Table 2: Predictive validity of the behavioral problems index (BPI) showing its impact on child and parental health among immigrants and the native-born: the 2007 National Survey of Children's Health.

Prevalence (%)2SEOdds ratio95% CIPrevalence (%)2SEOdds ratio95% CIPrevalence (%)2SEOdds ratio95% CI

Fair or poor child health statusSchool absence > 2 weeksChild's lack of social participation

Immigrants (behavioral problems index
(mean index score = 100; SD = 201)
 66.27–85.873.631.101.00 Reference2.170.791.00 Reference48.562.741.00 Reference
 85.88–98.006.511.841.850.78–4.352.610.941.210.43–3.3948.593.041.000.73–1.38
 98.01–125.346.971.431.990.93–4.232.510.411.160.52–2.6052.862.531.190.89–1.59
 125.35–232.2718.854.046.162.75–13.788.092.733.971.42–11.1263.534.151.841.22–2.79

Native born (behavioral problems index)
 66.27–85.871.950.401.00 Reference4.300.541.00 Reference38.031.071.00 Reference
 85.88–98.001.870.260.960.58–1.575.620.531.320.96–1.8335.250.950.890.79–1.00
 98.01–125.342.700.321.400.87–2.256.390.451.521.13–2.0439.700.841.070.96–1.20
 125.35–232.278.290.924.552.83–7.3112.650.993.222.36–4.4057.751.532.231.91–2.59

Fair or poor maternal health statusFair or poor paternal health statusParents unhappy with each other

Immigrants (behavioral problems index)
 66.27–85.871.540.371.00 Reference1.520.381.00 Reference13.221.611.00 Reference
 85.88–98.006.141.364.182.15–8.135.401.473.701.75–7.8217.882.221.430.95–2.14
 98.01–125.349.021.646.333.42–11.739.341.696.673.56–12.5029.362.632.731.88–3.95
 125.35–232.2726.344.2422.8612.04–43.4018.333.7114.537.28–29.0133.304.373.282.04–5.26

Native born (behavioral problems index)
 66.27–85.873.430.361.00 Reference2.800.591.00 Reference10.140.731.00 Reference
 85.88–98.004.020.361.180.89–1.563.190.571.140.66–1.9914.280.731.481.21–1.80
 98.01–125.347.520.442.291.79–2.925.080.491.861.17–2.9619.140.702.101.75–2.51
 125.35–232.2723.571.568.686.62–11.3814.061.675.683.44–9.3736.281.905.044.03–6.32

Parental stress or aggravation3Parents not coping well with daily demands of parenting

Immigrants (behavioral problems index)
 66.27–85.877.231.761.00 Reference28.192.401.00 Reference
 85.88–98.006.871.600.950.46–1.9235.322.701.391.00–1.93
 98.01–125.3412.691.751.861.02–3.4049.212.562.471.82–3.36
 125.35–232.2738.724.578.114.29–15.3358.884.563.652.36–5.64

Native born (behavioral problems index)
 66.27–85.872.210.231.00 Reference23.590.831.00 Reference
 85.88–98.003.700.411.701.25–2.3237.770.981.971.74–2.22
 98.01–125.348.710.514.233.31–5.4151.630.843.463.09–3.87
 125.35–232.2741.151.6030.9924.19–39.6969.011.567.216.09–8.55

Higher scores on the index indicate higher levels of behavioral problems. The first BPI category is the first quartile with fewest behavioral problems, the second represents the second quartile, the third catergory is median to <90 percentile, and the fourth category is ≥90th percentile reflecting serious behavioral problems.
2Differences in the prevalence of each health outcome across the BPI categories were statistically significant at P < 0.05. 3A composite variable denoting parenting aggravation if parents reported in the past month that child was much harder to care for, or were bothered by child's behavior, or felt angry with their child.