Radiology Research and Practice The latest articles from Hindawi Publishing Corporation © 2016 , Hindawi Publishing Corporation . All rights reserved. Imaging of Hip Pain: From Radiography to Cross-Sectional Imaging Techniques Wed, 13 Jan 2016 11:24:37 +0000 Hip pain can have multiple causes, including intra-articular, juxta-articular, and referred pain, mainly from spine or sacroiliac joints. In this review, we discuss the causes of intra-articular hip pain from childhood to adulthood and the role of the appropriate imaging techniques according to clinical suspicion and age of the patient. Stress is put on the findings of radiographs, currently considered the first imaging technique, not only in older people with degenerative disease but also in young people without osteoarthritis. In this case plain radiography allows categorization of the hip as normal or dysplastic or with impingement signs, pincer, cam, or a combination of both. Fernando Ruiz Santiago, Alicia Santiago Chinchilla, Afshin Ansari, Luis Guzmán Álvarez, Maria del Mar Castellano García, Alberto Martínez Martínez, and Juan Tercedor Sánchez Copyright © 2016 Fernando Ruiz Santiago et al. All rights reserved. Ultrasound Findings in Hand Joints Involvement in Patients with Psoriatic Arthritis and Its Correlation with Clinical DAS28 Score Tue, 22 Dec 2015 13:52:28 +0000 Objective. To determine the frequency of the various ultrasound findings in hand joints in patients with psoriatic arthritis and correlate grayscale and Power Doppler ultrasonography findings with Disease Activity Score 28. Methods. This prospective study was performed in 30 patients. Ultrasound evaluation of 28 joints of both hands was undertaken and various findings were recorded including synovial hypertrophy, Power Doppler abnormality, soft tissue thickening, tendonitis, joint effusion, periosteal reaction, and erosions. Composite ultrasound scores and Disease Activity Score 28 were calculated and compared. Spearman correlation was used to see relationship between the ultrasound and DAS28 scores. Results. Ultrasound detected more abnormalities in the hand joints than did clinical examination. The frequency of various ultrasound abnormalities was as follows: Synovial hypertrophy was seen in 100%, Power Doppler abnormality suggesting hypervascularity was seen in 36.7%, soft tissue thickening was seen in 66.7%, periosteal reaction was seen in 33.3%, erosions were seen in 30% (mostly in DIP and PIP joints), and flexor tendonitis was seen in 6.7% of patients. Significant correlation was found between Disease Activity Score 28 and grayscale joint score (GSJS) (Spearman’s : 0.499; : 0.005), grayscale joint count (GSJC) (: 0.398; : 0.029), and Power Doppler joint score (PDJS) (: 0.367; : 0.046). There was a statistically significant difference between remission and low disease activity group and moderate disease activity group in terms of GSJC, GSJS, PDJC, and PDJS (). These ultrasound measures were higher in moderate disease activity zone patients. Conclusion. Ultrasound is a useful modality for the objective assessment of psoriatic arthritis. Ultrasound including Power Doppler can be used as a modality for assessment of severity of psoriatic arthritis as it correlates with the clinical scoring. Priyanka Naranje, Mahesh Prakash, Aman Sharma, Sunil Dogra, and Niranjan Khandelwal Copyright © 2015 Priyanka Naranje et al. All rights reserved. Imaging Modalities to Identity Inflammation in an Atherosclerotic Plaque Sun, 20 Dec 2015 12:44:06 +0000 Atherosclerosis is a chronic, progressive, multifocal arterial wall disease caused by local and systemic inflammation responsible for major cardiovascular complications such as myocardial infarction and stroke. With the recent understanding that vulnerable plaque erosion and rupture, with subsequent thrombosis, rather than luminal stenosis, is the underlying cause of acute ischemic events, there has been a shift of focus to understand the mechanisms that make an atherosclerotic plaque unstable or vulnerable to rupture. The presence of inflammation in the atherosclerotic plaque has been considered as one of the initial events which convert a stable plaque into an unstable and vulnerable plaque. This paper systemically reviews the noninvasive and invasive imaging modalities that are currently available to detect this inflammatory process, at least in the intermediate stages, and discusses the ongoing studies that will help us to better understand and identify it at the molecular level. Sunny Goel, Avraham Miller, Chirag Agarwal, Elina Zakin, Michael Acholonu, Umesh Gidwani, Abhishek Sharma, Guy Kulbak, Jacob Shani, and On Chen Copyright © 2015 Sunny Goel et al. All rights reserved. Congenital Extrahepatic Portosystemic Shunts: Spectrum of Findings on Ultrasound, Computed Tomography, and Magnetic Resonance Imaging Sun, 13 Dec 2015 12:10:41 +0000 Congenital extrahepatic portosystemic shunt (CEPS) is a rare disorder characterised by partial or complete diversion of portomesenteric blood into systemic veins via congenital shunts. Type I is characterised by complete lack of intrahepatic portal venous blood flow due to an end to side fistula between main portal vein and the inferior vena cava. Type II on the other hand is characterised by partial preservation of portal blood supply to liver and side to side fistula between main portal vein or its branches and mesenteric, splenic, gastric, and systemic veins. The presentation of these patients is variable. Focal liver lesions, most commonly nodular