in psychiatry, present several case studies to demonstrate use in everyday practice, and explore current patient and clinician opinions of genetic testing. Kathryn R. Gardner, Francis X. Brennan, Rachel Scott, and Jay Lombard Copyright © 2014 Kathryn R. Gardner et al. All rights reserved. Sex Differences and Menstrual Cycle Phase-Dependent Modulation of Craving for Cigarette: An fMRI Pilot Study Thu, 13 Nov 2014 08:43:11 +0000 While overall more men than women smoke cigarettes, women and girls take less time to become dependent after initial use and have more difficulties quitting the habit. One of the factors contributing to these differences may be that women crave cigarettes more than men and that their desire to smoke is influenced by hormonal fluctuations across the menstrual cycle. Therefore, the purpose of the present study was twofold: (a) to examine potential sex/gender differences in functional neuroanatomy of craving and to (b) delineate neural correlates of cigarette cravings in women across their menstrual cycle. Fifteen tobacco-smoking men and 19 women underwent a functional MRI during presentation of neutral and smoking-related images, known to elicit craving. Women were tested twice: once during early follicular phase and once during midluteal phase of their menstrual cycle. The analysis did not reveal any significant sex differences in the cerebral activations associated with craving. Nevertheless, the pattern of activations in women varied across their menstrual cycle with significant activations in parts of the frontal, temporal, and parietal lobe, during follicular phase, and only limited activations in the right hippocampus during the luteal phase. Adrianna Mendrek, Laurence Dinh-Williams, Josiane Bourque, and Stéphane Potvin Copyright © 2014 Adrianna Mendrek et al. All rights reserved. Sense of Coherence and Personality Traits Related to Depressive State Thu, 09 Oct 2014 13:36:24 +0000 Aims. The current study aims to examine the influence of job stress, SOC, and personality traits on depressive state. Methods. A self-reported survey was conducted among 347 female nurses in a general hospital. Job stress was measured using the Japanese version of the Brief-Job Stress Questionnaire scale. Depressive state was assessed by the K6 scale. We used 13-item SOC scale. Personality traits were assessed by the Japanese version of Ten-Item Personality Inventory. Multiple liner regression analyses were conducted to examine predictors that significantly affect depressive state. Results. Job and life satisfaction and SOC negatively related to the depressive state (, ; , , resp.) while neuroticism was positively correlated (, ). Also, intrinsic rewards tended to negatively relate (, ). Conclusions. From a practical perspective, the possible influence of SOC and neurotic personality on depressive state should be considered for health care professionals. Yoko Kikuchi, Makoto Nakaya, Miki Ikeda, Shoko Okuzumi, Mihoko Takeda, and Miyoko Nishi Copyright © 2014 Yoko Kikuchi et al. All rights reserved. Psychiatric Axis I Comorbidities among Patients with Gender Dysphoria Mon, 11 Aug 2014 00:00:00 +0000 Objectives. Cooccurring psychiatric disorders influence the outcome and prognosis of gender dysphoria. The aim of this study is to assess psychiatric comorbidities in a group of patients. Methods. Eighty-three patients requesting sex reassignment surgery (SRS) were recruited and assessed through the Persian Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV Axis I disorders (SCID-I). Results. Fifty-seven (62.7%) patients had at least one psychiatric comorbidity. Major depressive disorder (33.7%), specific phobia (20.5%), and adjustment disorder (15.7%) were the three most prevalent disorders. Conclusion. Consistent with most earlier researches, the majority of patients with gender dysphoria had psychiatric Axis I comorbidity. Azadeh Mazaheri Meybodi, Ahmad Hajebi, and Atefeh Ghanbari Jolfaei Copyright © 2014 Azadeh Mazaheri Meybodi et al. All rights reserved. Perceived Stigma and Associated Factors among People with Schizophrenia at Amanuel Mental Specialized Hospital, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia: A Cross-Sectional Institution Based Study Wed, 21 May 2014 09:33:27 +0000 Background. While effective treatments are available for people with schizophrenia, presence of perceived stigma prevents them from accessing and receiving the help they need to get. Objectives. To assess the prevalence and associated factors of perceived stigma among people with schizophrenia attending the Outpatient Department of Amanuel Mental Specialized Hospital, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. Methods. Institution based cross-sectional study design was conducted among 411 subjects using an Amharic version of the perceived devaluation and discrimination scale. Single population proportion formula was used to calculate sample size. Subjects were selected by systematic sampling techniques. Binary logistic regression and odds ratio with 95% confidence interval were used to identify the association factors of outcome variables. Results. A total of 411 subjects participated in the study giving a response rate of 97.4%. The prevalence of perceived stigma was found to be 83.5%. Education status (not able to read and write) (, 95% CI: 1.118, 6.227), difficulties of adherence to antipsychotic drug (, 95% CI: 2.309, 8.732), and duration of illness less than one year (, 95% CI: 2.238, 5.422) were factors associated with perceived stigma. Conclusion. Overall, the prevalence of perceived stigma was found to be high. Education status (not able to read and write), difficulties of adherence to antipsychotic medication, and duration of illness were factors associated