Table 1: The influence of ECs on the multipotency of tissue-specific MSCs.

Niche ComponentModelStem cell surrogateNiche surrogateLineage assessedEffect on differentiationContextProposed mechanismInvestigator

Endothelial cell3DASCHUVECOsteogenesisParacrine↑WntRajashekhar et al. [187]
Endothelial cell3DASCHUVECOsteogenesisJuxtacrine↑WntRajashekhar et al. [187]
Endothelial cell2DBMSCHUVECOsteogenesisParacrine(Dkk1-Wnt, FGF, PDGF, BMP, TGFβ, Notch)Saleh et al. [188]
Endothelial cell2DBMSCHUVECAdipogenesisParacrineSaleh et al. [189]
Endothelial cell2DBMSCHUVECOsteogenesisJuxtacrineXue et al. [190]
Endothelial cell2DBMSCHDMECOsteogenesisJuxtacrineBMP-2Kaigler et al. [191]
Endothelial cell2DBMSCHDMECosteogenesisParacrineKaigler et al. [191]
Endothelial cell2DBMSCHDMECOsteogenesisJuxtacrineN-cadherinLi et al. [192]
Endothelial cell2DBMSCHDMECOsteogenesisParacrineVEGFGrellier et al. [193]
Endothelial cell2DBMSCHDMECOsteogenesisParacrineOsterix/OSXMeury et al. [194]
Endothelial cell2DBMSCHUVECOsteogenesisJuxtacrineCx43/gap junctionsVillars et al. [195]
Endothelial cell2DBMSCHUVECOsteogenesisJuxtacrineVillars et al. [196]
Endothelial cell2DHOPHUVECOsteogenesisJuxtacrineGuillotin et al. [197]
Endothelial cell2DHOPEPC, HSVECOsteogenesisJuxtacrineCx43/gap junctionsGuillotin et al. [197]