regenerative hyperplasia, are an important clue to the underlying condition. This pictorial essay covers imaging characteristics in abdominopelvic region. Pankaj Gupta, Anindita Sinha, Kushaljit Singh Sodhi, Anupam Lal, Uma Debi, Babu R. Thapa, and Niranjan Khandelwal Copyright © 2015 Pankaj Gupta et al. All rights reserved. Mechanical Recanalization following i.v. Thrombolysis: A Retrospective Analysis regarding Secondary Hemorrhagic Infarctions and Parenchymal Hematomas Tue, 10 Nov 2015 11:43:28 +0000 Introduction. In acute stroke by occlusion of the proximal medial cerebral artery (MCA) or the distal internal carotid artery, intravenous thrombolysis is an established treatment. Another option is mechanical recanalization. It remains unclear if the combination of both methods poses an additional bleeding risk. The aim of this retrospective analysis is to determine the proportion of hemorrhagic infarctions and parenchymal hematomas. Methods. Inclusion criteria were an occlusion of the carotid T or proximal MCA treated with full dose thrombolysis and mechanical recanalization. 31 patients were selected. Devices used were Trevo, Penumbra Aspiration system, Penumbra 3D Retriever, and Revive. The initial control by computed tomography was carried out with a mean delay to intervention of 10.9 hours (SD: 8.5 hours). Results. A slight hemorrhagic infarction (HI1) was observed in 2/31 patients, and a more severe HI2 occurred in two cases. A smaller parenchymal hematoma (PH1) was not seen and a space-occupying PH2 was seen in 2/31 cases. There was no significant difference in the probability of intracranial bleeding after successful (thrombolysis in cerebral infarctions 2b and 3) or unsuccessful recanalization. Conclusion. The proportion of intracranial bleeding using mechanical recanalization following intravenous thrombolysis appears comparable with reports using thrombolysis alone. J. Höltje, F. Bonk, A. Anstadt, C. Terborg, C. Pohlmann, P. P. Urban, and R. Brüning Copyright © 2015 J. Höltje et al. All rights reserved. Cone-Beam Computed Tomography Evaluation of Mental Foramen Variations: A Preliminary Study Mon, 02 Nov 2015 12:06:53 +0000 Background. Mental foramen is important in surgical operations of premolars because it transfers the mental nerves and vessels. This study evaluated the variations of mental foramen by cone-beam computed tomography among a selected Iranian population. Materials and Methods. A total number of 180 cone-beam computed tomography projections were analyzed in terms of shape, size, direction, and horizontal and vertical positions of mental foramen in the right and left sides. Results. The most common shape was oval, opening direction was posterior-superior, horizontal position was in line with second premolar, and vertical position was apical to the adjacent dental root. The mean of foremen diameter was 3.59 mm. Conclusion. In addition to the most common types of mental foramen, other variations exist, too. Hence, it reflects the significance of preoperative radiographic examinations, especially 3-dimensional images to prevent nerve damage. Mahnaz Sheikhi, Mitra Karbasi Kheir, and Ehsan Hekmatian Copyright © 2015 Mahnaz Sheikhi et al. All rights reserved. Intravenous Contrast Medium Administration for Computed Tomography Scan in Emergency: A Possible Cause of Contrast-Induced Nephropathy Tue, 20 Oct 2015 09:06:31 +0000 The goal of this study was to assess risk for CIN after CT Scan during an emergency and to identify risk factors for the patient. Prospective review of all patients admitted to the emergency room (ER) of the Teaching Hospital of Lomé (Togo) during a 2-year period. CIN was defined as an increase in serum creatinine by 0.5 mg/dL from admission after undergoing CT Scan with intravenous contrast. A total of 620 patients underwent a CT Scan in the emergency room using intravenous contrast and 672 patients took the CT Scan without intravenous contrast. Out of the patients who received intravenous contrast for CT Scan, three percent of them developed CIN during their admission. Moreover, upon discharge no patient had continued renal impairment. No patient required dialysis during their admission. The multivariate analysis of all patients who had serial creatinine levels (including those who did not receive any contrast load) shows no increased risk for acute kidney injury associated intravenous contrast (odds ratio = 0.619, value = 0.886); only diabetes remains independent risk factor of acute kidney injury (odds ratio = 6.26, value = 0.031). Lantam Sonhaye, Bérésa Kolou, Mazamaesso Tchaou, Abdoulatif Amadou, Kouméabalo Assih, Bidamin N’Timon, Kokou Adambounou, Lama Agoda-Koussema, Komlavi Adjenou, and Koffi N’Dakena Copyright © 2015 Lantam Sonhaye et al. All rights reserved. Soft Tissue Masses of Hand: A Radio-Pathological Correlation Wed, 02 Sep 2015 06:48:45 +0000 Aim. To evaluate soft tissue masses of the hand with magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and ultrasonography (USG) and to correlate imaging findings with pathological findings. Material and Methods. Thirty-five patients with soft tissue masses of the hand were evaluated with high resolution USG and contrast enhanced MRI of the hand, prospectively over a period of 2.5 years. The radiological diagnosis was then compared with cytology/histopathology. Results. There were a total of 19 (55%) females. The mean age was 27.45 ± 14.7 years. Majority (45%) of cases were heteroechoic. Four cases were predominantly hyperechoic. These were later diagnosed as