with perceived stigma. Adherence to antipsychotic medication particularly during the early stage of the illness and strengthening the educational status of the participants were suggested in the clinical care setting. Berhanu Boru Bifftu and Berihun Assefa Dachew Copyright © 2014 Berhanu Boru Bifftu and Berihun Assefa Dachew. All rights reserved. Unipolar Mania: Recent Updates and Review of the Literature Wed, 30 Apr 2014 00:00:00 +0000 Introduction. Unipolar mania (UM) has received less than the expected attention, when compared to its contemporary mood disorders, unipolar depression (UD) and bipolar disorder (BD). Method. The literature search included PUBMED and PSYCINFO databases. Cross-searches of key references were made to identify other articles of importance. Results. There seems to be a bipolar subgroup with a stable, unipolar recurrent manic course. Although UM does not have significant differences from bipolar mania in terms of sociodemographic variables, there are certain significant differences in clinical features. UM is reported to have more grandiosity, psychotic symptoms, and premorbid hyperthymic temperament, but less rapid cycling, suicidality, seasonality, and comorbid anxiety disorders. It seems to have a better course of illness with better social and professional adjustment. However, its response to lithium prophylaxis is found to be poor as compared to classical BD and valproate could be a better choice in this case. Conclusion. The available literature suggests that UM has certain differences from classical BD. The evidence, however, is insufficient to categorize it as separate diagnostic entity. However, considering UM as a course specifier of BD would be a reasonable step. Shubham Mehta Copyright © 2014 Shubham Mehta. All rights reserved. Road Rage: Prevalence Pattern and Web Based Survey Feasibility Wed, 23 Apr 2014 09:00:23 +0000 Introduction. Incidents of road rage are on a rise in India, but the literature is lacking in the aspect. There is an increasing realization of possibility of effective web based interventions to deliver public health related messages. Objective. The aim was to quantitatively evaluate risk factors among motor vehicle drivers using an internet based survey. Methods. Facebook users were evaluated using Life Orientation Test-Revised (LOT-R) and Driving Anger Scale (DAS). Results. An adequate response rate of 65.9% and satisfactory reliability with sizable correlation were obtained for both scales. Age was found to be positively correlated to LOT-R scores (; ) and negatively correlated to DAS scores (; ). Years of education were correlated to LOT-R scores (; ) but not DAS scores (; ). LOT-R scores did not correlate to DAS scores. Conclusion. There is high prevalence of anger amongst drivers in India particularly among younger males. A short web survey formatted in easy to use question language can result in a feasible conduction of an online survey. Shaily Mina, Rohit Verma, Yatan Pal Singh Balhara, and Shiraz Ul-Hasan Copyright © 2014 Shaily Mina et al. All rights reserved. Where Lies the Risk? An Ecological Approach to Understanding Child Mental Health Risk and Vulnerabilities in Sub-Saharan Africa Wed, 16 Apr 2014 07:01:59 +0000 Efforts at improving child-health and development initiatives in sub-Saharan Africa had focused on the physical health of children due to the neglect of child and adolescent mental health (CAMH) policy initiatives. A thorough and broad-based understanding of the prevalent child mental-health risk and vulnerability factors is needed to successfully articulate CAMH policies. In this discourse, we present a narrative on the child mental-health risk and vulnerability factors in sub-Saharan Africa. Through an ecological point of view, we identified widespread family poverty, poor availability and uptake of childcare resources, inadequate community and institutional childcare systems, and inadequate framework for social protection for vulnerable children as among the risk and vulnerability factors for CAMH in the region. Others are poor workplace policy/practice that does not support work-family life balance, poor legislative framework for child protection, and some harmful traditional practices. We conclude that an ecological approach shows that child mental-health risks are diverse and cut across different layers of the care environment. The approach also provides a broad and holistic template from which appropriate CAMH policy direction in sub-Saharan Africa can be understood. Olayinka Atilola Copyright © 2014 Olayinka Atilola. All rights reserved. Suicide Risk Assessment in Australian Emergency Departments: Assessing Clinicians’ Disposition Decisions Mon, 07 Apr 2014 06:40:23 +0000 Objective. To determine (1) the uniformity of disposition decisions made by clinicians working in Australian emergency departments (EDs) using vignettes describing patients presenting with deliberate self-harm or suicide risk; (2) factors associated with these decisions; (3) factors associated with confidence in these decisions. Methodology. We validated and distributed by email an online survey tool to Australian emergency clinicians via their colleges. Participants were presented with five vignettes and asked to rate the level of risk and protective factors for suicide, the patient’s disposition (admit/discharge/review), factors influencing this decision, their confidence in the decision, and factors that would have improved their confidence. Results. Percentages of participants choosing the modal disposition decision for each scenario ranged from 58.6% (136/232) to 92.4% (220/238), demonstrating uniformity in clinicians’ disposition decisions. Predictors of disposition were consistently level of risk