- About this Journal
- Abstracting and Indexing
- Aims and Scope
- Article Processing Charges
- Articles in Press
- Author Guidelines
- Bibliographic Information
- Citations to this Journal
- Contact Information
- Editorial Board
- Editorial Workflow
- Free eTOC Alerts
- Publication Ethics
- Reviewers Acknowledgment
- Submit a Manuscript
- Subscription Information
- Table of Contents
Volume 2013 (2013), Article ID 147541, 11 pages
Dkk-3, a Secreted Wnt Antagonist, Suppresses Tumorigenic Potential and Pulmonary Metastasis in Osteosarcoma
1Department of Oncology, CHOC Children’s Hospital, 455 South Main Street, Orange, CA 92868, USA
2Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, University of California, Irvine, 101 The City Drive South, Orange, CA 92868, USA
3Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, University of California, Irvine, 101 The City Drive South, Building 56, Suite 260, Orange, CA 92868, USA
4Department of Urology, University of California, Irvine, 101 The City Drive South, Building 55, Suite 302, Orange, CA 92868, USA
5Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of California, Irvine, 101 The City Drive South, Orange, CA 92868, USA
6Department of Orthopaedic Surgery and Chao Family Comprehensive Cancer Center, University of California, Irvine, 101 The City Drive South, Orange, CA 92868, USA
Received 7 July 2012; Revised 10 December 2012; Accepted 16 December 2012
Academic Editor: H. Gelderblom
Copyright © 2013 Carol H. Lin et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
- G. Bacci, S. Ferrari, F. Bertoni et al., “Long-term outcome for patients with nonmetastatic osteosarcoma of the extremity treated at the istituto ortopedico rizzoli according to the istituto ortopedico rizzoli/osteosarcoma-2 protocol: an updated report,” Journal of Clinical Oncology, vol. 18, no. 24, pp. 4016–4027, 2000.
- S. S. Bielack, B. Kempf-Bielack, G. Delling et al., “Prognostic factors in high-grade osteosarcoma of the extremities or trunk: an analysis of 1,702 patients treated on neoadjuvant cooperative osteosarcoma study group protocols,” Journal of Clinical Oncology, vol. 20, no. 3, pp. 776–790, 2002.
- L. Kager, A. Zoubek, U. Pötschger et al., “Primary metastatic osteosarcoma: presentation and outcome of patients treated on neoadjuvant cooperative osteosarcoma study group protocols,” Journal of Clinical Oncology, vol. 21, no. 10, pp. 2011–2018, 2003.
- V. Mialou, T. Philip, C. Kalifa et al., “Metastatic osteosarcoma at diagnosis: prognostic factors and long-term outcome—the French pediatric experience,” Cancer, vol. 104, no. 5, pp. 1100–1109, 2005.
- J. B. Hayden and B. H. Hoang, “Osteosarcoma: basic science and clinical implications,” Orthopedic Clinics of North America, vol. 37, no. 1, pp. 1–7, 2006.
- B. T. MacDonald, K. Tamai, and X. He, “Wnt/β-catenin signaling: components, mechanisms, and diseases,” Developmental Cell, vol. 17, no. 1, pp. 9–26, 2009.
- R. T. Moon, “Wnt/beta-catenin pathway,” Science's STKE, vol. 2005, no. 271, article cm1, 2005.
- C. Jamieson, M. Sharma, and B. R. Henderson, “Wnt signaling from membrane to nucleus: beta-catenin caught in a loop,” The International Journal of Biochemistry & Cell Biology, vol. 44, no. 6, pp. 847–850, 2012.
- H. H. Luu, R. Zhang, R. C. Haydon et al., “Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway as novel cancer drug targets,” Current Cancer Drug Targets, vol. 4, no. 8, pp. 653–671, 2004.
- B. H. Hoang, T. Kubo, J. H. Healey et al., “Dickkopf 3 inhibits invasion and motility of saos-2 osteosarcoma cells by modulating the Wnt-β-catenin pathway,” Cancer Research, vol. 64, no. 8, pp. 2734–2739, 2004.
- S. Y. Hsieh, P. S. Hsieh, C. T. Chiu, and W. Y. Chen, “Dickkopf-3/REIC functions as a suppressor gene of tumor growth,” Oncogene, vol. 23, no. 57, pp. 9183–9189, 2004.
- K. Zhang, M. Watanabe, Y. Kashiwakura et al., “Expression pattern of REIC/Dkk-3 in various cell types and the implications of the soluble form in prostatic acinar development,” International Journal of Oncology, vol. 37, no. 6, pp. 1495–1501, 2010.
- I. L. Jung, J. K. Hyo, C. K. Kug, and G. K. In, “Knockdown of the Dickkopf 3 gene induces apoptosis in a lung adenocarcinoma,” International Journal of Molecular Medicine, vol. 26, no. 1, pp. 33–38, 2010.