lipomas. Four cases were anechoic (diagnosed as ganglions). Only four lesions showed hyperintense signal on T1-weighted images. Out of these, 3 were lipomas and one was cavernous haemangioma. Three lesions were hypointense on T2-weighted images. All these lesions were diagnosed as giant cell tumor of the tendon sheath. A correct diagnosis was possible on MRI in 80% of cases . Conclusion. MRI provides specific findings for diagnosis of certain soft tissue lesions of the hand. Ultrasonography allows accurate diagnosis of hemangioma/vascular malformations. However, in most conditions, imaging findings are nonspecific and diagnosis rests on pathologic evaluation. Aditi Agarwal, Mahesh Prakash, Pankaj Gupta, Satyaswarup Tripathy, Nandita Kakkar, Radhika Srinivasan, and Niranjan Khandelwal Copyright © 2015 Aditi Agarwal et al. All rights reserved. Effect of Cortical Bone Thickness on Detection of Intraosseous Lesions by Ultrasonography Sun, 23 Aug 2015 13:41:14 +0000 Background. Usefulness of ultrasound (US) in detection of intrabony lesions has been showed. A cortical bone perforation or a very thin and intact cortical bone is prerequisite for this purpose. Objective. The current in vitro study was aimed at measuring the cut-off thickness of the overlying cortical bone which allows ultrasonic assessment of bony defects. Materials and Methods. 20 bovine scapula blocks were obtained. Samples were numbered from 1 to 20. In each sample, 5 artificial lesions were made. The lesions were made in order to increase the overlying bone thickness, from 0.1 mm in the first sample to 2 mm in the last one (with 0.1 mm interval). After that, the samples underwent ultrasound examinations by two practicing radiologists. Results. All five lesions in samples numbered 1 to 11 were detected as hypoechoic area. Cortical bone thickness more than 1.1 mm resulted in a failure in the detection of central lesions. Conclusion. We can conclude that neither bony perforation nor very thin cortical bones are needed to consider US to be an effective imaging technique in the evaluation of bony lesion. Sadaf Adibi, Alireza Shakibafard, Zohreh Karimi Sarvestani, Najmeh Saadat, and Leila Khojastepour Copyright © 2015 Sadaf Adibi et al. All rights reserved. Intraoperative Myelography in Cervical Multilevel Stenosis Using 3D Rotational Fluoroscopy: Assessment of Feasibility and Image Quality Sun, 02 Aug 2015 08:04:58 +0000 Background. Intraoperative myelography has been reported for decompression control in multilevel lumbar disease. Cervical myelography is technically more challenging. Modern 3D fluoroscopy may provide a new opportunity supplying multiplanar images. This study was performed to determine the feasibility and image quality of intraoperative cervical myelography using a 3D fluoroscope. Methods. The series included 9 patients with multilevel cervical stenosis. After decompression, 10 mL of water-soluble contrast agent was administered via a lumbar drainage and the operating table was tilted. Thereafter, a 3D fluoroscopy scan (O-Arm) was performed and visually evaluated. Findings. The quality of multiplanar images was sufficient to supply information about the presence of residual stenosis. After instrumentation, metal artifacts lowered image quality. In 3 cases, decompression was continued because myelography depicted residual stenosis. In one case, anterior corpectomy was not completed because myelography showed sufficient decompression after 2-level discectomy. Interpretation. Intraoperative myelography using 3D rotational fluoroscopy is useful for the control of surgical decompression in multilevel spinal stenosis providing images comparable to postmyelographic CT. The long duration of contrast delivery into the cervical spine may be solved by preoperative contrast administration. The method is susceptible to metal artifacts and, therefore, should be applied before metal implants are placed. Thomas Westermaier, Stefan Koehler, Thomas Linsenmann, Michael Kiderlen, Paul Pakos, and Ralf-Ingo Ernestus Copyright © 2015 Thomas Westermaier et al. All rights reserved. Cerebral Venous Sinus Thrombosis, a Nonenhanced CT Diagnosis? Sun, 03 May 2015 12:55:53 +0000 Purpose. Retrospectively evaluate the density of cerebral venous sinuses in nonenhanced head CTs (NCTs) and correlate these with the presence or absence of a cerebral venous sinus thrombus (CVST). Materials and Methods. Institutional review board approval was obtained and informed consent waived prior to commencing this retrospective study. Over a two-year period, all CT venograms (CTVs) performed at our institution were retrieved and the preceding/subsequent NCTs evaluated. Hounsfield Units (HUs) of thrombus when present as well as that of normal superior sagittal and sigmoid sinuses were measured. HU of thrombus was compared to that of normal vessels with and without standardisation to the average HU of the internal carotid arteries. Results. 