factors perceived and, infrequently, clinician factors including age and years experience. Confidence in disposition decisions was high across scenarios. Clinicians reported patient, clinician, contextual and decision support factors relevant to an Australian emergency context affected their disposition decisions and confidence in decisions. Conclusion. Emergency clinicians are uniform and confident in their disposition decisions for patient vignettes where there is risk of suicide or self harm. T. J. Weiland, A. Cotter, G. A. Jelinek, and G. Phillips Copyright © 2014 T. J. Weiland et al. All rights reserved. Impact of Substance Use Disorder on Presentation and Short-Term Course of Schizophrenia Wed, 02 Apr 2014 09:13:30 +0000 The aim of the present study was to compare a cohort of schizophrenia patients with substance use disorder (SUD) with a similar cohort of schizophrenia patients without SUD with regard to sociodemographic variables, clinical variables, psychopathology, anxiety symptoms, depressive symptoms, treatment outcome, and side effect profile of drugs. A total of 143 consecutive inpatients with ICD-10 DCR diagnosis of schizophrenia were included after obtaining informed consent. Patients were evaluated by a semistructured data sheet and Maudsley Addiction Profile. They were then rated by Positive and Negative Symptoms Scale, Calgary Depression Scale, Hamilton Anxiety Rating Scale, and Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale at presentation, three weeks, and six weeks. At three weeks and six weeks, they were also evaluated by UKU Side Effect Rating Scale. Substance abuse was detected in 63.6% schizophrenia patients. Nicotine was the commonest substance followed by cannabis and alcohol. Substance users had longer untreated illness and more depressive symptoms at presentation and six-week follow-up. Dual diagnosis patients had difficulty in abstraction at three and six weeks but not at presentation. Schizophrenia patients with SUD had more depressive symptoms. SUD appeared to mask abstraction difficulties at presentation. Schizophrenia patients with SUD should be carefully assessed for presence of depression. Rudraprosad Chakraborty, Arunima Chatterjee, and Suprakash Chaudhury Copyright © 2014 Rudraprosad Chakraborty et al. All rights reserved. The Continuing Care Model of Substance Use Treatment: What Works, and When Is “Enough,” “Enough?” Thu, 27 Mar 2014 11:49:26 +0000 There is little disagreement in the substance use treatment literature regarding the conceptualization of substance dependence as a cyclic, chronic condition consisting of alternating episodes of treatment and subsequent relapse. Likewise, substance use treatment efforts are increasingly being contextualized within a similar disease management framework, much like that of other chronic medical conditions (diabetes, hypertension, etc.). As such, substance use treatment has generally been viewed as a process comprised of two phases. Theoretically, the incorporation of some form of lower intensity continuing care services delivered in the context of outpatient treatment after the primary treatment phase (e.g., residential) appears to be a likely requisite if all stakeholders aspire to successful long-term clinical outcomes. Thus, the overarching objective of any continuing care model should be to sustain treatment gains attained in the primary phase in an effort to ultimately prevent relapse. Given the extant treatment literature clearly supports the contention that treatment is superior to no treatment, and longer lengths of stay is associated with a variety of positive outcomes, the more prudent question appears to be not whether treatment works, but rather what are the specific programmatic elements (e.g., duration, intensity) that comprise an adequate continuing care model. Generally speaking, it appears that the duration of continuing care should extend for a minimum of 3 to 6 months. However, continuing care over a protracted period of up to 12 months appears to be essential if a reasonable expectation of robust recovery is desired. Limitations of prior work and implications for routine clinical practice are also discussed. Steven L. Proctor and Philip L. Herschman Copyright © 2014 Steven L. Proctor and Philip L. Herschman. All rights reserved. Brain Circulation during Panic Attack: A Transcranial Doppler Study with Clomipramine Challenge Sun, 16 Mar 2014 09:08:28 +0000 Introduction. Cerebral blood flow has been well studied in patients with panic disorder, but only few studies analyzed the mechanisms underlying the onset of a panic attack. The aim of the present study was to monitor the cerebral hemodynamics modifications during a panic attack. Materials and Methods. 10 panic disorder patients with recent onset, fully drug naïve, were compared to 13 patients with panic disorder with a previous history of treatment and to 14 controls. A continuous bilateral monitoring of mean flow velocities in right and left middle cerebral arteries was performed by transcranial Doppler. Clomipramine was chosen as challenge. Results. Eight out of 10 patients drug naïve and 6 control subjects out of 13 had a full blown panic attack during the test, whereas none of the patients with a history of treatment panicked. The occurrence of a panic attack was accompanied by a rapid decrease of flow velocities in both right and left middle cerebral arteries. Discussion. The bilateral acute decrease of mean flow velocity during a panic attack suggests the vasoconstriction of the microcirculation of deep brain structures perfused by middle cerebral arteries and involved in the so-called “fear circuitry,” thus suggesting that cerebral homeostatic dysfunctions seem to have a key role in the onset of