Stem Cells International The latest articles from Hindawi Publishing Corporation © 2015 , Hindawi Publishing Corporation . All rights reserved. Bone Marrow-Derived Mesenchymal Stem Cells Repair Necrotic Pancreatic Tissue and Promote Angiogenesis by Secreting Cellular Growth Factors Involved in the SDF-1α/CXCR4 Axis in Rats Wed, 25 Feb 2015 08:24:19 +0000 Acute pancreatitis (AP), a common acute abdominal disease, 10%–20% of which can evolve into severe acute pancreatitis (SAP), is of significant morbidity and mortality. Bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs) have been reported to have a potential therapeutic role on SAP, but the specific mechanism is unclear. Therefore, we conducted this experiment to shed light on the probable mechanism. We validated that SDF-1α significantly stimulated the expressions of VEGF, ANG-1, HGF, TGF-β, and CXCR4 in BMSCs, which were inhibited by its receptor agonist, AMD3100. The capacities of proliferation, migration, and repair of human umbilical vein endothelial cells were enhanced by BMSCs supernatant. Meanwhile, BMSCs supernatant could also promote angiogenesis, especially after the stimulation with SDF-1α. In vivo, the migration of BMSCs was regulated by SDF-1α/CXCR4 axis. Moreover, transplanted BMSCs could significantly alleviate SAP, reduce the systematic inflammation (TNF-, IL- IL-6↓, IL-4↑, IL-10↑, and TGF-, and promote tissue repair and angiogenesis (VEGF↑, ANG-1↑, HGF↑, TGF-, and CD31↑), compared with the SAP and anti-CXCR4 groups. Taken together, the results showed that BMSCs ameliorated SAP and the SDF-1α/CXCR4 axis was involved in the repair and regeneration process. Daohai Qian, Jian Gong, Zhigang He, Jie Hua, Shengping Lin, Chenglei Xu, Hongbo Meng, and Zhenshun Song Copyright © 2015 Daohai Qian et al. All rights reserved. Diversity of Epithelial Stem Cell Types in Adult Lung Tue, 24 Feb 2015 13:02:53 +0000 Lung is a complex organ lined with epithelial cells. In order to maintain its homeostasis and normal functions following injuries caused by varied extraneous and intraneous insults, such as inhaled environmental pollutants and overwhelming inflammatory responses, the respiratory epithelium normally undergoes regenerations by the proliferation and differentiation of region-specific epithelial stem/progenitor cells that resided in distinct niches along the airway tree. The importance of local epithelial stem cell niches in the specification of lung stem/progenitor cells has been recently identified. Studies using cell differentiating and lineage tracing assays, in vitro and/or ex vivo models, and genetically engineered mice have suggested that these local epithelial stem/progenitor cells within spatially distinct regions along the pulmonary tree contribute to the injury repair of epithelium adjacent to their respective niches. This paper reviews recent findings in the identification and isolation of region-specific epithelial stem/progenitor cells and local niches along the airway tree and the potential link of epithelial stem cells for the development of lung cancer. Feng Li, Jinxi He, Jun Wei, William C. Cho, and Xiaoming Liu Copyright © 2015 Feng Li et al. All rights reserved. Neuroprotective and Antiapoptotic Activity of Lineage-Negative Bone Marrow Cells after Intravitreal Injection in a Mouse Model of Acute Retinal Injury Tue, 24 Feb 2015 11:28:49 +0000 We investigated effects of bone marrow-derived, lineage-negative cell (Lin−BMC) transplantation in acute retinal injury. Lin−BMCs were intravitreally injected into murine eyes at 24 h after NaIO3-induced injury. Morphology, function, and expression of apoptosis-related genes, including brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and its receptor, were assessed in retinas at 7 days, 28 days, and 3 months after transplantation. Moreover, global gene expression at day 7 was analyzed by RNA arrays. We observed that Lin−BMCs integrated into outer retinal layers improving morphological retinal structure and induced molecular changes such as downregulation of proapoptotic caspase-3 gene, a decrease in BAX/BCL-2 gene ratio, and significant elevation of BDNF expression. Furthermore, transplanted Lin−BMCs differentiated locally into cells with a macrophage-like phenotype. Finally, Lin−BMCs treatment was associated with generation of two distinct transcriptomic patterns. The first relates to downregulated genes associated with regulation of neuron cell death and apoptosis, response to oxidative stress/hypoxia and external stimuli, and negative regulation of cell proliferation. The second relates to upregulated genes associated with neurological system processes and sensory perception. Collectively, our data demonstrate that transplanted Lin−BMCs exert neuroprotective function against acute retinal injury and this effect may be associated with their antiapoptotic properties and ability to express neurotrophic factors. Anna Machalińska, Dorota Rogińska, Ewa Pius-Sadowska, Miłosz P. Kawa, Edyta Paczkowska, Michał Rudnicki, Renata Lejkowska, Bartłomiej Baumert, Barbara Wiszniewska, and Bogusław Machaliński Copyright © 2015 Anna Machalińska et al. All rights reserved. A Clinical Study of Autologous Bone Marrow Mononuclear Cells for Cerebral Palsy Patients: A New Frontier Wed, 18 Feb 2015 13:43:07 +0000 Cerebral palsy is a nonprogressive heterogeneous group of neurological disorders with a growing rate of prevalence. Recently, cellular therapy is emerging as a potential novel treatment strategy for cerebral palsy. The various mechanisms by which cellular therapy works include neuroprotection, immunomodulation, neurorestoration, and neurogenesis. We conducted an open label, nonrandomized study on 40 cases of cerebral palsy with an aim of evaluating the benefit of cellular therapy in combination with rehabilitation. These cases were administered autologous bone marrow mononuclear cells intrathecally. The follow-up was carried out at 1 week, 3 months, and 6 months after the intervention. Adverse events of the treatment were also monitored in this