About this Journal Submit a Manuscript Table of Contents
Scientifica
Volume 2013 (2013), Article ID 364247, 15 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2013/364247
Review Article

Spontaneous and Procedural Plaque Embolisation in Native Coronary Arteries: Pathophysiology, Diagnosis, and Prevention

1Oxford Heart Centre, John Radcliffe Hospital, Oxford University Hospitals, Headley Way, Oxford OX39DU, UK
2Cardiovascular Medicine Department, Catholic University of the Sacred Heart, 00168 Rome, Italy

Received 20 October 2013; Accepted 11 November 2013

Academic Editors: J. Alpert and C. N. Aroney

Copyright © 2013 Giovanni Luigi De Maria et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Linked References

  1. P. Libby and P. Theroux, “Pathophysiology of coronary artery disease,” Circulation, vol. 111, no. 25, pp. 3481–3488, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  2. P. Kolh, W. Wijns, N. Danchin et al., “Guidelines on myocardial revascularization,” European Journal of Cardio-Thoracic Surgery, vol. 38, no. 1, pp. 2501–2555, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  3. S. H. Rezkalla and R. A. Kloner, “No-reflow phenomenon,” Circulation, vol. 105, no. 5, pp. 656–662, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  4. G. Niccoli, F. Burzotta, L. Galiuto, and F. Crea, “Myocardial no-reflow in humans,” Journal of the American College of Cardiology, vol. 54, no. 4, pp. 281–292, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  5. K. C. Wu, E. A. Zerhouni, R. M. Judd et al., “Prognostic significance of microvascular obstruction by magnetic resonance imaging in patients with acute myocardial infarction,” Circulation, vol. 97, no. 8, pp. 765–772, 1998. View at Scopus
  6. J. P. S. Henriques, F. Zijlstra, J. P. Ottervanger et al., “Incidence and clinical significance of distal embolization during primary angioplasty for acute myocardial infarction,” European Heart Journal, vol. 23, no. 14, pp. 1112–1117, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  7. G. Heusch, P. Kleinbongard, D. Böse et al., “Coronary microembolization: from bedside to bench and back to bedside,” Circulation, vol. 120, no. 18, pp. 1822–1836, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  8. I. Porto, G. L. De Maria, M. Pieroni, L. Bolognese, and F. Crea, “Mechanisms, prevention and treatment of distal embolization,” Current Pharmaceutical Design, vol. 19, pp. 4576–4585, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  9. E. Falk, “Unstable angina with fatal outcome: dynamic coronary thrombosis leading to infarction and/or sudden death. Autopsy evidence of recurrent mural thrombosis with peripheral embolization culminating in total vascular occlusion,” Circulation, vol. 71, no. 4, pp. 699–708, 1985. View at Scopus
  10. M. J. Davies, A. C. Thomas, P. A. Knapman, and J. R. Hangartner, “Intramyocardial platelet aggregation in patients with unstable angina suffering sudden ischemic cardiac death,” Circulation, vol. 73, no. 3, pp. 418–427, 1986. View at Scopus
  11. M. C. A. Kramer, S. Z. H. Rittersma, R. J. de Winter et al., “Relationship of thrombus healing to underlying plaque morphology in sudden coronary death,” Journal of the American College of Cardiology, vol. 55, no. 2, pp. 122–132, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  12. R. Chopard, P. Plastaras, J. Jehl et al., “Effect of macroscopic-positive thrombus retrieval during primary percutaneous coronary intervention with thrombus aspiration on myocardial infarct size and microvascular obstruction,” American Journal of Cardiology, vol. 111, pp. 159–165, 2013.
  13. A. D. Michelson, M. R. Barnard, L. A. Krueger, C. R. Valeri, and M. I. Furman, “Circulating monocyte-platelet aggregates are a more sensitive marker of in vivo platelet activation than platelet surface P-selectin: studies in baboons, human coronary intervention, and human acute myocardial infarction,” Circulation, vol. 104, no. 13, pp. 1533–1537, 2001. View at Scopus
  14. R. S. Schwartz, A. Burke, A. Farb et al., “Microemboli and microvascular obstruction in acute coronary thrombosis and sudden coronary death. Relation to epicardial plaque histopathology,” Journal of the American College of Cardiology, vol. 54, no. 23, pp. 2167–2173, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  15. P. Kleinbongard, T. Konorza, D. Böse et al., “Lessons from human coronary aspirate,” Journal of Molecular and Cellular Cardiology, vol. 52, no. 4, pp. 890–896, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  16. I. Porto, L. M. Biasucci, G. L. De Maria et al., “Intracoronary microparticles and microvascular obstruction in patients with ST elevation myocardial infarction undergoing primary percutaneous intervention,” European Heart Journal, vol. 33, pp. 2928–2938, 2012.