a panic attack. Francesco Rotella, Marinella Marinoni, Francesca Lejeune, Fabiana Alari, Daniela Depinesi, Fiammetta Cosci, and Carlo Faravelli Copyright © 2014 Francesco Rotella et al. All rights reserved. Organizational Factors Influencing Implementation of Evidence-Based Practices for Integrated Treatment in Behavioral Health Agencies Mon, 03 Mar 2014 08:29:52 +0000 Objective. In recent years, New Mexico has prioritized integrated treatment for cooccurring mental health and substance use disorders within its public behavioral health system. This report describes factors likely to be important when implementing evidence-based practices (EBPs) in community agencies. Methods. Our mixed-method research design consisted of observations, semistructured interviews, and surveys undertaken with employees at 14 agencies at baseline and after 18 months. We developed four-agency typologies based on iterative coding and analysis of observations and interviews. We then examined survey data from employees at the four exemplar agencies to validate qualitative findings. Results. Financial resources and strong leadership impacted agency capacity to train providers and implement EBPs. Quantitative analysis of service provider survey responses from these agencies (N = 38) supported qualitative findings and demonstrated significant mean score differences in leadership, organizational climate, and attitudes toward EBPs in anticipated directions. Conclusion. The availability of strong leadership and financial resources were key components to initial implementation success in this study of community agencies in New Mexico. Reliance only on external funding poses risks for sustainment when demoralizing work climates precipitate employee turnover. Strong agency leadership does not always compensate for deficient financial resources in vulnerable communities. Caroline A. Bonham, David Sommerfeld, Cathleen Willging, and Gregory A. Aarons Copyright © 2014 Caroline A. Bonham et al. All rights reserved. Disability and Comorbidity: Diagnoses and Symptoms Associated with Disability in a Clinical Population with Panic Disorder Sun, 02 Mar 2014 07:56:27 +0000 Background. Anxiety disorders are associated with considerable disability in the domains of (1) work, (2) social, and (3) family and home interactions. Psychiatric comorbidity is also known to be associated with disability. Methods. Data from the Cross-National Collaborative Panic Study was used to identify rates of comorbid diagnoses, anxiety and depression symptom ratings, and Sheehan disability scale ratings from a clinical sample of 1165 adults with panic disorder. Results. Comorbid diagnoses of agoraphobia, major depression, and social phobia were associated with disability across the three domains of work, social, and family and home interactions. The symptom of agoraphobic avoidance makes the largest contribution to disability but there is no single symptom cluster that entirely predicts impairment and disability. Limitations. The findings about the relative contributions that comorbid diagnoses make to disability only apply to a population with panic disorder. Conclusions. Although panic disorder is not generally considered to be among the serious and persistent mental illnesses, when it is comorbid with other diagnoses, it is associated with considerable impairment. In particular, the presence of agoraphobic avoidance should alert the clinician to the likelihood of important functional impairment. When measuring the functional impact of comorbid anxiety disorders, both the categorical and the dimensional approaches to diagnosis make valuable contributions. Caroline A. Bonham and Eberhard Uhlenhuth Copyright © 2014 Caroline A. Bonham and Eberhard Uhlenhuth. All rights reserved. Bipolar Disorder in Children Mon, 24 Feb 2014 06:04:15 +0000 Although bipolar disorder historically was thought to only occur rarely in children and adolescents, there has been a significant increase in children and adolescents who are receiving this diagnosis more recently (Carlson, 2005). Nonetheless, the applicability of the current bipolar disorder diagnostic criteria for children, particularly preschool children, remains unclear, even though much work has been focused on this area. As a result, more work needs to be done to further the understanding of bipolar symptoms in children. It is hoped that this paper can assist psychologists and other health service providers in gleaning a snapshot of the literature in this area so that they can gain an understanding of the diagnostic criteria and other behaviors that may be relevant and be informed about potential approaches for assessment and treatment with children who meet bipolar disorder criteria. First, the history of bipolar symptoms and current diagnostic criteria will be discussed. Next, assessment strategies that may prove helpful for identifying bipolar disorder will be discussed. Then, treatments that may have relevance to children and their families will be discussed. Finally, conclusions regarding work with children who may have a bipolar disorder diagnosis will be offered. Kimberly Renk, Rachel White, Brea-Anne Lauer, Meagan McSwiggan, Jayme Puff, and Amanda Lowell Copyright © 2014 Kimberly Renk et al. All rights reserved. First Rank Symptoms and Neurological Soft Signs in Schizophrenia Thu, 13 Feb 2014 12:20:55 +0000 The aim of the study was to compare the neurological soft signs (NSS) in schizophrenia patients with and without first rank symptoms (FRS), their first degree relatives (FDR), and normal controls. The study was conducted on 60 schizophrenia patients diagnosed according to ICD 10 DCR and categorized into groups with and without FRS using Schedules for Clinical Assessment in Neuropsychiatry, 