duration. Overall, at six months, 95% of patients showed improvements. The study population was further divided into diplegic, quadriplegic, and miscellaneous group of cerebral palsy. On statistical analysis, a significant association was established between the symptomatic improvements and cell therapy in diplegic and quadriplegic cerebral palsy. PET-CT scan done in 6 patients showed metabolic improvements in areas of the brain correlating to clinical improvements. The results of this study demonstrate that cellular therapy may accelerate the development, reduce disability, and improve the quality of life of patients with cerebral palsy. Alok Sharma, Hemangi Sane, Nandini Gokulchandran, Pooja Kulkarni, Sushant Gandhi, Jyothi Sundaram, Amruta Paranjape, Akshata Shetty, Khushboo Bhagwanani, Hema Biju, and Prerna Badhe Copyright © 2015 Alok Sharma et al. All rights reserved. Effects of Transient Hypoxia versus Prolonged Hypoxia on Satellite Cell Proliferation and Differentiation In Vivo Wed, 18 Feb 2015 13:01:45 +0000 The microenvironment of the injury site can have profound effects on wound healing. Muscle injury results in ischemia leading to short-term local hypoxia, but there are conflicting reports on the role of hypoxia on the myogenic program in vivo and in vitro. In our rat model of mitochondrial restoration (MR), temporary upregulation of mitochondrial activity by a cocktail of organelle-encoded RNAs results in satellite cell proliferation and initiation of myogenesis. We now report that MR leads to a transient hypoxic response in situ. Inhibition of hypoxia by lowering mitochondrial O2 consumption, either by respiratory electron transport inhibitors, or by NO-mediated inhibition of O2 binding to cytochrome c oxidase, resulted in exacerbation of inflammation. Lentivirus-mediated knockdown of hypoxia-inducible factor 1α (HIF1α) or of Notch signaling components had a similar effect, and pharmacologic inhibition of HIF or Notch reduced the number of proliferating Pax7+ cells. In contrast, a prolonged hypoxic response induced either by uncoupling of respiration from oxidative phosphorylation or through HIF stabilization by dimethyloxalylglycine (DMOG) had an immediate anti-inflammatory effect. Although significant satellite cell proliferation occurred in presence of DMOG, expression of differentiation markers was affected. These results emphasize the importance of transient hypoxia as opposed to prolonged hypoxia for myogenesis. Sukanta Jash and Samit Adhya Copyright © 2015 Sukanta Jash and Samit Adhya. All rights reserved. Immune Suppressive Effects of Tonsil-Derived Mesenchymal Stem Cells on Mouse Bone-Marrow-Derived Dendritic Cells Mon, 16 Feb 2015 14:00:25 +0000 Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are considered valuable sources for cell therapy because of their immune regulatory function. Here, we investigated the effects of tonsil-derived MSCs (T-MSCs) on the differentiation, maturation, and function of dendritic cells (DCs). We examined the effect of T-MSCs on differentiation and maturation of bone-marrow- (BM-) derived monocytes into DCs and we found suppressive effect of T-MSCs on DCs via direct contact as well as soluble mediators. Moreover, T cell proliferation, normally increased in the presence of DCs, was inhibited by T-MSCs. Differentiation of CD4+ T cell subsets by the DC-T cell interaction also was inhibited by T-MSCs. The soluble mediators suppressed by T-MSCs were granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF), RANTES, interleukin-6 (IL-6), and monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1). Taken together, T-MSCs exert immune modulatory function via suppression of the differentiation, maturation, and function of BM-derived DCs. Our data suggests that T-MSCs could be used as a novel source of stem cell therapy as immune modulators. Minhwa Park, Yu-Hee Kim, Jung-Hwa Ryu, So-Youn Woo, and Kyung-Ha Ryu Copyright © 2015 Minhwa Park et al. All rights reserved. CXCL13 Promotes Osteogenic Differentiation of Mesenchymal Stem Cells by Inhibiting miR-23a Expression Mon, 16 Feb 2015 13:33:12 +0000 CXC chemokines are essential for osteogenic differentiation of bone mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs) for use in bone tissue engineering and regenerative medicine in clinical settings. However, an accurate understanding of the underlying mechanisms is still needed. In this study, we analyzed the effects of CXC chemokine ligand-13 (CXCL13) on osteogenic differentiation of rat BMSCs and initiated a preliminary discussion on possible mechanisms. BMSCs were isolated from bone marrow of rat and incubated with CXCL13 recombinant protein in differentiation medium. The main osteogenesis indexes were alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity and calcium nodes. Expression of Runx2 and CXCR5 was determined using western blot, while miRNAs were determined with quantitative-RT-PCR. Si-CXCR5 was transfected into MSCs to silence CXCR5. A miRNA-23a mimic was transfected into BMSCs for overexpression of miRNA-23a. Recombinant CXCL13 induced ALP activity, deposition of calcium salts, and formation of calcium nodes, and it also increased expression of Runx2. The expression of recombinant CXCL13 suppressed expression of miRNA-23a. Overexpression of miR-23a reversed CXCL13 induced-osteogenic differentiation of BMSCs and expression of Runx2. Recombinant CXCL13 attenuated the interaction of miRNA-23a with the Runx2 3′UTR. Silencing of CXCR5 abrogated recombinant CXCL13-induced downregulation of miRNA-23a expression. In summary, CXCL13 promotes osteogenic differentiation of BMSCs by inhibiting miR-23a expression. Feng Tian, Xiang-lu Ji, Wan-an Xiao, Bin Wang, and Fei Wang Copyright © 2015 Feng Tian et al. All rights reserved. Matrix Metalloproteinase 9 Secreted by Hypoxia Cardiac Fibroblasts Triggers Cardiac Stem Cell Migration In Vitro Thu, 12 Feb 2015 07:03:04 +0000 Cessation of blood supply due to myocardial infarction (MI) leads to complicated pathological alteration in the affected regions. Cardiac