  17. N. Gadeela, J. Rubinstein, U. Tamhane et al., “The impact of circulating cholesterol crystals on vasomotor function: implications for no-reflow phenomenon,” JACC: Cardiovascular Interventions, vol. 4, no. 5, pp. 521–529, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  18. J. Silvain, J.-P. Collet, C. Nagaswami et al., “Composition of coronary thrombus in acute myocardial infarction,” Journal of the American College of Cardiology, vol. 57, no. 12, pp. 1359–1367, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  19. U. Limbruno, A. Micheli, M. De Carlo et al., “Mechanical prevention of distal embolization during primary angioplasty: safety, feasibility, and impact on myocardial reperfusion,” Circulation, vol. 108, no. 2, pp. 171–176, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  20. D. Bonderman, A. Teml, J. Jakowitsch et al., “Coronary no-reflow is caused by shedding of active tissue factor from dissected atherosclerotic plaque,” Blood, vol. 99, no. 8, pp. 2794–2800, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  21. P. Kleinbongard, D. Böse, T. Baars et al., “Vasoconstrictor potential of coronary aspirate from patients undergoing stenting of saphenous vein aortocoronary bypass grafts and its pharmacological attenuation,” Circulation Research, vol. 108, no. 3, pp. 344–352, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  22. H. Funayama, S.-E. Ishikawa, Y. Sugawara, N. Kubo, S.-I. Momomura, and M. Kawakami, “Myeloperoxidase may contribute to the no-reflow phenomenon in patients with acute myocardial infarction,” International Journal of Cardiology, vol. 139, no. 2, pp. 187–192, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  23. A. S. Petronio, G. Amoroso, U. Limbruno et al., “Endothelin-1 release from atherosclerotic plaque after percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty in stable angina pectoris and single-vessel coronary artery disease,” American Journal of Cardiology, vol. 84, no. 9, pp. 1085–1088, 1999. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  24. K. Thygesen, J. S. Alpert, A. S. Jaffe, M. L. Simoons, B. R. Chaitman, and H. D. White, “Third universal definition of myocardial infarction,” European Heart Journal, vol. 33, pp. 2551–2567, 2012.
  25. G. De Luca, A. W. van't Hof, K. Huber et al., “Impact of hypertension on distal embolization, myocardial perfusion, and mortality in patients with ST segment elevation myocardial infarction undergoing primary angioplasty,” American Journal of Cardiology, vol. 112, pp. 1083–1086, 2013.
  26. G. De Luca, C. M. Gibson, F. Bellandi et al., “Diabetes mellitus is associated with distal embolization, impaired myocardial perfusion, and higher mortality in patients with ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction treated with primary angioplasty and glycoprotein IIb-IIIa inhibitors,” Atherosclerosis, vol. 207, no. 1, pp. 181–185, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  27. E. Grube, U. Gerckens, A. C. Yeung et al., “Prevention of distal embolization during coronary angioplasty in saphenous vein grafts and native vessels using porous filter protection,” Circulation, vol. 104, no. 20, pp. 2436–2441, 2001. View at Scopus
  28. P. Bahrmann, H. R. Figulla, M. Wagner, M. Ferrari, A. Voss, and G. S. Werner, “Detection of coronary microembolisation by Doppler ultrasound during percutaneous coronary interventions,” Heart, vol. 91, no. 9, pp. 1186–1192, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  29. J.-I. Kotani, G. S. Mintz, J. Pregowski et al., “Volumetric intravascular ultrasound evidence that distal embolization during acute infarct intervention contributes to inadequate myocardial perfusion grade,” American Journal of Cardiology, vol. 92, no. 6, pp. 728–732, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  30. D. Fukuda, A. Tanaka, K. Shimada, Y. Nishida, T. Kawarabayashi, and J. Yoshikawa, “Predicting angiographic distal embolization following percutaneous coronary intervention in patients with acute myocardial infarction,” American Journal of Cardiology, vol. 91, no. 4, pp. 403–407, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  31. I. Porto, J. B. Selvanayagam, W. J. Van Gaal et al., “Plaque volume and occurrence and location of periprocedural myocardial necrosis after percutaneous coronary intervention: insights from delayed-enhancement magnetic resonance imaging, thrombolysis in myocardial infarction myocardial perfusion grade analysis, and intravascular ultrasound,” Circulation, vol. 114, no. 7, pp. 662–669, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  32. A. Skyschally, R. Schulz, R. Erbel, and G. Heusch, “Reduced coronary and inotropic reserves with coronary microembolization,” American Journal of Physiology, vol. 282, no. 2, pp. H611–H614, 2002. View at Scopus