30 FDRs of the study sample, and 30 normal controls matched for age, education, and handedness. All the subjects gave written informed consent. Scale for the Assessment of Positive Symptoms and Scale for the Assessment of Negative Symptoms were applied to have a comprehensive assessment of the symptoms. NSS were assessed using Extended Standard Neurological Assessment Instrument. The correlations between NSS and clinical symptoms were relatively modest but significant. There was a weak relation between NSS and positive symptom severity. The FDR of schizophrenia patients had significantly lower NSS scores than schizophrenia patients, but only FDR of schizophrenia patients without FRS had significantly higher scores than normal controls. Our results indicate that NSS are more prominent in schizophrenia patients with negative symptoms and support the theory of NSS being a trait marker of schizophrenia particularly in those without FRS. Mahesh Hembram, Jayati Simlai, Suprakash Chaudhury, and Parthasarathi Biswas Copyright © 2014 Mahesh Hembram et al. All rights reserved. The Dutch Social Interaction Anxiety Scale and the Social Phobia Scale: Reliability, Validity, and Clinical Utility Wed, 12 Feb 2014 13:26:05 +0000 The social interaction anxiety scale (SIAS) and the social phobia scale (SPS) assess anxiety in social interactions and fear of scrutiny by others. This study examines the psychometric properties of the Dutch versions of the SIAS and SPS using data from a large group of patients with social phobia and a community-based sample. Confirmatory factor analysis revealed that the SIAS is unidimensional, whereas the SPS is comprised of three subscales. The internal consistency of the scales and subscales was good. The concurrent and discriminant validity was supported and the scales were well able to discriminate between patients and community-based respondents. Cut-off values with excellent sensitivity and specificity are presented. Of all self-report measures included, the SPS was the most sensitive for treatment effects. Normative data are provided which can be used to assess whether clinically significant change has occurred in individual patients. Edwin de Beurs, Deirdre Tielen, and Lisa Wollmann Copyright © 2014 Edwin de Beurs et al. All rights reserved. Service Engagement: Psychopathology, Recovery Style and Treatments Wed, 12 Feb 2014 07:54:21 +0000 The aim of the present study is to evaluate how recovery style, a set of strategies used by patients to interact with services and therapists, and the severity of psychotic symptoms affect the quality/continuity of taking charge of each patient. 156 psychotic patients at different stages of illness were enrolled. Sociodemographic and clinical data were collected and integration/sealing-Over Scale, Recovery Style Questionnaire and Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale were administered. Patients were distinguished into four groups according to the type of treatment received: clinical package, hospital package, day-care package, and residential package. A positive correlation between the cost of psychiatric performance and psychopathological severity (measured with PANSS scores) was identified. No association emerged between ISOS/RSQ total scores and costs. The sanitary expenditure appears to be linked to positive psychotic symptoms while lower performances are given for the treatment of patients with predominant negative symptoms. Recovery style itself has not a direct influence on the quantity/quality of psychiatric services. Simone Vender, Nicola Poloni, Francesca Aletti, Cristiano Bonalumi, and Camilla Callegari Copyright © 2014 Simone Vender et al. All rights reserved. Adverse Effects of Risperidone in Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders in a Naturalistic Clinical Setting at Siriraj Hospital, Thailand Mon, 03 Feb 2014 13:42:37 +0000 A cross-sectional study was conducted to evaluate adverse effects associated with risperidone in 45 children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD), aged 2–15 years, who were treated at Siriraj Hospital, Thailand, between the years 2006 and 2007. Adverse effects were assessed by parent interview, using a semistructure questionnaire, and medical records review. The mean ± SD age of the children at starting risperidone was years. The mean ± SD of risperidone dose was  mg/day and the mean ± SD duration of treatment was months. Adverse effects were reported in 39 children (86.7%). Common adverse effects included increased appetite, somnolence, and rhinorrhea and most of the adverse effects were tolerable. Tardive dyskinesia or other serious adverse events were not found in this study. The child’s mean ± SD weight gain was  kg/year, which exceeded developmentally expected norms. The results from this study suggest that risperidone treatment in children with ASD is associated with frequent mild and tolerable adverse effects. However, excessive weight gain could be found to be a concerning adverse effect and weight monitoring is warranted when risperidone is being prescribed. Vitharon Boon-yasidhi, Pantipa Jearnarongrit, Patnaree Tulayapichitchock, and Jariya Tarugsa Copyright © 2014 Vitharon Boon-yasidhi et al. All rights reserved. Suicidal Ideation and Suicidal Behaviour in Delusional Disorder: A Clinical Overview Thu, 30 Jan 2014 07:15:26 +0000 Background. Most of the existing studies suggest that suicide is one of the leading causes of premature death in patients with chronic psychotic disorders. However, very few studies have specifically investigated suicidal behaviour in patients with delusional disorder. Thus, our objective was to review the literature regarding the percentage of lifetime ideation and suicidal behaviour