stem cells (CSCs) migration plays a major role in promoting recovery of cardiac function and protecting cardiomyocytes in post-MI remodeling. Despite being the most abundant cell type in the mammalian heart, cardiac fibroblasts (CFs) were underestimated in the mechanism of CSCs migration. Our objective in this study is therefore to investigate the migration related factors secreted by hypoxia CFs in vitro and the degree that they contribute to CSCs migration. We found that supernatant from hypoxia induced CFs could accelerate CSCs migration. Four migration-related cytokines were reported upregulated both in mRNA and protein levels. Upon adding antagonists of these cytokines, the number of migration cells significantly declined. When the cocktail antagonists of all above four cytokines were added, the migration cells number reduced to the minimum level. Besides, MMP-9 had an important effect on triggering CSCs migration. As shown in our results, MMP-9 induced CSCs migration and the underlying mechanism might involve TNF-α signaling which induced VEGF and MMP-9 expression. Qing Gao, Maojuan Guo, Wenyun Zeng, Yijing Wang, Lin Yang, Xiaoli Pang, Huhu Li, Yanrong Suo, Xijuan Jiang, and Chunquan Yu Copyright © 2015 Qing Gao et al. All rights reserved. Alkaline Phosphatase in Stem Cells Thu, 12 Feb 2015 06:37:39 +0000 Alkaline phosphatase is an enzyme commonly expressed in almost all living organisms. In humans and other mammals, determinations of the expression and activity of alkaline phosphatase have frequently been used for cell determination in developmental studies and/or within clinical trials. Alkaline phosphatase also seems to be one of the key markers in the identification of pluripotent embryonic stem as well as related cells. However, alkaline phosphatases exist in some isoenzymes and isoforms, which have tissue specific expressions and functions. Here, the role of alkaline phosphatase as a stem cell marker is discussed in detail. First, we briefly summarize contemporary knowledge of mammalian alkaline phosphatases in general. Second, we focus on the known facts of its role in and potential significance for the identification of stem cells. Kateřina Štefková, Jiřina Procházková, and Jiří Pacherník Copyright © 2015 Kateřina Štefková et al. All rights reserved. Satellite Cells: Regenerative Mechanisms and Applicability in Muscular Dystrophy Wed, 11 Feb 2015 09:23:45 +0000 The satellite cells are long regarded as heterogeneous cell population, which is intimately linked to the processes of muscular recovery. The heterogeneous cell population may be classified by specific markers. In spite of the significant amount of variation amongst the satellite cell populations, it seems that their activity is tightly bound to the paired box 7 transcription factor expression, which is, therefore, used as a canonical marker for these cells. Muscular dystrophic diseases, such as Duchenne muscular dystrophy, elicit severe tissue injuries leading those patients to display a very specific pattern of muscular recovery abnormalities. There have been works on the application of precursors cells as a therapeutic alternative for Duchenne muscular dystrophy and initial attempts have proven the cells inefficient; however later endeavours have proposed solutions for the experiments improving significantly the results. The presence of a range of satellite cells populations indicates the existence of specific cells with enhanced capability of muscular recovery in afflicted muscles. Gustavo Torres de Souza, Rafaella de Souza Salomão Zanette, Danielle Luciana Aurora Soares do Amaral, Francisco Carlos da Guia, Claudinéia Pereira Maranduba, Camila Maurmann de Souza, Ernesto da Silveira Goulart Guimarães, João Vitor Paes Rettore, Natana Chaves Rabelo, Antônio Márcio Resende do Carmo, Fernando de Sá Silva, and Carlos Magno da Costa Maranduba Copyright © 2015 Gustavo Torres de Souza et al. All rights reserved. Transdifferentiation of Human Hair Follicle Mesenchymal Stem Cells into Red Blood Cells by OCT4 Mon, 09 Feb 2015 10:10:00 +0000 Shortage of red blood cells (RBCs, erythrocytes) can have potentially life-threatening consequences for rare or unusual blood type patients with massive blood loss resulting from various conditions. Erythrocytes have been derived from human pluripotent stem cells (PSCs), but the risk of potential tumorigenicity cannot be ignored, and a majority of these cells produced from PSCs express embryonic ε- and fetal γ-globins with little or no adult β-globin and remain nucleated. Here we report a method to generate erythrocytes from human hair follicle mesenchymal stem cells (hHFMSCs) by enforcing OCT4 gene expression and cytokine stimulation. Cells generated from hHFMSCs expressed mainly the adult β-globin chain with minimum level of the fetal γ-globin chain. Furthermore, these cells also underwent multiple maturation events and formed enucleated erythrocytes with a biconcave disc shape. Gene expression analyses showed that OCT4 regulated the expression of genes associated with both pluripotency and erythroid development during hHFMSC transdifferentiation toward erythroid cells. These findings show that mature erythrocytes can be generated from adult somatic cells, which may serve as an alternative source of RBCs for potential autologous transfusion. Zhijing Liu, Shi-Jiang Lu, Yan Lu, Xiaohua Tan, Xiaowei Zhang, Minlan Yang, Fuming Zhang, Yulin Li, and Chengshi Quan Copyright © 2015 Zhijing Liu et al. All rights reserved. Characterization of Human Knee and Chin Adipose-Derived Stromal Cells Tue, 03 Feb 2015 11:33:38 +0000 Animal study findings have revealed that individual fat depots are not functionally equivalent and have different embryonic origins depending on the anatomic location. Mouse bone regeneration studies have also shown that it is essential to match the Hox code of transplanted cells and host tissues to achieve correct repair. However, subcutaneous fat depots from any donor site are often used in autologous fat grafting. Our study was thus carried