  33. M. Hori, M. Inoue, and M. Kitakaze, “Role of adenosine in hyperemic response of coronary blood flow in microembolization,” American Journal of Physiology, vol. 250, no. 3, pp. H509–H518, 1986. View at Scopus
  34. J. B. Selvanayagam, A. S. H. Cheng, M. Jerosch-Herold et al., “Effect of distal embolization on myocardial perfusion reserve after percutaneous coronary intervention: a quantitative magnetic resonance perfusion study,” Circulation, vol. 116, no. 13, pp. 1458–1464, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  35. M. Carlsson, M. Wilson, A. Martin, and M. Saeed, “Myocardial microinfarction after coronary microembolization in swine: MR imaging characterization,” Radiology, vol. 250, no. 3, pp. 703–713, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  36. M. Saeed, S. W. Hetts, L. Do, and M. W. Wilson, “Coronary microemboli effects in preexisting acute infarcts in a swine model: cardiac MR imaging indices, injury biomarkers, and histopathologic assessment,” Radiology, vol. 268, pp. 98–108, 2013.
  37. M. Carlsson, A. J. Martin, P. C. Ursell, D. Saloner, and M. Saeed, “Magnetic resonance imaging quantification of left ventricular dysfunction following coronary microembolization,” Magnetic Resonance in Medicine, vol. 61, no. 3, pp. 595–602, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  38. K. Nassenstein, F. Breuckmann, C. Bucher et al., “How much myocardial damage is necessary to enable detection of focal late gadolinium enhancement at cardiac MR imaging?” Radiology, vol. 249, no. 3, pp. 829–835, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  39. N. M. Malyar, L. O. Lerman, M. Gössl, P. E. Beighley, and E. L. Ritman, “Relation of nonperfused myocardial volume and surface area to left ventricular performance in coronary microembolization,” Circulation, vol. 110, no. 14, pp. 1946–1952, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  40. H. Dörge, R. Schulz, S. Belosjorow et al., “Coronary microembolization: the role of TNF-α in contractile dysfunction,” Journal of Molecular and Cellular Cardiology, vol. 34, no. 1, pp. 51–62, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  41. A. Skyschally, P. Gres, S. Hoffmann et al., “Bidirectional role of tumor necrosis factor-α in coronary microembolization: progressive contractile dysfunction versus delayed protection against infarction,” Circulation Research, vol. 100, no. 1, pp. 140–146, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  42. M. Thielmann, H. Dörge, C. Martin et al., “Myocardial dysfunction with coronary microembolization: signal transduction through a sequence of nitric oxide, tumor necrosis factor-α, and sphingosine,” Circulation Research, vol. 90, no. 7, pp. 807–813, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  43. L. Li, X. Zhao, Y. Lu, W. Huang, and W. Wen, “Altered expression of pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines is associated with reduced cardiac function in rats following coronary microembolization,” Molecular and Cellular Biochemistry, vol. 342, no. 1-2, pp. 183–190, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  44. M. S. Parmacek and J. M. Leiden, “Structure, function, and regulation of troponin C,” Circulation, vol. 84, no. 3, pp. 991–1003, 1991. View at Scopus
  45. V. Loria, I. Dato, G. L. De Maria, and L. M. Biasucci, “Markers of acute coronary syndrome in emergency room,” Minerva Medica, vol. 99, no. 5, pp. 497–509, 2008. View at Scopus
  46. F. Cuculi, C. C. S. Lim, and A. P. Banning, “Periprocedural myocardial injury during elective percutaneous coronary intervention: is it important and how can it be prevented?” Heart, vol. 96, no. 10, pp. 736–740, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  47. J. B. Selvanayagam, I. Porto, K. Channon et al., “Troponin elevation after percutaneous coronary intervention directly represents the extent of irreversible myocardial injury: insights from cardiovascular magnetic resonance imaging,” Circulation, vol. 111, no. 8, pp. 1027–1032, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  48. K. Rahimi, A. P. Banning, A. S. H. Cheng et al., “Prognostic value of coronary revascularisation-related myocardial injury: a cardiac magnetic resonance imaging study,” Heart, vol. 95, no. 23, pp. 1937–1943, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  49. W. J. van Gaal and A. P. Banning, “Diagnosing peri-procedural myocardial injury following percutaneous coronary intervention: replacing confusion with consensus,” Heart, vol. 98, pp. 1473–1475, 2012.
