Table 2: Major cell types with potentials for cardiac cell therapy.

TypeMarkersAdvantagesDisadvantages

Embryonic stem cells (ESCs)
Blastocysts (inner cell mass)
Totipotent and highly expandableImmunosuppression required, ethical debate, lack of availability, and tumour potential

IPS (induced pluripotent cell)
Fibroblast (by reprogramming adult somatic cells with genes regulating ESC pluripotency)
Pluripotent indistinguishable from ESCs at the epigenetic and functional levels. Embryonic stem cell like autologous adult cells for cell therapyTumourigenesis

Adult/Fetal cardiomyocytes Isl+, Lin c-kit+ Sca-1+ cardiosphere cells, SP cellsMultipotent
Cardiomyocyte phenotype
Electro-physiologically compatible
Immunosuppression required, ethical debate, short survival, and limited supply

Skeletal myoblasts satellite cells CD56+Autologous transplantation, lack of immunogenicity and high yield and fatigue resistant, slow twitch fibersElectrophysiologically uncompatible, lack of gap junction, arrhythmogenic

Hematopoietic stem cells
Bone marrow/peripheral blood
CD34+, CD45+, CD133+Multipotent, lack of immunogenicity and autologous transplantation, different lineage of cells Quantum of cell population not adequate

Mesenchymal Stem Cells
Bone marrow Stromal/muscle, skin, and adipose tissue
Adhesion molecules (ALCAM/CD44)
Antigens (SH2/SH3/SH4/STRO-1)
Allogenic/autologous transplantation, lack of immunogenicity (lack MHCII and B7 expression), pluripotent and cryopreservable for future useRequires expansion

Endothelial progenitor cells Bone marrow/peripheral bloodCD133+Autologous transplantation, monopotent, lack of immunogenicityNeed for expansion because of limited supply