out to determine the embryonic origins of human facial (chin) and limb (knee) fat depots and whether they had similar features and molecular matching patterns. Paired chin and knee fat depots were harvested from 11 subjects and gene expression profiles were determined by DNA microarray analyses. Adipose-derived stromal cells (ASCs) from both sites were isolated and analyzed for their capacity to proliferate, form clones, and differentiate. Chin and knee fat depots expressed a different HOX code and could have different embryonic origins. ASCs displayed a different phenotype, with chin-ASCs having the potential to differentiate into brown-like adipocytes, whereas knee-ASCs differentiated into white adipocytes. These results highlighted different features for these two fat sites and indicated that donor site selection might be an important factor to be considered when applying adipose tissue in cell-based therapies. Magali Kouidhi, Phi Villageois, Carine M. Mounier, Corinne Ménigot, Yves Rival, David Piwnica, Jérôme Aubert, Bérengère Chignon-Sicard, and Christian Dani Copyright © 2015 Magali Kouidhi et al. All rights reserved. The Role of MicroRNAs in Cardiac Stem Cells Sat, 31 Jan 2015 13:08:48 +0000 Stem cells are considered as the next generation drug treatment in patients with cardiovascular disease who are resistant to conventional treatment. Among several stem cells used in the clinical setting, cardiac stem cells (CSCs) which reside in the myocardium and epicardium of the heart have been shown to be an effective option for the source of stem cells. In normal circumstances, CSCs primarily function as a cell store to replace the physiologically depleted cardiovascular cells, while under the diseased condition they have been shown to experimentally regenerate the diseased myocardium. In spite of their major functional role, molecular mechanisms regulating the CSCs proliferation and differentiation are still unknown. MicroRNAs (miRs) are small, noncoding RNA molecules that regulate gene expression at the posttranscriptional level. Recent studies have demonstrated the important role of miRs in regulating stem cell proliferation and differentiation, as well as other physiological and pathological processes related to stem cell function. This review summarises the current understanding of the role of miRs in CSCs. A deeper understanding of the mechanisms by which miRs regulate CSCs may lead to advances in the mode of stem cell therapies for the treatment of cardiovascular diseases. Nima Purvis, Andrew Bahn, and Rajesh Katare Copyright © 2015 Nima Purvis et al. All rights reserved. Improvement of In Vitro Osteogenic Potential through Differentiation of Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells from Human Exfoliated Dental Tissue towards Mesenchymal-Like Stem Cells Sat, 31 Jan 2015 11:25:02 +0000 Constraints for the application of MSCs for bone reconstruction include restricted self-renewal and limited cell amounts. iPSC technology presents advantages over MSCs, providing homogeneous cellular populations with prolonged self-renewal and higher plasticity. However, it is unknown if the osteogenic potential of iPSCs differs from that of MSCs and if it depends on the iPSCs originating cellular source. Here, we compared the in vitro osteogenesis between stem cells from human deciduous teeth (SHED) and MSC-like cells from iPSCs from SHED (iPS-SHED) and from human dermal fibroblasts (iPS-FIB). MSC-like cells from iPS-SHED and iPS-FIB displayed fibroblast-like morphology, downregulation of pluripotency markers and upregulation of mesenchymal markers. Comparative in vitro osteogenesis analysis showed higher osteogenic potential in MSC-like cells from iPS-SHED followed by MSC-like cells from iPS-FIB and SHED. CD105 expression, reported to be inversely correlated with osteogenic potential in MSCs, did not display this pattern, considering that SHED presented lower CD105 expression. Higher osteogenic potential of MSC-like cells from iPS-SHED may be due to cellular homogeneity and/or to donor tissue epigenetic memory. Our findings strengthen the rationale for the use of iPSCs in bone bioengineering. Unveiling the molecular basis behind these differences is important for a thorough use of iPSCs in clinical scenarios. Felipe Augusto Andre Ishiy, Roberto Dalto Fanganiello, Karina Griesi-Oliveira, Angela May Suzuki, Gerson Shigeru Kobayashi, Andressa Gois Morales, Luciane Portas Capelo, and Maria Rita Passos-Bueno Copyright © 2015 Felipe Augusto Andre Ishiy et al. All rights reserved. The Organotypic Longitudinal Spinal Cord Slice Culture for Stem Cell Study Sat, 31 Jan 2015 07:45:21 +0000 The objective of this paper is to describe in detail the method of organotypic longitudinal spinal cord slice culture and the scientific basis for its potential utility. The technique is based on the interface method, which was described previously and thereafter was modified in our laboratory. The most important advantage of the presented model is the preservation of the intrinsic spinal cord fiber tract and the ventrodorsal polarity of the spinal cord. All the processes occurring during axonal growth, regeneration, synapse formation, and myelination could be visualized while being cultured in vitro for up to 4-5 weeks after the slices had been isolated. Both pups and adult animals can undergo the same, equally efficient procedures when going by the protocol in question. The urgent need for an appropriate in vitro model for spinal cord regeneration results from a greater number of clinical trials concerning regenerative medicine in the spinal cord injury and from still insufficient knowledge of the molecular mechanisms involved in the neuroreparative processes. The detailed method of organotypic longitudinal spinal cord slice culture is accompanied by examples of its application to studying biological processes to which both the CNS inhabiting and grafted cells are subjected. Joanna Sypecka, Sylwia Koniusz, Maria Kawalec, and Anna Sarnowska Copyright © 2015 Joanna Sypecka