  50. D. N. Feldman, R. M. Minutello, G. Bergman, I. Moussa, and S. C. Wong, “Relation of troponin I levels following nonemergent percutaneous coronary intervention to short- and long-term outcomes,” American Journal of Cardiology, vol. 104, no. 9, pp. 1210–1215, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  51. K. Thygesen, J. S. Alpert, and H. D. White, “Universal definition of myocardial infarction,” European Heart Journal, vol. 28, no. 20, pp. 2525–2538, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  52. W. J. van Gaal, J. R. Arnold, L. Testa et al., “Myocardial Injury following Coronary Artery Surgery versus Angioplasty (MICASA): a randomised trial using biochemical markers and cardiac magnetic resonance imaging,” EuroIntervention, vol. 6, no. 6, pp. 703–710, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  53. C. C. S. Lim, W. J. Van Gaal, L. Testa et al., “With the “universal definition,” measurement of creatine kinase-myocardial band rather than troponin allows more accurate diagnosis of periprocedural necrosis and infarction after coronary intervention,” Journal of the American College of Cardiology, vol. 57, no. 6, pp. 653–661, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  54. H. Ito, “Myocardial contrast echocardiography after myocardial infarction,” Current Cardiology Reports, vol. 14, pp. 350–358, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  55. I. Porto, C. Hamilton-Craig, M. Brancati, F. Burzotta, L. Galiuto, and F. Crea, “Angiographic assessment of microvascular perfusion—myocardial blush in clinical practice,” American Heart Journal, vol. 160, no. 6, pp. 1015–1022, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  56. K. C. Wu, “CMR of microvascular obstruction and hemorrhage in myocardial infarction,” Journal of Cardiovascular Magnetic Resonance, vol. 14, p. 68, 2012.
  57. D. S. Fieno, R. J. Kim, E.-L. Chen, J. W. Lomasney, F. J. Klocke, and R. M. Judd, “Contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging of myocardium at risk: distinction between reversible and irreversible injury throughout infarct healing,” Journal of the American College of Cardiology, vol. 36, no. 6, pp. 1985–1991, 2000. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  58. R. M. Judd, C. H. Lugo-Olivieri, M. Arai et al., “Physiological basis of myocardial contrast enhancement in fast magnetic resonance images of 2-day-old reperfused canine infarcts,” Circulation, vol. 92, no. 7, pp. 1902–1910, 1995. View at Scopus
  59. S. Ørn, C. Manhenke, O. J. Greve et al., “Microvascular obstruction is a major determinant of infarct healing and subsequent left ventricular remodelling following primary percutaneous coronary intervention,” European Heart Journal, vol. 30, no. 16, pp. 1978–1985, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  60. V. Balian, M. Galli, C. Marcassa et al., “Intracoronary ST-segment shift soon after elective percutaneous coronary intervention accurately predicts periprocedural myocardial injury,” Circulation, vol. 114, no. 18, pp. 1948–1954, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  61. P. Sorajja, B. J. Gersh, C. Costantini et al., “Combined prognostic utility of ST-segment recovery and myocardial blush after primary percutaneous coronary intervention in acute myocardial infarction,” European Heart Journal, vol. 26, no. 7, pp. 667–674, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  62. Investigator TGA, “The effects of tissue plasminogen activator, streptokinase, or both on coronary-artery patency, ventricular function, and survival after acute myocardial infarction. The GUSTO Angiographic Investigators,” The New England Journal of Medicine, vol. 329, pp. 1615–1622, 1993.