in delusional disorder in order to provide suggestions for clinical practice. Methods. MEDLINE and PsycINFO were searched from January 1980 to September 2012 using the following keywords: delusional disorder, paranoia, suicidal ideation, and suicidal behaviour. Results. A total of 10 studies were identified and included in the review. The percentage of suicidal behaviour in delusional disorder was established between 8 and 21%, which is similar to schizophrenia. Suicidal ideation and suicide attempts were more frequent in patients showing persecutory and somatic delusions in the reviewed studies. Conclusions. To the best of our knowledge this is the first attempt to specifically review the suicide phenomenon in patients with delusional disorder. Interestingly, our results support the notion that percentages of both suicidal ideation and behaviour in delusional disorder are similar to patients with schizophrenia. Alexandre González-Rodríguez, Oriol Molina-Andreu, Víctor Navarro Odriozola, Cristóbal Gastó Ferrer, Rafael Penadés, and Rosa Catalán Copyright © 2014 Alexandre González-Rodríguez et al. All rights reserved. Improving Screening Cut-Off Scores for DSM-5 Adolescent Anxiety Disorder Symptom Dimensions with the Screen for Child Anxiety Related Emotional Disorders Wed, 29 Jan 2014 00:00:00 +0000 Presently most adolescent anxiety disorder screening instruments make their determination of running a high risk for an anxiety disorder on the basis of a cut-off score measured by a single screening which can lead to false positives. Therefore, the goal of this study is to examine whether a repeated administration of the SCARED screening instrument for DSM-5 anxiety disorder symptoms could help in the detection of true positives while also avoiding false positives. Participants were 923 early adolescents from the general community. The adolescents’ ages at the first annual screening ranged from 10 to 15 with an average of 12.5 years. In a prospective five-year longitudinal design, the adolescents completed the SCARED screening instrument for anxiety disorder symptoms on a yearly basis. To detect true positives and avoid false positives, the data were analyzed with Receiver Operating Characteristics (ROC) cut-off score analyses. ROC cut-off score analyses revealed that the sensitivity and specificity of high risk were greatly improved for repeated screenings above those of a single screening. The findings of this study demonstrate that a screening instrument (such as the SCARED) should be administered not just once but several times in order to better determine true positives and avoid false positives. William W. Hale III, Quinten A. W. Raaijmakers, Anne van Hoof, and Wim H. J. Meeus Copyright © 2014 William W. Hale III et al. All rights reserved. Executive Functions and Adaptive Behaviour in Autism Spectrum Disorders with and without Intellectual Disability Tue, 21 Jan 2014 13:59:02 +0000 Executive functions (EF) in autism spectrum disorders (ASD) have been often investigated, although results seem to be rather inconsistent. The first aim of this study was to detect which EF components are common to the ASD continuum (from high- to low-functioning ASD) and identify a possible EF profile for ASD people. Planning, mental flexibility, inhibition of response, generativity, and ecologic EF were investigated. This study was extended not only to high-functioning ASD, but also to ASD with intellectual disability (ID). The second aim was to find EF aspects correlating with adaptive skills in ASD. A total of 61 children participated in the study (27 ASD with and without ID and 34 controls). Results highlight an executive profile characterised by impaired flexibility and deficient planning; these deficits are associated with decreased adaptive ability, particularly socialization, and a deficient shifting in ecologic conditions. These features are present in all ASD subgroups with and without ID; for this reason, they might be assumed as being specific features in ASD. Simonetta Panerai, Domenica Tasca, Raffaele Ferri, Valentina Genitori D’Arrigo, and Maurizio Elia Copyright © 2014 Simonetta Panerai et al. All rights reserved. Managing Transition with Support: Experiences of Transition from Child and Adolescent Psychiatry to General Adult Psychiatry Narrated by Young Adults and Relatives Mon, 20 Jan 2014 12:50:49 +0000 Young adults with mental illness who need continuing care when they turn 18 are referred from child and adolescent psychiatry to general adult psychiatry. During this process, young adults are undergoing multiple transitions as they come of age while they transfer to another unit in healthcare. The aim of this study was to explore expectations and experiences of transition from child and adolescent psychiatry to general adult psychiatry as narrated by young adults and relatives. Individual interviews were conducted with three young adults and six relatives and analysed according to grounded theory. The analysis resulted in a core category: managing transition with support, and three categories: being of age but not mature, walking out of security and into uncertainty, and feeling omitted and handling concerns. The young adults’ and relatives' main concerns were that they might be left out and feel uncertainty about the new situation during the transition process. To facilitate the transition process, individual care planning is needed. It is essential that young adults and relatives are participating in the process to be prepared for the changes and achieve a successful transition. Knowledge about the simultaneous processes seems to be an important issue for facilitating transition. Eva Lindgren, Siv Söderberg, and Lisa Skär Copyright © 2014 Eva Lindgren et al. All