et al. All rights reserved. Low Oxygen Tension Enhances Osteogenic Potential of Bone Marrow-Derived Mesenchymal Stem Cells with Osteonecrosis-Related Functional Impairment Tue, 27 Jan 2015 08:37:06 +0000 Objective. Glucocorticoids can affect the function of bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (BMMSCs) adversely and merit the requirement for a strategy to correct this anomaly; we assessed the effect of low oxygen (2%) on BMMSCs from rabbits with osteonecrosis. Methods. Bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells from normal rabbits and rabbits with osteonecrosis were divided into four groups: (1) normal-normoxia group, with normal BMMSCs cultured under 20% oxygen; (2) osteonecrosis-normoxia group, with BMMSCs from rabbits with osteonecrosis cultured under 20% oxygen; (3) osteonecrosis-low oxygen treated group, with BMMSCs from rabbits with osteonecrosis cultured under 2% oxygen; (4) normal-low oxygen treated group, with normal BMMSCs cultured under 2% oxygen. The proliferation, osteogenic, and adipogenic differentiation of MSCs and expression of stemness genes, osteogenic, and adipogenic differentiation markers were investigated. Results. Compared with BMMSCs from normal rabbits, those from osteonecrosis rabbits showed significantly reduced proliferation ability, repressed expression of stemness genes, decreased osteoblasts formation, and increased adipocytes formation, indicating an osteonecrosis-related impairment. Low oxygen (2%) treated BMMSCs from osteonecrosis rabbits showed not only increased proliferation and osteogenic potential but also decreased adipogenic potential. Conclusion. Low oxygen (2%) culture represents a novel strategy to augment BMMSC function affected by glucocorticoids and holds significance for future strategies to treat femoral head osteonecrosis. Lihong Fan, Ruiyu Liu, Jia Li, Zhibin Shi, Xiaoqian Dang, and Kunzheng Wang Copyright © 2015 Lihong Fan et al. All rights reserved. Human Adipose Derived Stem Cells Induced Cell Apoptosis and S Phase Arrest in Bladder Tumor Tue, 27 Jan 2015 05:58:07 +0000 The aim of this study was to determine the effect of human adipose derived stem cells (ADSCs) on the viability and apoptosis of human bladder cancer cells. EJ and T24 cells were cocultured with ADSCs or cultured with conditioned medium of ADSCs (ADSC-CM), respectively. The cell counting and colony formation assay showed ADSCs inhibited the proliferation of EJ and T24 cells. Cell viability assessment revealed that the secretions of ADSCs, in the form of conditioned medium, were able to decrease cancer cell viability. Wound-healing assay suggested ADSC-CM suppressed migration of T24 and EJ cells. Moreover, the results of the flow cytometry indicated that ADSC-CM was capable of inducing apoptosis of T24 cells and inducing S phase cell cycle arrest. Western blot revealed ADSC-CM increased the expression of cleaved caspase-3 and cleaved PARP, indicating that ADSC-CM induced apoptosis in a caspase-dependent way. PTEN/PI3K/Akt pathway and Bcl-2 family proteins were involved in the mechanism of this reaction. Our study indicated that ADSCs may provide a promising and practicable manner for bladder tumor therapy. Xi Yu, Boxing Su, Peng Ge, Zicheng Wang, Sen Li, Bingwei Huang, Yanqing Gong, and Jian Lin Copyright © 2015 Xi Yu et al. All rights reserved. Multiple Myeloma Patients at Various Cytogenetic Risks Benefit Differently from Autologous Stem Cell Transplantation as a Consolidation Therapy Thu, 22 Jan 2015 13:45:58 +0000 Aim. To evaluate whether patients with multiple myeloma at various risks can still benefit the same from autologous stem cell transplantation consolidation in the era of novel agents. We retrospectively analyzed 67 consecutive myeloma patients receiving autologous stem cell transplantation after bortezomib and/or thalidomide based inductions. Totally 17 high-risk, 24 intermediate-risk, and 26 low-risk patients were enrolled, based on fluorescence in situ hybridization and ISS stage. Meanwhile, another 67 risk-, response depth-, and age-matched patients not proceeding to autologous stem cell transplantation were chosen as controls. Our preliminary data indicated that, in the high-risk subgroup, progression-free survival and overall survival were both significantly prolonged after autologous stem cell transplantation ( and ) while, in the intermediate-risk subgroup, neither progression-free survival nor overall survival was prolonged significantly after autologous stem cell transplantation (), and in the low-risk subgroup, only progression-free survival was extended significantly () after autologous stem cell transplantation. Multiple variables analysis further indicated that autologous stem cell transplantation and risk stratification were two independent prognostic factors for overall survival. Our results indicated that myeloma patients at different risks all benefit from autologous stem cell transplantation consolidation even in the era of novel agents. Tianmei Zeng, Lili Zhou, Hao Xi, Weijun Fu, Juan Du, Chunyang Zhang, Hua Jiang, and Jian Hou Copyright © 2015 Tianmei Zeng et al. All rights reserved. Bone Marrow-Derived Multipotent Stromal Cells Promote Myocardial Fibrosis and Reverse Remodeling of the Left Ventricle Wed, 21 Jan 2015 08:11:00 +0000 Cell therapy is increasingly recognized as a beneficial practice in various cardiac conditions, but its fundamentals remain largely unclear. The fates of transplanted multipotent stromal cells in postinfarction cardiac microenvironments are particularly understudied. To address this issue, labeled multipotent stromal cells were infused into rat myocardium at day 30 after myocardial infarction, against the background of postinfarction cardiosclerosis. Therapeutic effects of the transplantation were assessed by an exercise tolerance test. Histological examination at 14 or 30 days after the transplantation was conducted by means of immunostaining and quantitative image analysis. An improvement in the functional status of the cardiovascular system was