- S. Kuphal, S. Lodermeyer, F. Bataille, M. Schuierer, B. H. Hoang, and A. K. Bosserhoff, “Expression of Dickkopf genes is strongly reduced in malignant melanoma,” Oncogene, vol. 25, no. 36, pp. 5027–5036, 2006.
- P. Polakis, “Wnt signaling and cancer,” Genes and Development, vol. 14, no. 15, pp. 1837–1851, 2000.
- Y. Mizobuchi, K. Matsuzaki, K. Kuwayama et al., “REIC/Dkk-3 induces cell death in human malignant glioma,” Neuro-Oncology, vol. 10, no. 3, pp. 244–253, 2008.
- K. Ueno, H. Hirata, S. Majid et al., “Wnt antagonist DICKKOPF-3 (Dkk-3) induces apoptosis in human renal cell carcinoma,” Molecular Carcinogenesis, vol. 50, no. 6, pp. 449–457, 2011.
- C. Zenzmaier, G. Untergasser, M. Hermann, S. Dirnhofer, N. Sampson, and P. Berger, “Dysregulation of Dkk-3 expression in benign and malignant prostatic tissue,” Prostate, vol. 68, no. 5, pp. 540–547, 2008.
- R. Tanimoto, F. Abarzua, M. Sakaguchi et al., “REIC/Dkk-3 as a potential gene therapeutic agent against human testicular cancer,” International Journal of Molecular Medicine, vol. 19, no. 3, pp. 363–368, 2007.
- Z. R. Yang, W. G. Dong, X. F. Lei, et al., “Overexpression of Dickkopf-3 induces apoptosis through mitochondrial pathway in human colon cancer,” World Journal of Gastroenterology, vol. 18, no. 14, pp. 1590–1601, 2012.
- Y. Guo, X. Zi, Z. Koontz et al., “Blocking Wnt/LRP5 signaling by a soluble receptor modulates the epithelial to mesenchymal transition and suppresses met and metalloproteinases in osteosarcoma Saos-2 cells,” Journal of Orthopaedic Research, vol. 25, no. 7, pp. 964–971, 2007.
- J. Veeck and E. Dahl, “Targeting the Wnt pathway in cancer: the emerging role of Dickkopf-3,” Biochimica et Biophysica Acta, vol. 1825, no. 1, pp. 18–28, 2012.
- B. Wu, S. P. Crampton, and C. C. W. Hughes, “Wnt Signaling induces matrix metalloproteinase expression and regulates T cell transmigration,” Immunity, vol. 26, no. 2, pp. 227–239, 2007.
- M. Uchibori, Y. Nishida, T. Nagasaka, Y. Yamada, K. Nakanishi, and N. Ishiguro, “Increased expression of membrane-type matrix metalloproteinase-1 is correlated with poor prognosis in patients with osteosarcoma,” International Journal of Oncology, vol. 28, no. 1, pp. 33–42, 2006.
- K. F. Becker, E. Rosivatz, K. Blechschmidt, E. Kremmer, M. Sarbia, and H. Höfler, “Analysis of the E-cadherin repressor snail in primary human cancers,” Cells Tissues Organs, vol. 185, no. 1–3, pp. 204–212, 2007.
- P. McQueen, S. Ghaffar, Y. Guo, et al., “The Wnt signaling pathway: implications for therapy in osteosarcoma,” Expert Review of Anticancer Therapy, vol. 11, no. 8, pp. 1223–1232, 2011.
- Y. Kang and J. Massagué, “Epithelial-mesenchymal transitions: twist in development and metastasis,” Cell, vol. 118, no. 3, pp. 277–279, 2004.
- L. R. Howe, O. Watanabe, J. Leonard, and A. M. C. Brown, “Twist is up-regulated in response to Wnt1 and inhibits mouse mammary cell differentiation,” Cancer Research, vol. 63, no. 8, pp. 1906–1913, 2003.
- S. C. Garrett, K. M. Varney, D. J. Weber, and A. R. Bresnick, “S100A4, a mediator of metastasis,” Journal of Biological Chemistry, vol. 281, no. 2, pp. 677–680, 2006.
- M. Fujiwara, T. G. Kashima, A. Kunita et al., “Stable knockdown of S100A4 suppresses cell migration and metastasis of osteosarcoma,” Tumour Biology, vol. 32, no. 3, pp. 611–622, 2011.
- G. Zhang, M. Li, J. Jin, et al., “Knockdown of S100A4 decreases tumorigenesis and metastasis in osteosarcoma cells by repression of matrix metalloproteinase-9,” Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention, vol. 12, no. 8, pp. 2075–2080, 2011.
- N. Coltella, M. C. Manara, V. Cerisano et al., “Role of the MET/HGF receptor in proliferation and invasive behavior of osteosarcoma,” The FASEB Journal, vol. 17, no. 9, pp. 1162–1164, 2003.
- B. H. Hoang, T. Kubo, J. H. Healey et al., “Expression of LDL receptor-related protein 5 (LRP5) as a novel marker for disease progression in high-grade osteosarcoma,” International Journal of Cancer, vol. 109, no. 1, pp. 106–111, 2004.