  63. C. M. Gibson, C. P. Cannon, W. L. Daley et al., “TIMI frame count: a quantitative method of assessing coronary artery flow,” Circulation, vol. 93, no. 5, pp. 879–888, 1996. View at Scopus
  64. A. W. J. van 't Hof, A. Liem, H. Suryapranata, J. C. A. Hoorntje, M.-J. de Boer, and F. Zijlstra, “Angiographic assessment of myocardial reperfusion in patients treated with primary angioplasty for acute myocardial infarction: myocardial blush grade,” Circulation, vol. 97, no. 23, pp. 2302–2306, 1998. View at Scopus
  65. C. M. Gibson, Y. B. Pride, J. L. Buros et al., “Association of impaired thrombolysis in myocardial infarction myocardial perfusion grade with ventricular tachycardia and ventricular fibrillation following fibrinolytic therapy for ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction,” Journal of the American College of Cardiology, vol. 51, no. 5, pp. 546–551, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  66. G. Ndrepepa, K. Tiroch, M. Fusaro et al., “5-year prognostic value of no-reflow phenomenon after percutaneous coronary intervention in patients with acute myocardial infarction,” Journal of the American College of Cardiology, vol. 55, no. 21, pp. 2383–2389, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  67. M. Vogelzang, P. J. Vlaar, T. Svilaas, D. Amo, M. W. N. Nijsten, and F. Zijlstra, “Computer-assisted myocardial blush quantification after percutaneous coronary angioplasty for acute myocardial infarction: a substudy from the TAPAS trial,” European Heart Journal, vol. 30, no. 5, pp. 594–599, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  68. I. Porto, C. Hamilton-Craig, G. L. De Maria et al., “Quantitative Blush Evaluator accurately quantifies microvascular dysfunction in patients with ST-elevation myocardial infarction: comparison with cardiovascular magnetic resonance,” American Heart Journal, vol. 162, no. 2, pp. 372–e2, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  69. B. E. Claessen, A. Maehara, M. Fahy, K. Xu, G. W. Stone, and G. S. Mintz, “Plaque composition by intravascular ultrasound and distal embolization after percutaneous coronary intervention,” JACC: Cardiovascular Imaging, vol. 5, no. 3, pp. S111–S118, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  70. J. S. Jang, H. Y. Jin, J. S. Seo et al., “Meta-analysis of plaque composition by intravascular ultrasound and its relation to distal embolization after percutaneous coronary intervention,” American Journal of Cardiology, vol. 111, pp. 968–972, 2013.
  71. T. Lee, T. Kakuta, T. Yonetsu et al., “Assessment of echo-attenuated plaque by optical coherence tomography and its impact on post-procedural creatine kinase-myocardial band elevation in elective stent implantation,” JACC: Cardiovascular Interventions, vol. 4, no. 5, pp. 483–491, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  72. H. Ikenaga, M. Ishihara, I. Inoue et al., “Longitudinal extent of lipid pool assessed by optical coherence tomography predicts microvascular no-reflow after primary percutaneous coronary intervention for ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction,” Journal of Cardiology, vol. 62, pp. 71–76, 2013.