observed after both the autologous and the allogeneic transplantations. Location of the label-positive cells within the heart was restricted to the affected part of myocardium. The transplanted cells could give rise to fibroblasts or myofibroblasts but not to cardiac myocytes or blood vessel cells. Both types of transplantation positively influenced scarring processes, and no expansion of fibrosis to border myocardium was observed. Left ventricular wall thickening associated with reduced dilatation index was promoted by transplantation of the autologous cells. According to the results, multipotent stromal cell transplantation prevents adverse remodeling and stimulates left ventricular reverse remodeling. Timur Fatkhudinov, Galina Bolshakova, Irina Arutyunyan, Andrey Elchaninov, Andrey Makarov, Evgeniya Kananykhina, Oksana Khokhlova, Arkady Murashev, Valeria Glinkina, Dmitry Goldshtein, and Gennady Sukhikh Copyright © 2015 Timur Fatkhudinov et al. All rights reserved. Mesenchymal Stem Cells Pretreated with HGF and FGF4 Can Reduce Liver Fibrosis in Mice Tue, 20 Jan 2015 11:34:21 +0000 Stem cells have opened a new avenue to treat liver fibrosis. We investigated in vitro and in vivo the effect of cytokine (HGF and FGF4) pretreated MSCs in reduction of CCl4 liver injury. Mouse MSCs were pretreated with cytokines to improve their ability to reduce CCl4 injury. In vitro we gave CCl4 injury to mouse hepatocytes and cocultured it with untreated and cytokines pretreated MSCs. For in vivo study we labeled MSCs with PKH-26 and transplanted them into CCl4 injured mice by direct injection into liver. In vitro data showed that cytokines pretreated MSCs significantly reduce LDH level and apoptotic markers in CCl4 injured hepatocytes cocultured model. Furthermore the cytokines pretreated MSCs also improved cell viability and enhanced hepatic and antiapoptotic markers in injured hepatocytes cocultured model as compared to untreated MSCs. In vivo data in cytokines pretreated group demonstrated greater homing of MSCs in liver, restored glycogen storage, and significant reduction in collagen, alkaline phosphatase, and bilirubin levels. TUNEL assay and real time PCR also supported our hypothesis. Therefore, cytokines pretreated MSCs were shown to have a better therapeutic potential on reduction of liver injury. These results demonstrated the potential utility of this novel idea of cytokines pretreated MSCs for the treatment of liver fibrosis. Sulaiman Shams, Sadia Mohsin, Ghazanfar Ali Nasir, Mohsin Khan, and Shaheen N. Khan Copyright © 2015 Sulaiman Shams et al. All rights reserved. Human Adult Stem Cells Maintain a Constant Phenotype Profile Irrespective of Their Origin, Basal Media, and Long Term Cultures Tue, 20 Jan 2015 08:23:27 +0000 The study aims to identify the phenotypic marker expressions of different human adult stem cells derived from, namely, bone marrow, subcutaneous fat, and omentum fat, cultured in different media, namely, DMEM-Low Glucose, Alpha-MEM, DMEM-F12 and DMEM-KO and under long term culture conditions (>P20). We characterized immunophenotype by using various hematopoietic, mesenchymal, endothelial markers, and cell adhesion molecules in the long term cultures (Passages-P1, P3, P5, P9, P12, P15, and P20.) Interestingly, data revealed similar marker expression profiles irrespective of source, basal media, and extensive culturing. This demonstrates that all adult stem cell sources mentioned in this study share similar phenotypic marker and all media seem appropriate for culturing these sources. However, a disparity was observed in the markers such as CD49d, CD54, CD117, CD29, and CD106, thereby warranting further research on these markers. Besides the aforesaid objective, it is understood from the study that immunophenotyping acts as a valuable tool to identify inherent property of each cell, thereby leading to a valuable cell based therapy. Indumathi Somasundaram, Rashmi Mishra, Harikrishnan Radhakrishnan, Rajkumar Sankaran, Venkata Naga Srikanth Garikipati, and Dhanasekaran Marappagounder Copyright © 2015 Indumathi Somasundaram et al. All rights reserved. Peripheral Blood Derived Mononuclear Cells Enhance the Migration and Chondrogenic Differentiation of Multipotent Mesenchymal Stromal Cells Mon, 12 Jan 2015 14:28:37 +0000 A major challenge in cartilage repair is the lack of chondrogenic cells migrating from healthy tissue into damaged areas and strategies to promote this should be developed. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of peripheral blood derived mononuclear cell (PBMC) stimulation on mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) derived from the infrapatellar fat pad of human OA knee. Cell migration was measured using an xCELLigence electronic migration chamber system in combination with scratch assays. Gene expression was quantified with stem cell PCR arrays and validated using quantitative real-time PCR (rtPCR). In both migration assays PBMCs increased MSC migration by comparison to control. In scratch assay the wound closure was 55% higher after 3 hours in the PBMC stimulated test group (), migration rate was 9 times faster (), and total MSC migration was 25 times higher after 24 hours (). Analysis of MSCs by PCR array demonstrated that PBMCs induced the upregulation of genes associated with chondrogenic differentiation over 15-fold. In conclusion, PBMCs increase both MSC migration and differentiation suggesting that they are an ideal candidate for inclusion in regenerative medicine therapies aimed at cartilage repair. Niina Hopper, John Wardale, Daniel Howard, Roger Brooks, Neil Rushton, and Frances Henson Copyright © 2015 Niina Hopper et al. All rights reserved. Contribution of Mouse Embryonic Stem Cells and Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells to Chimeras through Injection and Coculture of Embryos Sun, 28 Dec 2014 00:10:18 +0000 Blastocyst injection and morula aggregation are commonly used to evaluate stem cell pluripotency based on chimeric contribution of the stem cells. To assess the protocols