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Scientifica
Volume 2013 (2013), Article ID 249101, 11 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2013/249101
Review Article

Current and Future Therapies for Multiple Sclerosis

Department of Neurology, Louisiana State University Health Sciences Center, 1501 Kings Highway, Shreveport, LA 71130, USA

Received 19 December 2012; Accepted 13 January 2013

Academic Editors: P. Annunziata, D. Franciotta, and L. Tremolizzo

Copyright © 2013 Alireza Minagar. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Abstract

With the introduction of interferon-β1b in 1993 as the first FDA-approved treatment for multiple sclerosis, the era of treatment of this incurable disease began, and its natural course was permanently changed. Currently, seven different treatments for patients with multiple sclerosis with different mechanisms of action and dissimilar side effect profiles exist. These medications include interferon-β1a intramuscular (Avonex), interferon-β1a subcutaneous (Rebif), interferon-β1b subcutaneous (Betaseron/Extavia), glatiramer acetate (Copaxone), natalizumab (Tysabri), fingolimod (Gilenya), teriflunomide (Aubagio), and mitoxantrone (Novantrone). In addition, a large number of clinical trials are being conducted to assess the safety and efficacy of various experimental agents in patients with multiple sclerosis, including alemtuzumab, dimethyl fumarate, laquinimod, rituximab, daclizumab, and cladribine. In this paper, the author presents a concise and comprehensive review of present and potential treatments for this incurable disease.