  73. W. F. Fearon, A. F. Low, A. S. Yong et al., “Prognostic value of the Index of Microcirculatory Resistance measured after primary percutaneous coronary intervention,” Circulation, vol. 127, no. 24, pp. 2436–2441, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  74. R. McGeoch, S. Watkins, C. Berry et al., “The index of microcirculatory resistance measured acutely predicts the extent and severity of myocardial infarction in patients with ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction,” JACC: Cardiovascular Interventions, vol. 3, no. 7, pp. 715–722, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  75. R. Yamada, H. Okura, T. Kume et al., “Target lesion thin-cap fibroatheroma defined by virtual histology intravascular ultrasound affects microvascular injury during percutaneous coronary intervention in patients with angina pectoris,” Circulation Journal, vol. 74, no. 8, pp. 1658–1662, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  76. G. Niccoli, C. Spaziani, M. Marino et al., “Effect of chronic Aspirin therapy on angiographic thrombotic burden in patients admitted for a first ST-elevation myocardial infarction,” American Journal of Cardiology, vol. 105, no. 5, pp. 587–591, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  77. W.-H. Chen, P.-Y. Lee, W. Ng et al., “Relation of aspirin resistance to coronary flow reserve in patients undergoing elective percutaneous coronary Intervention,” American Journal of Cardiology, vol. 96, no. 6, pp. 760–763, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  78. S. R. Mehta, S. Yusuf, R. J. G. Peters et al., “Effects of pretreatment with clopidogrel and aspirin followed by long-term therapy in patients undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention: the PCI-CURE study,” The Lancet, vol. 358, no. 9281, pp. 527–533, 2001. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  79. S. D. Wiviott, E. Braunwald, C. H. McCabe et al., “Prasugrel versus clopidogrel in patients with acute coronary syndromes,” The New England Journal of Medicine, vol. 357, no. 20, pp. 2001–2015, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  80. L. Wallentin, R. C. Becker, A. Budaj et al., “Ticagrelor versus clopidogrel in patients with acute coronary syndromes,” The New England Journal of Medicine, vol. 361, no. 11, pp. 1045–1057, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  81. G. Patti, G. Colonna, V. Pasceri, L. L. Pepe, A. Montinaro, and G. Di Sciascio, “Randomized trial of high loading dose of clopidogrel for reduction of periprocedural myocardial infarction in patients undergoing coronary intervention: results from the ARMYDA-2 (Antiplatelet therapy for Reduction of MYocardial Damage during Angioplasty) Study,” Circulation, vol. 111, no. 16, pp. 2099–2106, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  82. G. Patti, D. Grieco, G. Dicuonzo, V. Pasceri, A. Nusca, and G. Di Sciascio, “High versus standard clopidogrel maintenance dose after percutaneous coronary intervention and effects on platelet inhibition, endothelial function, and inflammation: results of the ARMYDA-150 mg (antiplatelet therapy for reduction of myocardial damage during angioplasty) randomized study,” Journal of the American College of Cardiology, vol. 57, no. 7, pp. 771–778, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  83. P. G. Steg, D. L. Bhatt, C. W. Hamm et al., “Effect of cangrelor on periprocedural outcomes in percutaneous coronary interventions: a pooled analysis of patient-level data,” The Lancet, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  84. H. Kunichika, O. Ben-Yehuda, S. Lafitte, N. Kunichika, B. Peters, and A. N. DeMaria, “Effects of glycoprotein IIb/IIIa inhibition on microvascular flow after coronary reperfusion: a quantitative myocardial contrast echocardiography study,” Journal of the American College of Cardiology, vol. 43, no. 2, pp. 276–283, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  85. J. Gödicke, M. Flather, M. Noc et al., “Early versus periprocedural administration of abciximab for primary angioplasty: a pooled analysis of 6 studies,” American Heart Journal, vol. 150, no. 5, pp. 1015–e11, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  86. S. G. Ellis, M. Tendera, M. A. de Belder et al., “Facilitated PCI in patients with ST-elevation myocardial infarction,” The New England Journal of Medicine, vol. 358, no. 21, pp. 2205–2217, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  87. A. W. van't Hof, J. ten Berg, T. Heestermans et al., “Prehospital initiation of tirofiban in patients with ST-elevation myocardial infarction undergoing primary angioplasty (On-TIME 2): a multicentre, double-blind, randomised controlled trial,” The Lancet, vol. 372, no. 9638, pp. 537–546, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  88. P. G. Steg, S. K. James, D. Atar, et al., “ESC guidelines for the management of acute myocardial infarction in patients presenting with ST-segment elevation,” European Heart Journal, vol. 33, no. 20, pp. 2569–2619, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  89. Y. L. Gu, M. A. Kampinga, W. G. Wieringa et al., “Intracoronary versus intravenous administration of abciximab in patients with ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction undergoing primary percutaneous coronary intervention with thrombus aspiration: the comparison of intracoronary versus intravenous abciximab administration during emergency reperfusion of ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (CICERO) trial,” Circulation, vol. 122, no. 25, pp. 2709–2717, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  90. G. W. Stone, A. Maehara, B. Witzenbichler et al., “Intracoronary abciximab and aspiration thrombectomy in patients with large anterior myocardial infarction: the INFUSE-AMI randomized trial,” Journal of the American Medical Association, vol. 307, no. 17, pp. 1817–1826, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  91. F. Prati, L. Di Vito, V. Ramazzotti et al., “Randomized trial of standard versus ClearWay-infused abciximab and thrombectomy in myocardial infarction: rationale and design of the COCTAIL II study,” Journal of Cardiovascular Medicine, vol. 14, pp. 364–371, 2013.