for generating chimeras from stem cells, 8-cell mouse embryos were either injected or cocultured with mouse embryonic stem cells and induced pluripotent stem cells, respectively. Although a significantly higher chimera rate resulted from blastocyst injection, the highest germline contribution resulted from injection of 8-cell embryos with embryonic stem cells. The fully agouti colored chimeras were generated from both injection and coculture of 8-cell embryos with embryonic stem cells. Additionally, microsatellite DNA screening showed that the fully agouti colored chimeras were fully embryonic stem cell derived mice. Unlike embryonic stem cells, the mouse chimeras were only generated from injection of 8-cell embryos with induced pluripotent stem cells and none of these showed germline transmission. The results indicated that injection of 8-cell embryos is the most efficient method for assessing stem cell pluripotency and generating induced pluripotent stem cell chimeras, embryonic stem cell chimeras with germline transmission, and fully mouse embryonic stem cell derived mice. Jitong Guo, Baojiang Wu, Shuyu Li, Siqin Bao, Lixia Zhao, Shuxiang Hu, Wei Sun, Jie Su, Yanfeng Dai, and Xihe Li Copyright © 2014 Jitong Guo et al. All rights reserved. Effects of Toll-Like Receptors 3 and 4 in the Osteogenesis of Stem Cells Thu, 25 Dec 2014 00:10:09 +0000 Objective. To investigate the effects of Toll-like receptors in stem cell osteogenesis. Methods. Bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs) were divided into the blank group, the TLR-3 activated group, and the TLR-4 activated group. After 10 days’ osteogenic-promoting culture, expression of type I collagen and osteocalcin was determined by Western blot. Osteoblasts (OBs) were also divided into three groups mentioned above. Alkaline phosphatase (ALP) and alizarin red staining were performed after 10 days’ ossification-inducing culture. The expression of -catenin was investigated by Western blot. Results. Both the TLR-3 and TLR-4 activated groups had increased expression of type I collagen and osteocalcin; the effect of TLR-4 was stronger. The intensity of alizarin red and ALP staining was strongest in the TLR-3 activated group and weakest in the TLR-4 activated group. Activation of TLR-4 decreased the expression of -catenin, whilst activation of TLR-3 did not affect the expression of -catenin. Discussion. This study suggested that both TLR-3 and -4 promoted differentiation of BMSCs to OBs. TLR-3 had an inducing effect on the ossification of OBs to osteocytes, whilst the effect of TLR-4 was the opposite because of its inhibitory effect on the Wnt signaling pathway. Chen Qi, Xu Xiaofeng, and Wang Xiaoguang Copyright © 2014 Chen Qi et al. All rights reserved. Directing Parthenogenetic Stem Cells Differentiate into Adipocytes for Engineering Injectable Adipose Tissue Tue, 23 Dec 2014 09:22:08 +0000 The selection of appropriate seed cells is crucial for adipose tissue engineering. Here, we reported the stepwise induction of parthenogenetic embryonic stem cells (pESCs) to differentiate into adipogenic cells and its application in engineering injectable adipose tissue with Pluronic F-127. pESCs had pluripotent differentiation capacity and could form teratomas that include the three primary germ layers. Cells that migrated from the embryoid bodies (EBs) were selectively separated and expanded to obtain embryonic mesenchymal stem cells (eMSCs). The eMSCs exhibited similar cell surface marker expression profiles with bone morrow mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs) and had multipotent differentiation capacity. Under the induction of dexamethasone, indomethacin, and insulin, eMSCs could differentiate into adipogenic cells with increased expression of adipose-specific genes and oil droplet depositions within the cytoplasm. To evaluate their suitability as seed cells for adipose tissue engineering, the CM-Dil labelled adipogenic cells derived from eMSCs were seeded into Pluronic F-127 hydrogel and injected subcutaneously into nude mice. Four weeks after injection, glistering and semitransparent constructs formed in the subcutaneous site. Histological observations demonstrated that new adipose tissue was successfully fabricated in the specimen by the labelled cells. The results of the current study indicated that pESCs have great potential in the fabrication of injectable adipose tissue. Wei Liu, Xingyuan Yang, Xingrong Yan, Jihong Cui, Wenguang Liu, Mei Sun, Yang Rao, and Fulin Chen Copyright © 2014 Wei Liu et al. All rights reserved. Reducing TRPC1 Expression through Liposome-Mediated siRNA Delivery Markedly Attenuates Hypoxia-Induced Pulmonary Arterial Hypertension in a Murine Model Thu, 18 Dec 2014 06:33:18 +0000 We tested the hypothesis that Lipofectamine siRNA delivery to deplete transient receptor potential cation channel (TRPC) 1 protein expression can suppress hypoxia-induced pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) in mice. Adult male C57BL/6 mice were equally divided into group 1 (normal controls), group 2 (hypoxia), and group 3 (hypoxia + siRNA TRPC1). By day 28, right ventricular systolic pressure (RVSP), number of muscularized arteries, right ventricle (RV), and lung weights were increased in group 2 than in group 1 and reduced in group 3 compared with group 2. Pulmonary crowded score showed similar pattern, whereas number of alveolar sacs exhibited an opposite pattern compared to that of RVSP in all groups. Protein expressions of TRPCs, HIF-1α, Ku-70, apoptosis, and fibrosis and pulmonary mRNA expressions of inflammatory markers were similar pattern, whereas protein expressions of antifibrosis and VEGF were opposite to the pattern of RVSP. Cellular markers of pulmonary DNA damage, repair, and smooth muscle proliferation exhibited a pattern similar to that of RVSP. The mRNA expressions of proapoptotic and hypertrophy biomarkers displayed a similar pattern, whereas sarcomere length showed an opposite pattern compared to that of RVSP in all groups. Lipofectamine siRNA