299 CTVs were retrieved, 26 with a thrombus. Both raw and standardised HU measurements were significantly higher in CVST () compared to normal vessels. Both raw and standardised HUs are good predictors of CVST. A HU of ≥67 and a standardised measurement of ≥1.5 are associated with high probability of CVST on NCT. Conclusion. Cerebral venous sinus HU measurements may help improve sensitivity and specificity of NCT for venous sinus thrombosis and avoid potentially unnecessary follow-up examinations. Ali Alsafi, Amish Lakhani, Lalani Carlton Jones, and Kyriakos Lobotesis Copyright © 2015 Ali Alsafi et al. All rights reserved. Fat Necrosis of the Breast: A Pictorial Review of the Mammographic, Ultrasound, CT, and MRI Findings with Histopathologic Correlation Mon, 16 Mar 2015 10:55:59 +0000 Fat necrosis of the breast is a challenging diagnosis due to the various appearances on mammography, ultrasound, CT, PET-CT, and MRI. Although mammography is more specific, ultrasound is a very important tool in making the diagnosis of fat necrosis. MRI has a wide spectrum of findings for fat necrosis and the appearance is the result of the amount of the inflammatory reaction, the amount of liquefied fat, and the degree of fibrosis. While CT and PET-CT are not first line imaging examinations for the diagnosis of breast cancer or fat necrosis, they are frequently performed in the surveillance and staging of disease. Knowledge of how fat necrosis presents on these additional imaging techniques is important to prevent misinterpretation of the imaging findings. Gross and microscopic appearances of fat necrosis depend on the age of the lesion; the histologic examination of fat necrosis is usually straightforward. Knowledge of the variable appearances of fat necrosis on a vast array of imaging modalities will enhance a radiologist’s accuracy in the analysis and interpretation of fat necrosis versus other diagnoses. William D. Kerridge, Oleksandr N. Kryvenko, Afua Thompson, and Biren A. Shah Copyright © 2015 William D. Kerridge et al. All rights reserved. Central Nervous System Tuberculosis: An Imaging-Focused Review of a Reemerging Disease Mon, 12 Jan 2015 07:25:40 +0000 Central nervous system (CNS) tuberculosis is a potentially life threatening condition which is curable if the correct diagnosis is made in the early stages. Its clinical and radiologic manifestations may mimic other infectious and noninfectious neurological conditions. Hence, familiarity with the imaging presentations of various forms of CNS tuberculosis is essential in timely diagnosis, and thereby reducing the morbidity and mortality of this disease. In this review, we describe the imaging characteristics of the different forms of CNS tuberculosis, including meningitis, tuberculoma, miliary tuberculosis, abscess, cerebritis, and encephalopathy. Morteza Sanei Taheri, Mohammad Ali Karimi, Hamidreza Haghighatkhah, Ramin Pourghorban, Mohammad Samadian, and Hosein Delavar Kasmaei Copyright © 2015 Morteza Sanei Taheri et al. All rights reserved. Premature Calcifications of Costal Cartilages: A New Perspective Tue, 23 Dec 2014 09:26:25 +0000 Background. Calcifications of the costal cartilages occur, as a rule, not until the age of 30 years. The knowledge of the clinical significance of early and extensive calcifications is still incomplete. Materials and Methods. A search was made to find patients below the age of 30 years who showed distinct calcifications of their lower costal cartilages by viewing 360 random samples of intravenous pyelograms and abdominal plain films. The histories, and clinical and laboratory findings of these patients were analyzed. Results. Nineteen patients fulfilled the criteria of premature calcifications of costal cartilages (CCCs). The patients had in common that they were frequently referred to a hospital and were treated by several medical disciplines. Nevertheless many complaints of the patients remained unsolved. Premature CCCs were often associated with rare endocrine disorders, inborn errors of metabolism, and abnormal hematologic findings. Among the metabolic disorders there were 2 proven porphyrias and 7 patients with a suspected porphyria but with inconclusive laboratory findings. Conclusion. Premature CCCs are unlikely to be a normal variant in skeletal radiology. The findings in this small group of patients call for more intensive studies, especially in regard to the putative role of a porphyria. Walter Rhomberg and Antonius Schuster Copyright © 2014 Walter Rhomberg and Antonius Schuster. All rights reserved. Passive Posterior Tibial Subluxation on Routine Knee MRI as a Secondary Sign of PCL Tear Mon, 22 Dec 2014 07:11:52 +0000 The posterior drawer test is an accurate clinical test to diagnose posterior cruciate ligament (PCL), indicating laxity of the PCL that allows posterior tibial translation. This study aimed to determine whether posterior tibial translation relative to the femur on routine MRI could serve as an additional sign of PCL tear. Routine knee MRI in eleven patients (7 males, 4 females) with arthroscopically confirmed isolated PCL tears were reviewed independently by two musculoskeletal radiologists. Measurements of tibial translation were made in the medial and lateral compartments of patients and controls (10 males, 12 females) without clinical or MRI evidence of ligament injury. Significant medial compartment posterior tibial translation was present in patients with PCL tear compared to controls (+2.93 mm versus +0.03 mm, ) with excellent interobserver agreement (intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) = 0.94). No significant difference in lateral compartment tibial translation was observed (+0.17 mm versus −0.57 mm, ) despite excellent interobserver agreement (ICC = 0.96). Posterior tibial translation in the midmedial compartment may be a secondary sign of isolated PCL tear on routine knee MRI with passive extension without manipulation or weight bearing. Additional work in a larger cohort may better address the accuracy of this finding. Andrew J. Degnan, Catherine Maldjian, Richard J. Adam, and Christopher D. Harner Copyright © 2014 