Table 1: A review of the published studies on growth factors and spinal cord injury.

ReferenceModel (animal/injury/level)Factor GraftHistological effectFunctional effect

Grill et al., [78]Rat/dorsal hemisection and dorsal column lesion/T7NT321FibroblastCorticospinal axon growthLocomotor score improvement

Houweling et al., [66]Rat/partial transection/T9BDNF9 NANoneLocomotor score improvement within 1 week of injury; none at later f/u

McTigue et al., [67]Rat/contusion/T8NT36FibroblastCell growth into graft, remyelinationNA
BDNF12FibroblastCell growth into graft, remyelinationNA
bFGF5FibroblastNoneNA
NGF5FibroblastNoneNA

Lee et al., [73]Rat/contusion/T10bFGF5NAReduction in necrosisNA
NGF5NANoneNA

Liu et al., [68]Rat/partial hemisection/C3BDNF72FibroblastRubrospinal axon regenerationPartial recovery of forelimb function

Rabchevsky et al., [76]Rat/contusion/T10bFGF18NAReduction in necrosisPartial recovery of motor function at all f/u (up to 6 weeks)

Namiki et al., [69]Rat/compression/T3BDNF6NANone
Higher inclined plane score 1 week following injury; none at later f/u
NGF6NANoneNone
NT36NANoneNone

Rabchevsky et al., [77]Rat/contusion/T10bFGF16NANonePartial recovery of motor function at all f/u (up to 6 weeks)

Tuszynski et al., 2002Rat/dorsal hemisection /T7NT366FibroblastCorticospinal axon growthLocomotor score improvement

Blesch and Tuszynski, [4]Rat/complete transection and dorsal hemisection/T7GDNF44FibroblastCell growth into graft, remyelinationNone at 4 weeks (first f/u) and beyond.

Brock et al., [70]Primate/lateral hemisection/C7BDNF & NT37FibroblastNeural growth into graft, neuroprotection of corticospinal neuronsNA