Table 5
(a) The influence of clinical subgroup, age, gender, comorbidity, and work status on total health care costs (sum of cost groups 1 to 3 for rehabilitation period and 6 months after) for patients with inflammatory disease. The results are presented as Unstandardised Coefficients ( 𝛽 ) with 95% Confidence intervals

VariableModel 1Model 2Model 3Model 4

Clinical subgroup    

Inflammatory disease rehab centerRef.Ref.Ref.Ref.

Inflammatory disease inpatient hospital unit13,412 (8,744 to 18,080)**12,952 (8,299 to 17,605)**12,935 (8,173 to 17697)**13,721 (8,806 to 18,635)**

Inflammatory disease outpatient hospital unit−2,595 (−9,388 to 4,196)−2,406 (−5,875 to 3,727)−2,560 (−9,514 to 4,395)−73 (−7,089 to 6,940)

Gender (ref. female) Male−2,968 (−8,055 to 2,118)−3,272 (−8,371 to 1,826)−3,555 (−8,744 to 1,633)*−4,025 (−9,402 to 1,352)

Age (ref. 67 or less) 68+1,682 (−4,712 to 8,077)1,843 (−4,583 to 8,271)4,430 (−1,762 to 10,624)4,045 (−2,379 to 10,469)

Comorbidity (ref. none)
 One3,170 (−2,373 to 8,714)3,291 (−2,282 to 8,864)3,795 (−1,849 to 9,439)4,851 (−1,002 to 10,632)
 Two or more2,939 (−2,830 to 8,708)2,274 (−3,457 to 8,005)2,885 (−3,003 to 8,775)3,346 (−2,759 to 9,452)

Working status (ref. employed) Not employed1,732 (−3,288 to 6,753)1,716 (−3,333 to 6,765) 448 (−4,589 to 5,485)402 (−4,827 to 5,632)

MHAQ−5,179 (−12,174 to 1,815)1,151 (−4,092 to 6,396)4,122 (−921 to 9,166)*

SF Physical function−172 (−301 to −42)**−106 (−202 to −11)*

SF Mental function−1 (−21to 19)41 (−21 to 19)

Assistive tools1,447 (414 to 2,540)**1,315 (268 to 2,361)*1,619 (542 to 2,695)**

Constant16,367 (4,568 to 28,168)**10,292 (10763 to 18,819)**3,367 (−3,134 to 9,869)2,178 (−4,522 to 8,878)

Adj R-squared0.35930.35180.32760.2750

Cost values (in Euro) are estimated means by OLS. All costs are presented in Euros: 1€ = 8 NOK.
* P-value <  .05, **P-value <  .01.
The difference between the three models is only the inclusion of different severity measures in addition to clinical setting, diagnosis, age, gender, and working status.
Model 1: all severity measures are included: MHAQ, SF36 Physical function, SF36 Mental function, and assistive tools.
Model 2: we include only SF36 Physical function, SF36 Mental function and assistive tools.
Model 3: we include only MHAQ and assistive tools.
Model 4: we include only MHAQ.
(b) The influence of clinical subgroup, age, gender, comorbidity, and work status on total health care costs (sum of cost groups 1 to 3 for rehabilitation period and 6 months after) for patients with osteoarthritis (OA). The results are presented as Unstandardised Coefficients ( 𝛽 ) with 95% Confidence intervals

VariableModel 1Model 2Model 3Model 4

Clinical subgroup

OA (ref. conventional rehabilitation)Ref.Ref.Ref.Ref.

OA postsurgery rehabilitation−675 (−2,664 to 1,313)−220 (−2,135 to 1,694)−683 (−2,658 to 1,290)−57 (−2,723 to1,207)

Gender (ref. female) Male−2,086 (−4,166 to −6)*−2,037 (−4,125 to −50)−2,103 (−4,142 to −65)*1,915 (−3,903 to 72)

Age (ref. 67 or less) 68+651 (−1,282 to 2585)386 (−1,527 to 2,300)693 (−1,217 to 2,605)578 (−1,312 to 2,468)

Comorbidity (ref. none)
 One1,054 (−1,445 to 3,554)1,080 (−1,429 to 3,590)1,178 (−1,265 to 3,622)1,148 (−1,292 to 3,589)
 Two or more1,341 (−1,160 to 3,842)1,470 (−1,036 to 3,977)1,514 (−891 to 3,920)1,507 (−335 to 3,163)

Working status (ref. employed) Not employed192 (−1,805 to 2,190)−34 (−2,020 to 1,951)263 (−1,707 to 2,234)128 (−1,814 to 2,072)

MHAQ1,512 (−365 to 3,390)1,614 (−199 to 3,428)1,414 (−335 to 3,163)

SF Physical function−2 (−13 to 9)−4 (−15 to 6)

SF Mental function−1 (−9 to 6)−2 (−9 to 6)

Assistive tools−216 (−738 to 305)−106 (−612 to 399)−220 (−739 to 299)
Constant6,592 (3,301 to 9,882)**7,650 (4,621 to 10,679)**6,158 (3,303 to 9,013)**6,244 (3,399 to 9,090)**

Adj R-squared0.01010.01280.01930.0209

Cost values (in Euro) are estimated means by OLS. All costs are presented in Euros: 1€ = 8 NOK.
* 𝑃 -value <  .05, ** 𝑃 -value <  .01.
The difference between the three models is only the inclusion of different severity measures in addition to clinical setting, diagnosis, age, gender and working status.
Model 1: all severity measures are included: MHAQ, SF36 Physical function, SF36 Mental function, and assistive tools.
Model 2: we include only SF36 Physical function, SF36 Mental function, and assistive tools.
Model 3: we include only MHAQ and assistive tools.
Model 4: we include only MHAQ.