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Scientifica
Volume 2013 (2013), Article ID 364247, 15 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2013/364247
Review Article

Spontaneous and Procedural Plaque Embolisation in Native Coronary Arteries: Pathophysiology, Diagnosis, and Prevention

1Oxford Heart Centre, John Radcliffe Hospital, Oxford University Hospitals, Headley Way, Oxford OX39DU, UK
2Cardiovascular Medicine Department, Catholic University of the Sacred Heart, 00168 Rome, Italy

Received 20 October 2013; Accepted 11 November 2013

Academic Editors: J. Alpert and C. N. Aroney

Copyright © 2013 Giovanni Luigi De Maria et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Abstract

The detachment of atherothrombotic material from the atherosclerotic coronary plaque and downstream embolisation is an underrecognized phenomenon and it causes different degrees of impairment of the coronary microcirculation. During treatment of obstructive atherosclerotic plaque by percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) distal embolisation (DE) is considered to be inevitable and it is associated with potential clinical and prognostic implications. This review aims to assess the main aspects of both spontaneous and procedural DE, analyze their different pathophysiology, provide specific insights on the main diagnostic tools for their identification, and finally focus on the main strategies for their treatment and prevention.