Andrew J. Degnan et al. All rights reserved. Image Guidance in Radiation Therapy: Techniques and Applications Wed, 17 Dec 2014 12:22:49 +0000 In modern day radiotherapy, the emphasis on reduction on volume exposed to high radiotherapy doses, improving treatment precision as well as reducing radiation-related normal tissue toxicity has increased, and thus there is greater importance given to accurate position verification and correction before delivering radiotherapy. At present, several techniques that accomplish these goals impeccably have been developed, though all of them have their limitations. There is no single method available that eliminates treatment-related uncertainties without considerably adding to the cost. However, delivering “high precision radiotherapy” without periodic image guidance would do more harm than treating large volumes to compensate for setup errors. In the present review, we discuss the concept of image guidance in radiotherapy, the current techniques available, and their expected benefits and pitfalls. Shikha Goyal and Tejinder Kataria Copyright © 2014 Shikha Goyal and Tejinder Kataria. All rights reserved. Low Dose X-Ray Sources and High Quantum Efficiency Sensors: The Next Challenge in Dental Digital Imaging? Wed, 10 Dec 2014 00:10:16 +0000 Objective(s). The major challenge encountered to decrease the milliamperes (mA) level in X-ray imaging systems is the quantum noise phenomena. This investigation evaluated dose exposure and image resolution of a low dose X-ray imaging (LDXI) prototype comprising a low mA X-ray source and a novel microlens-based sensor relative to current imaging technologies. Study Design. A LDXI in static (group 1) and dynamic (group 2) modes was compared to medical fluoroscopy (group 3), digital intraoral radiography (group 4), and CBCT scan (group 5) using a dental phantom. Results. The Mann-Whitney test showed no statistical significance in dose exposure between groups 1 and 3 and 1 and 4 and timing exposure (seconds) between groups 1 and 5 and 2 and 3. Image resolution test showed group 1 > group 4 > group 2 > group 3 > group 5. Conclusions. The LDXI proved the concept for obtaining a high definition image resolution for static and dynamic radiography at lower or similar dose exposure and smaller pixel size, respectively, when compared to current imaging technologies. Lower mA at the X-ray source and high QE at the detector level principles with microlens could be applied to current imaging technologies to considerably reduce dose exposure without compromising image resolution in the near future. Arnav R. Mistry, Daniel Uzbelger Feldman, Jie Yang, and Eric Ryterski Copyright © 2014 Arnav R. Mistry et al. All rights reserved. Multisite Kinetic Modeling of 13C Metabolic MR Using [1-13C]Pyruvate Mon, 08 Dec 2014 11:45:13 +0000 Hyperpolarized 13C imaging allows real-time in vivo measurements of metabolite levels. Quantification of metabolite conversion between [1-13C]pyruvate and downstream metabolites [1-13C]alanine, [1-13C]lactate, and [13C]bicarbonate can be achieved through kinetic modeling. Since pyruvate interacts dynamically and simultaneously with its downstream metabolites, the purpose of this work is the determination of parameter values through a multisite, dynamic model involving possible biochemical pathways present in MR spectroscopy. Kinetic modeling parameters were determined by fitting the multisite model to time-domain dynamic metabolite data. The results for different pyruvate doses were compared with those of different two-site models to evaluate the hypothesis that for identical data the uncertainty of a model and the signal-to-noise ratio determine the sensitivity in detecting small physiological differences in the target metabolism. In comparison to the two-site exchange models, the multisite model yielded metabolic conversion rates with smaller bias and smaller standard deviation, as demonstrated in simulations with different signal-to-noise ratio. Pyruvate dose effects observed previously were confirmed and quantified through metabolic conversion rate values. Parameter interdependency allowed an accurate quantification and can therefore be useful for monitoring metabolic activity in different tissues. Pedro A. Gómez Damián, Jonathan I. Sperl, Martin A. Janich, Oleksandr Khegai, Florian Wiesinger, Steffen J. Glaser, Axel Haase, Markus Schwaiger, Rolf F. Schulte, and Marion I. Menzel Copyright © 2014 Pedro A. Gómez Damián et al. All rights reserved. In Vivo MR Microneurography of the Tibial and Common Peroneal Nerves Sun, 07 Dec 2014 08:23:14 +0000 MR microneurography is a noninvasive technique that provides visualization of the microanatomy of peripheral nerves, otherwise available only with histopathology. The objective of this study was to present a protocol to visualize the microstructure of peripheral nerves in vivo, using a 3T MRI scanner with a clinical set of coils and sequences. The tibial and the common peroneal nerves of healthy volunteers were imaged above the medial malleolus and at the level of the fibular head, respectively. The acquired images provided details about the internal structure of peripheral nerves, with visualization of the fascicles, the interfascicular fat, the epineurium, and the perineurium. MR microneurography can be performed in a clinical setting with acceptable imaging times and can be a potentially powerful tool that complements standard MR neurography. Paolo F. Felisaz, Eric Y. Chang, Irene Carne, Stefano Montagna, Francesco Balducci, Giulia