delivery effectively reduced TRPC1 expression, thereby attenuating PAH-associated RV and pulmonary arteriolar remodeling. Cheuk-Kwan Sun, Yen-Yi Zhen, Hung-I Lu, Pei-Hsun Sung, Li-Teh Chang, Tzu-Hsien Tsai, Jiunn-Jye Sheu, Yung-Lung Chen, Sarah Chua, Hsueh-Wen Chang, Yi-Ling Chen, Fan-Yen Lee, and Hon-Kan Yip Copyright © 2014 Cheuk-Kwan Sun et al. All rights reserved. Concise Review: Mesenchymal Stem Cells Ameliorate Tissue Injury via Secretion of Tumor Necrosis Factor-α Stimulated Protein/Gene 6 Mon, 15 Dec 2014 00:10:17 +0000 Numerous reports have described therapeutic benefits in various disease models after administration of the adult stem/progenitor cells from bone marrow or other tissues referred to as mesenchymal stem cells/multipotent mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs). They all showed that one of the important effects of MSCs is to act against excessive inflammatory responses and repair the damaged tissues. The therapeutic benefits of MSCs were initially interpreted by their migration, engraftment, and differentiation into target tissues. However, remarkable anatomical structural repairs and functional improvements were increasingly observed with a small number of or even no MSCs in the injured tissues. This suggests that most beneficial effects are largely due to paracrine secretions or cell-to-cell contacts that have multiple effects involving modulation of inflammatory and immune responses. Currently, the therapeutic benefits of MSCs are in part explained by the cells being activated by signals from injured tissues to express an anti-inflammatory protein, tumor-necrosis-factor-α-induced protein 6. This important mechanism of action has attracted increasing attention, and therefore we conducted this review to summarize the latest research. Zhigang He, Jie Hua, and Zhenshun Song Copyright © 2014 Zhigang He et al. All rights reserved. Effect of DiD Carbocyanine Dye Labeling on Immunoregulatory Function and Differentiation of Mice Mesenchymal Stem Cells Thu, 11 Dec 2014 12:15:26 +0000 Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) have been used to treat a variety of degenerative disorders. Labeling of MSCs with an appropriate tracer is vital to demonstrate the in vivo engraftment and differentiation of transplanted MSCs. DiD is a lipophilic fluorescent dye with near infrared emission spectra that makes it suitable for in vivo tracing. Therefore, in the present study the consequences of DiD labeling on induction of oxidative stress and apoptosis as well as inhibition of biological functions of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) were investigated. DiD labeling did not provoke the production of ROS, induction of apoptosis, or inhibition of production of immunosuppressive factors (PGE2 and IL-10) by MSCs. In addition, there were no statistical differences between DiD-labeled and unlabeled MSCs in suppression of proliferation and cytokine production (IFN- and IL-17) by in vitro stimulated splenocytes or improvement of clinical score in EAE after in vivo administration. In addition, DiD labeling did not alter the differentiation capacity of MSCs. Taken together, DiD can be considered as a safe dye for in vivo tracking of MSCs. Maryam Sadat Mohtasebi, Fatemeh Nasri, and Eskandar Kamali Sarvestani Copyright © 2014 Maryam Sadat Mohtasebi et al. All rights reserved. Prognostic Value of Glioma Cancer Stem Cell Isolation in Survival of Primary Glioblastoma Patients Thu, 11 Dec 2014 10:19:49 +0000 Cancer stem cells (CSCs) have been reported to be critical in the initiation, maintenance, and progression of cancers. The expression of stem cell markers, such as podoplanin (PDPN), CD133, and nestin, may have been correlated with malignant progression. However, the effects of CSCs and stem cell markers on clinical outcomes in cancer patients remain unclear. In this study, we assessed the prognostic roles of glioma CSCs (gCSCs) isolation and stem cell markers in patients with primary glioblastoma (pGBM). A cohort of 39 patients with pGBM was separated into two groups, those positive or negative for gCSCs, and the correlation between gCSC and patient survival was evaluated. We observed significantly different cumulative survival () when comparing patients positive for gCSCs patients and negative for gCSC. Among the patients positive for gCSCs, we observed no significant differences in survival between those whose gCSCs were each positive or negative for PDPN, CD133, or nestin. This study strongly supports the prognostic value of gCSCs isolation on the survival of patients with pGBM. Byung Ho Kong, Ju Hyung Moon, Yong-Min Huh, Jin-Kyoung Shim, Ji-Hyun Lee, Eui-Hyun Kim, Jong Hee Chang, Dong-Seok Kim, Yong-Kil Hong, Sun Ho Kim, Su-Jae Lee, and Seok-Gu Kang Copyright © 2014 Byung Ho Kong et al. All rights reserved. Maintenance and Neuronal Differentiation of Chicken Induced Pluripotent Stem-Like Cells Tue, 09 Dec 2014 08:55:19 +0000 Pluripotent stem cells have the potential to become any cell in the adult body, including neurons and glia. Avian stem cells could be used to study questions, like vocal learning, that would be difficult to examine with traditional mouse models. Induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) are differentiated cells that have been reprogrammed to a pluripotent stem cell state, usually using inducing genes or other molecules. We recently succeeded in generating avian iPSC-like cells using mammalian genes, overcoming a limitation in the generation and use of iPSCs in nonmammalian species (Rosselló et al., 2013). However, there were no established optimal cell culture conditions for avian iPSCs to establish long-term cell lines and thus to study neuronal differentiation in vitro. Here we present an efficient method of maintaining chicken iPSC-like cells and for differentiating them into action potential generating neurons. Rui Dai, Ricardo Rossello, Chun-chun Chen, Joeran Kessler, Ian Davison, Ute Hochgeschwender, and Erich D. Jarvis Copyright © 2014 Rui Dai et al. All rights reserved.