rights reserved. Initial Feasibility and Acceptability of a Comprehensive Intervention for Methamphetamine-Using Pregnant Women in South Africa Sun, 05 Jan 2014 14:11:14 +0000 The purpose of the present study was to determine the feasibility, acceptability, and initial efficacy of a women-focused intervention addressing methamphetamine use and HIV sexual risk among pregnant women in Cape Town, South Africa. A two-group randomized pilot study was conducted, comparing a women-focused intervention for methamphetamine use and related sexual risk behaviors to a psychoeducational condition. Participants were pregnant women who used methamphetamine regularly, had unprotected sex in the prior month, and were HIV-negative. Primary maternal outcomes were methamphetamine use in the past 30 days, frequency of unprotected sexual acts in the past 30 days, and number of antenatal obstetrical appointments attended. Primary neonatal outcomes were length of hospital stay, birth weight, and gestational age at delivery. Of the 57 women initially potentially eligible, only 4 declined to participate. Of the 36 women who were eligible and enrolled, 92% completed all four intervention sessions. Women in both conditions significantly reduced their methamphetamine use and number of unprotected sex acts. Therefore, delivering comprehensive interventions to address methamphetamine use and HIV risk behaviors among methamphetamine-using pregnant women is feasible in South Africa. Further testing of these interventions is needed to address methamphetamine use in this vulnerable population. Hendrée E. Jones, Bronwyn Myers, Kevin E. O’Grady, Stefan Gebhardt, Gerhard B. Theron, and Wendee M. Wechsberg Copyright © 2014 Hendrée E. Jones et al. All rights reserved. Comparing Adult Males and Females in the United States to Examine the Association between Body Mass Index and Frequent Mental Distress: An Analysis of Data from BRFSS 2011 Thu, 14 Nov 2013 08:57:42 +0000 Background. There is conflicting evidence regarding the association of body mass index (BMI) with mental distress. Studies have focused on different dimensions of mental health and used different definitions and many of them have not controlled for confounding factors. The aim of this study was to examine the relationship between frequent mental distress (FMD) and BMI among adults in the United States, with special emphasis on gender differences. Methods. Data from the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS) for the year 2011 were used in logistic regression models to predict FMD, defined as having 14 or more days of poor mental health in the previous month. Sociodemographic factors, tobacco and alcohol use, diet and physical activity, and number of chronic diseases were controlled for. Results. 11.95% ( = 53,715) of the participants with valid responses ( = 496,702) had FMD. The adjusted ORs of having FMD among underweight, overweight, and obese females were 1.13 (95% CI: 1.10, 1.60), 1.10 (95% CI: 1.03, 1.19), and 1.21 (95% CI: 1.13, 1.31), respectively, but they were not statistically significant for males. Conclusions. These findings suggest a relationship between BMI and FMD, independent of other variables. It may be useful to explore longitudinal trend in this association. Soumyadeep Mukherjee Copyright © 2013 Soumyadeep Mukherjee. All rights reserved. Influence of Sleep Disturbances on Quality of Life of Iranian Menopausal Women Tue, 05 Nov 2013 08:32:53 +0000 Background. Subjective sleep disturbances increase during menopause. Some problems commonly encountered during menopause, such as hot flushes and sweating at night, can cause women to have difficulty in sleeping. These complaints can influence quality of life of menopausal women. Methods. This cross-sectional study was performed on menopausal women attending health centers in Qazvin for periodic assessments. We measured excessive daytime sleepiness by Epworth sleepiness scale (ESS), obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) by the Berlin questionnaire, and insomnia by the insomnia severity index (ISI). We evaluate quality of life by the Menopause specific quality of life questionnaire (MENQOL). Results. A total of 380 menopausal women entered the study. Mean age of participated women was 57.6 ± 6.02. Mean duration of menopause was 6.3 ± 4.6. The frequency of severe and moderate insomnia was 8.4% (32) and 11.8% (45). Severe daytime sleepiness (ESS ≥ 10) was present in 27.9% (80) of the participants. Multivariate analytic results show that insomnia and daytime sleepiness have independent negative impact on each domain and total score of MENQOL questionnaire. Conclusion. According to our findings, EDS and insomnia are frequent in menopausal women. Both EDS and insomnia have significant quality of life impairment. Zohreh Yazdi, Khosro Sadeghniiat-Haghighi, Amir Ziaee, Khadijeh Elmizadeh, and Masomeh Ziaeeha Copyright © 2013 Zohreh Yazdi et al. All rights reserved. Social Anxiety, Tremor Severity, and Tremor Disability: A Search for Clinically Relevant Measures Wed, 31 Jul 2013 15:35:05 +0000 Background. While social anxiety has been reported among essential tremor (ET) patients, very little is known about the relation between self-report measures of social anxiety, tremor severity and disability, and cognition. Methods. Sixty-three individuals diagnosed with ET took part in a comprehensive study examining neurocognition and behavioral functioning. A psychiatric diagnostic interview, three social anxiety questionnaires, and an idiographic-based behavioral assessment to pinpoint anxiety provoking situations and related distress were completed. Results. Thirty percent of the participants met diagnostic criteria for social anxiety disorder (SAD). Social