Maugeri, Anna Pichiecchio, Fabrizio Calliada, Maurizia Baldi, and Stefano Bastianello Copyright © 2014 Paolo F. Felisaz et al. All rights reserved. Bilateral Obturator Hernia Diagnosed by Computed Tomography: A Case Report with Review of the Literature Wed, 03 Dec 2014 07:43:09 +0000 Obturator hernia is a rare form of abdominal hernia and a diagnostic challenge. It is commonly seen in elderly thin females. Its diagnosis is often delayed with resultant increased morbidity and mortality due to bowel ischemia/gangrene. It is mistakenly diagnosed as femoral or inguinal hernia on USG. Computed tomography is diagnostic and is a valuable tool for preoperative diagnosis. This report presents a case of 70-year-old thin female presenting with intestinal obstruction due to left sided obstructed obturator hernia. USG showed small bowel obstruction and an obstructed left sided femoral hernia. CT scan of abdomen and pelvis with inguinal and upper thigh region disclosed left sided obturator hernia. It also detected clinically occult right sided obturator hernia. Early diagnosis and surgical treatment contribute greatly in reducing the morbidity and mortality rate. Sanjay M. Khaladkar, Anubhav Kamal, Sahil Garg, and Vigyat Kamal Copyright © 2014 Sanjay M. Khaladkar et al. All rights reserved. Influenceable and Avoidable Risk Factors for Systemic Air Embolism due to Percutaneous CT-Guided Lung Biopsy: Patient Positioning and Coaxial Biopsy Technique—Case Report, Systematic Literature Review, and a Technical Note Mon, 10 Nov 2014 00:00:00 +0000 Following the first case of a systemic air embolism due to percutaneous CT-guided lung biopsy in our clinic we analysed the literature regarding this matter in view of influenceable or avoidable risk factors. A systematic review of literature reporting cases of systemic air embolism due to CT-guided lung biopsy was performed to find out whether prone positioning might be a risk factor regarding this issue. In addition, a technical note concerning coaxial biopsy practice is presented. Prone position seems to have relevance for the development and/or clinical manifestation of air embolism due to CT-guided lung biopsy and should be considered a risk factor, at least as far as lesions in the lower parts of the lung are concerned. Biopsies of small or cavitary lesions in coaxial technique should be performed using a hemostatic valve. Gernot Rott and Frieder Boecker Copyright © 2014 Gernot Rott and Frieder Boecker. All rights reserved. 18F-Fluorodeoxyglucose Positron Emission Tomography/Computed Tomography Accuracy in the Staging of Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer: Review and Cost-Effectiveness Wed, 05 Nov 2014 09:42:56 +0000 Aim of the performed clinical study was to compare the accuracy and cost-effectiveness of PET/CT in the staging of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Material and Methods. Cross-sectional and prospective study including 103 patients with histologically confirmed NSCLC. All patients were examined using PET/CT with intravenous contrast medium. Those with disease stage ≤IIB underwent surgery (). Disease stage was confirmed based on histology results, which were compared with those of PET/CT and positron emission tomography (PET) and computed tomography (CT) separately. 63 patients classified with ≥IIIA disease stage by PET/CT did not undergo surgery. The cost-effectiveness of PET/CT for disease classification was examined using a decision tree analysis. Results. Compared with histology, the accuracy of PET/CT for disease staging has a positive predictive value of 80%, a negative predictive value of 95%, a sensitivity of 94%, and a specificity of 82%. For PET alone, these values are 53%, 66%, 60%, and 50%, whereas for CT alone they are 68%, 86%, 76%, and 72%, respectively. Incremental cost-effectiveness of PET/CT over CT alone was €17,412 quality-adjusted life-year (QALY). Conclusion. In our clinical study, PET/CT using intravenous contrast medium was an accurate and cost-effective method for staging of patients with NSCLC. Nieves Gómez León, Sofía Escalona, Beatriz Bandrés, Cristobal Belda, Daniel Callejo, and Juan Antonio Blasco Copyright © 2014 Nieves Gómez León et al. All rights reserved. Evaluation of Contrast Extravasation as a Diagnostic Criterion in the Evaluation of Arthroscopically Proven HAGL/pHAGL Lesions Mon, 03 Nov 2014 07:13:47 +0000 Purpose. The validity of preoperative MRI in diagnosing HAGL lesions is debated. Various investigations have produced mixed results with regard to the utility of MRI. The purpose of this investigation is to apply a novel method of diagnosing HAGL/pHAGL lesions by looking at contrast extravasation and to evaluate the reliability of such extravasation of contrast into an extra-articular space as a sign of HAGL/pHAGL lesion. Methods. We utilized specific criteria to define contrast extravasation. We evaluated these criteria in 12 patients with arthroscopically proven HAGL/pHAGL lesion. We also evaluated these criteria in a control group. Results. Contrast extravasation occurred in over 83% of arthroscopically positive cases. Contrast extravasation as a diagnostic criterion in the evaluation of HAGL/pHAGL lesions demonstrated a high interobserver degree of agreement. Conclusions. In conclusion, extra-articular contrast extravasation may serve as a valid and reliable sign of HAGL and pHAGL lesions, provided stringent criteria are maintained to assure that the contrast lies in an extra-articular location. In cases where extravasation is not present, the “J” sign, though nonspecific, may be the only evidence of subtle HAGL and pHAGL lesions. Level of Evidence. Level IV, Retrospective Case-Control series. Catherine Maldjian, Vineet Khanna, James Bradley, and Richard Adam Copyright © 2014 Catherine Maldjian et al. All rights reserved. Whole Prostate Volume and Shape Changes with the Use of an Inflatable and Flexible Endorectal Coil Mon, 13 Oct 2014 07:25:10 +0000 Purpose. To determine to what extent an inflatable endorectal coil (ERC) affects whole prostate (WP) volume and shape during prostate MRI. Materials and Methods. 79 consecutive patients underwent T2W MRI at 3T first with a 6-channel surface coil and then with the combination of a 16-channel surface coil and ERC in the same imaging session. WP volume was assessed by manually contouring the prostate in each T2W axial slice. PSA density was also calculated. The maximum anterior-posterior (AP), left-right (LR), and craniocaudal (CC) prostate dimensions were measured. Changes in WP prostate volume, PSA density, and prostate dimensions were then evaluated. Results. In 79 patients, use of an ERC yielded no significant change in whole prostate volume (, ) and PSA density (). However, use of an ERC significantly decreased the AP dimension of the prostate by (), increased LR dimension by (), and increased the CC dimension by (). Conclusion. Use of an ERC in prostate MRI results in the shape deformation of the prostate gland with no significant change in the volume of the prostate measured on T2W MRI. Therefore, WP volumes calculated on ERC MRI can be reliably used in clinical workflow. Murat Osman, Haytham Shebel, Sandeep Sankineni, Marcelino L. Bernardo, Dagane Daar, Bradford J. Wood, Peter A. Pinto, Peter L. Choyke, Baris Turkbey, and Harsh K. Agarwal Copyright © 2014 Murat Osman et al. All rights reserved. Assessment of Condylar Changes in Patients with Temporomandibular Joint Pain Using Digital Volumetric Tomography Sun, 21 Sep 2014 07:10:52 +0000 Objective. To evaluate the efficiency of DVT in comparison with OPG in the assessment of bony condylar changes in patients of TMJ pain. Methods. 100 temporomandibular joints of 62 patients with the complaint of temporomandibular joint pain were included in the study. DVT and OPG radiographs were taken for all the 100 joints. Three observers interpreted the DVT and OPG radiograph for the bony changes separately for two times with an interval of one week. The bony changes seen in the condyle were given coding from 0 to 6. (0: Normal, 1: Erosion, 2: Flattening, 3: Osteophyte, 4: Sclerosis, 5: Resorption, and 6: other changes). Interobserver and intraobserver variability was assessed with one-way ANOVA statistics. Z test was used to see the significant difference between OPG and DVT. Results. In the present study the interexaminer reliability for OPG and DVT was 0.903 and 0.978, respectively. Intraexaminer reliability for OPG and DVT was 0.908 and 0.980, respectively. The most common condylar bony change seen in OPG and DVT was erosion followed by flattening and osteophyte. There was significant difference between OPG and DVT in detecting erosion and osteophytes. The other changes observed in our study were Ely’s cyst, pointed condyle, and bifid condyle. All the bony changes are more commonly seen in females than males. Conclusion. DVT provides more valid and accurate information on condylar bony changes. The DVT has an added advantage of lesser radiation exposure to the patient and cost effectiveness and could be easily accessible in a dental hospital. Ujwala Shivarama Shetty, Krishna N. Burde, Venkatesh G. Naikmasur, and Atul P. Sattur Copyright © 2014 Ujwala Shivarama Shetty et al. All rights reserved. Aortoenteric Fistula as a Complication of Open Reconstruction and Endovascular Repair of Abdominal Aorta Sun, 14 Sep 2014 09:29:12 +0000 The paper intends to present a review of imaging characteristics of secondary aortoenteric fistula (AEF). Mechanical injury, infection, and adherence of a bowel segment to the aorta or aortic graft are major etiologic factors of AEF after open aortic repair. The pathogenesis of AEF formation after endovascular abdominal aortic repair is related to mechanical failure of the stent-graft, to stent graft infection, and to persistent pressurization of the aneurysmal sac. The major clinical manifestations of AEF comprise haematemesis, melaena, abdominal pain, sepsis, and fever. CT is the initial diagnostic modality of choice in a stable patient. However, the majority of reported CT appearances are not specific. In case of equivocal CT scans and clinical suspicion of AEF, scintigraphy, 67Ga citrate scans or 18F-FDG PET/CT is useful. Diagnostic accuracy of endoscopy in evaluation of AEF is low; nevertheless it allows to evaluate other than AEF etiologies of gastrointestinal bleeding. Without adequate therapy, AEF is lethal. Conventional surgical treatment is associated with high morbidity and mortality. The endovascular repair may be an option in hemodynamically unstable and high-risk surgical patients. We also illustrate an example of a secondary AEF with highly specific albeit rare radiologic picture from our institution. Marek Tagowski, Hendryk Vieweg, Christian Wissgott, and Reimer Andresen Copyright © 2014 Marek Tagowski et al. All rights reserved. Multidetector Computer Tomography: Evaluation of Blunt Chest Trauma in Adults Mon, 08 Sep 2014 07:47:24 +0000 Imaging plays an essential part of chest trauma care. By definition, the employed imaging technique in the emergency setting