anxiety questionnaires were negligibly related to tremor severity and disability. Idiographic behavioral assessment of subjective distress was moderately related to resting tremor severity and disability and strongly related to social anxiety questionnaires scores. Only one cognitive variable was related to tremor severity. Conclusions. These findings suggest that (a) self-report measures of social anxiety with ET patients may underestimate distress; (b) emphasis on tremor severity may be misleading; (c) tremor disability may be a more sensitive and functional measure related to cognition and effect; (d) SAD is wide spread and does not appear to be related to dysregulated executive function; and (e) development of an ET-specific measure of social anxiety is called for. Duane A. Lundervold, Patrick A. Ament, and Peter Holt Copyright © 2013 Duane A. Lundervold et al. All rights reserved. Proposed Diagnostic Criteria for the DSM-5 of Nonsuicidal Self-Injury in Female Adolescents: Diagnostic and Clinical Correlates Wed, 31 Jul 2013 14:07:50 +0000 Nonsuicidal self-injury (NSSI) is included as conditions for further study in the DSM-5. Therefore, it is necessary to investigate the proposed diagnostic criteria and the diagnostic and clinical correlates for the validity of a diagnostic entity. The authors investigated the characteristics of NSSI disorder and the proposed diagnostic criteria. A sample of 73 female inpatient adolescents and 37 nonclinical adolescents (aged 13 to 19 years) was recruited. Patients were classified into 4 groups (adolescents with NSSI disorder, adolescents with NSSI without impairment/distress, clinical controls without NSSI, and nonclinical controls). Adolescents were compared on self-reported psychopathology and diagnostic cooccurrences. Results indicate that adolescents with NSSI disorder have a higher level of impairment than adolescents with other mental disorders without NSSI. Most common comorbid diagnoses were major depression, social phobia, and PTSD. There was some overlap of adolescents with NSSI disorder and suicidal behaviour and borderline personality disorder, but there were also important differences. Results further suggest that the proposed DSM-5 diagnostic criteria for NSSI are useful and necessary. In conclusion, NSSI is a highly impairing disorder characterized by high comorbidity with various disorders, providing further evidence that NSSI should be a distinct diagnostic entity. Tina In-Albon, Claudia Ruf, and Marc Schmid Copyright © 2013 Tina In-Albon et al. All rights reserved. Cognitive Performance in a Subclinical Obsessive-Compulsive Sample 1: Cognitive Functions Tue, 09 Jul 2013 14:07:28 +0000 Individuals who are not clinically diagnosed with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) but still display obsessive-compulsive (OC) tendencies may show cognitive impairments. The present study investigated whether there are subgroups within a healthy group showing characteristic cognitive and emotional performance levels similar to those found in OCD patients and whether they differ from OCD subgroups regarding performance levels. Of interest are those cases showing subclinical symptomatology. The results revealed no impairments in the subclinical OC participants on the neuropsychological tasks, while evidence suggests that there exist high and low scores on two standardised clinical instruments (Yale-Brown Obsessive Compulsive Scale and Cognitive Assessment Instrument of Obsessions and Compulsions) in a healthy sample. OC symptoms may diminish the quality of life and prolong sustainable return to work. It may be that occupational rehabilitation programmes are more effective in rectifying subclinical OC tendencies compared to the often complex symptoms of diagnosed OCD patients. The relationship between cognitive style and subclinical OC symptoms is discussed in terms of how materials and information might be processed. Although subclinical OC tendencies would not seem to constitute a diagnosis of OCD, the quality of treatment programmes such as cognitive behavioural therapy can be improved based on the current investigation. Thomas Johansen and Winand H. Dittrich Copyright © 2013 Thomas Johansen and Winand H. Dittrich. All rights reserved. The Effect of Withdrawal and Intake of Nicotine on Smokers' Ability to Ignore Distractors in a Number Parity Decision Task Sun, 16 Jun 2013 13:00:43 +0000 Nicotine's attention enhancing effects are often attributed to enhancement of stimulus filtering by the attention networks. We investigated distractibility in 20 abstinent cigarette smokers (9 hours overnight; phase 1) and tested them again after smoking one cigarette (phase 2). Their performance was compared to 20 nonsmokers (no nicotine intake). In an auditory number parity decision task, participants had to make a forced choice “odd” or “even” decision about centrally presented numbers between 2 and 9, while ignoring laterally presented preceding or simultaneous novel distractors. In phase 1, distractors that preceded goal stimuli slowed reaction times (RTs) more than simultaneously presented distractors in both groups. In phase 2, nicotine intake speeded RTs in smokers in all conditions and reduced RT variability for simple number decisions and simultaneous distractors. Overall, there was a nonsignificant trend for smokers to be less accurate than nonsmokers. Accuracy in the simultaneous distractor condition decreased in both groups in phase 2. We argue that the observed nicotine-induced improvements on behavioral performance primarily reflect enhancement of top-down control of attention. Stamatina Tsiora, Douglas D. Potter, John S. Kyle, and Adele M. Maxwell Copyright © 2013 Stamatina Tsiora et al. All rights reserved.