should reach the correct diagnosis as fast as possible. In severe chest blunt trauma, multidetector computer tomography (MDCT) has become part of the initial workup, mainly due to its high sensitivity and diagnostic accuracy of the technique for the detection and characterization of thoracic injuries and also due to its wide availability in tertiary care centers. The aim of this paper is to review and illustrate a spectrum of characteristic MDCT findings of blunt traumatic injuries of the chest including the lungs, mediastinum, pleural space, and chest wall. João Palas, António P. Matos, Vasco Mascarenhas, Vasco Herédia, and Miguel Ramalho Copyright © 2014 João Palas et al. All rights reserved. Evaluation of Hemodynamics in Focal Steatosis and Focal Spared Lesion of the Liver Using Contrast-Enhanced Ultrasonography with Sonazoid Mon, 04 Aug 2014 00:00:00 +0000 We aim to investigate the hemodynamics in focal steatosis and focal spared lesion of the liver using contrast-enhanced ultrasonography (CEUS) with Sonazoid. The subjects were 47 patients with focal steatosis and focal spared lesion. We evaluated enhancement patterns (hyperenhancement, isoenhancement, and hypoenhancement) in the vascular phase and the presence or absence of a hypoechoic area in the postvascular phase for these lesions using CEUS. Of the 24 patients with focal steatosis, the enhancement pattern was isoenhancement in 19 and hypoenhancement in 5. Hypoechoic areas were noted in the postvascular phase in 3 patients. Of the 23 patients with focal spared lesions, the enhancement pattern was isoenhancement in 18 and hyperenhancement in 5. No hypoechoic areas were noted in the postvascular phase in any patient. The hemodynamics in focal steatosis and focal spared lesions in nondiffuse fatty liver can be observed using low-invasive procedures in real-time by CEUS. It was suggested that differences in the dynamics of enhancement in the vascular phase of CEUS were influenced by the fat deposits in the target lesion, the surrounding liver parenchyma, and the third inflow. Kazue Shiozawa, Manabu Watanabe, Takashi Ikehara, Michio Kogame, Mie Shinohara, Masao Shinohara, Koji Ishii, Yoshinori Igarashi, Hiroyuki Makino, and Yasukiyo Sumino Copyright © 2014 Kazue Shiozawa et al. All rights reserved. Rapid Automated Target Segmentation and Tracking on 4D Data without Initial Contours Sun, 03 Aug 2014 13:04:22 +0000 Purpose. To achieve rapid automated delineation of gross target volume (GTV) and to quantify changes in volume/position of the target for radiotherapy planning using four-dimensional (4D) CT. Methods and Materials. Novel morphological processing and successive localization (MPSL) algorithms were designed and implemented for achieving autosegmentation. Contours automatically generated using MPSL method were compared with contours generated using state-of-the-art deformable registration methods (using and MIMVista software). Metrics such as the Dice similarity coefficient, sensitivity, and positive predictive value (PPV) were analyzed. The target motion tracked using the centroid of the GTV estimated using MPSL method was compared with motion tracked using deformable registration methods. Results. MPSL algorithm segmented the GTV in 4DCT images in seconds per phase ( resolution) as compared to seconds per phase for deformable registration based methods in 9 cases. Dice coefficients between MPSL generated GTV contours and manual contours (considered as ground-truth) were . In comparison, the Dice coefficients between ground-truth and contours generated using deformable registration based methods were 0.909 ± 0.051. Conclusions. The MPSL method achieved similar segmentation accuracy as compared to state-of-the-art deformable registration based segmentation methods, but with significant reduction in time required for GTV segmentation. Venkata V. Chebrolu, Daniel Saenz, Dinesh Tewatia, William A. Sethares, George Cannon, and Bhudatt R. Paliwal Copyright © 2014 Venkata V. Chebrolu et al. All rights reserved. Endovascular Embolisation of Visceral Artery Pseudoaneurysms Tue, 15 Jul 2014 00:00:00 +0000 Objective. To evaluate the technical success, safety, and outcome of endovascular embolization procedure in management of visceral artery pseudoaneurysms. Materials and Methods. 46 patients were treated for 53 visceral pseudoaneurysms at our institution. Preliminary diagnostic workup in all cases was performed by contrast enhanced abdominal CT scan and/or duplex ultrasound. In all patients, embolization was performed as per the standard departmental protocol. For data collection, medical records and radiology reports of all patients were retrospectively reviewed. Technical success, safety, and outcome of the procedure were analyzed. Results. Out of 46 patients, 13 were females and 33 were males. Mean patient age was years and mean pseudoaneurysm size was  mm. Technical success rate for endovascular visceral pseudoaneurysm coiling was 93.47% . Complication rate was 6.52% . Followup was done for a mean duration of months (0.5–69 months). Complete resolution of symptoms or improvement in clinical condition was seen in 36 patients (80%) out of those 45 in whom procedure was technically successful. Conclusion. Results of embolization of visceral artery pseudoaneurysms with coils at our center showed high success rate and good short term outcome. Yasir Jamil Khattak, Tariq Alam, Rana Hamid Shoaib, Raza Sayani, Tanveer-ul Haq, and Muhammad Awais Copyright © 2014 Yasir Jamil Khattak et al. All rights reserved.