  92. F. Prati, D. Capodanno, T. Pawlowski et al., “Local delivery versus intracoronary infusion of abciximab in patients with acute coronary syndromes,” JACC: Cardiovascular Interventions, vol. 3, no. 9, pp. 928–934, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  93. G. Patti, C. P. Cannon, S. A. Murphy et al., “Clinical benefit of statin pretreatment in patients undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention: a collaborative patient-level meta-analysis of 13 randomized studies,” Circulation, vol. 123, no. 15, pp. 1622–1632, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  94. G. G. Schwartz, A. G. Olsson, M. D. Ezekowitz et al., “Effects of atorvastatin on early recurrent ischemic events in acute coronary syndromes the MIRACL study: a randomized controlled trial,” Journal of the American Medical Association, vol. 285, no. 13, pp. 1711–1718, 2001. View at Scopus
  95. C. M. Gibson, Y. B. Pride, C. P. Hochberg, S. Sloan, M. S. Sabatine, and C. P. Cannon, “Effect of intensive statin therapy on clinical outcomes among patients undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention for acute coronary syndrome. PCI-PROVE IT: a PROVE IT-TIMI 22 (Pravastatin or Atorvastatin Evaluation and Infection Therapy-Thrombolysis in Myocardial Infarction 22) Substudy,” Journal of the American College of Cardiology, vol. 54, no. 24, pp. 2290–2295, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  96. K. Fujii, D. Kawasaki, K. Oka et al., “The impact of pravastatin pre-treatment on periprocedural microcirculatory damage in patients undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention,” JACC: Cardiovascular Interventions, vol. 4, no. 5, pp. 513–520, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  97. K. W. Mahaffey, J. A. Puma, N. A. Barbagelata et al., “Adenosine as an adjunct to thrombolytic therapy for acute myocardial infarction—results of a multicenter, randomized, placebo-controlled trial: the acute myocardial infarction STudy of ADenosine (AMISTAD) trial,” Journal of the American College of Cardiology, vol. 34, no. 6, pp. 1711–1720, 1999. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  98. A. M. Ross, R. J. Gibbons, G. W. Stone, R. A. Kloner, and R. W. Alexander, “A randomized, double-blinded, placebo-controlled multicenter trial of adenosine as an adjunct to reperfusion in the treatment of acute myocardial infarction (AMISTAD-II),” Journal of the American College of Cardiology, vol. 45, no. 11, pp. 1775–1780, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  99. W. A. Parham, A. Bouhasin, J. P. Ciaramita, S. Khoukaz, S. C. Herrmann, and M. J. Kern, “Coronary hyperemic dose responses of intracoronary sodium nitroprusside,” Circulation, vol. 109, no. 10, pp. 1236–1243, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  100. G. Amit, C. Cafri, S. Yaroslavtsev et al., “Intracoronary nitroprusside for the prevention of the no-reflow phenomenon after primary percutaneous coronary intervention in acute myocardial infarction. A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial,” American Heart Journal, vol. 152, no. 5, pp. 887.e9–887.e14, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  101. G. Niccoli, S. Rigattieri, M. R. De Vita, et al., “Open-label, randomized, placebo-controlled evaluation of intracoronary adenosine or nitroprusside after thrombus aspiration during primary percutaneous coronary intervention for the prevention of microvascular obstruction in acute myocardial infarction: the REOPEN-AMI study (Intracoronary Nitroprusside Versus Adenosine in Acute Myocardial Infarction),” JACC: Cardiovascular Interventions, vol. 6, pp. 580–589, 2013.
  102. A. R. De Caterina, F. Cuculi, A. P. Banning, and R. K. Kharbanda, “Protecting the heart: biological targets and clinical strategies,” Current Pharmaceutical Design, vol. 19, pp. 4529–4543, 2013.
  103. P. P. Singh, M. Singh, N. Khosla et al., “Safety and efficacy of transradial versus transfemoral percutaneous coronary intervention in acute myocardial infarction: a meta-analysis of randomized trials,” Coronary Artery Disease, vol. 23, no. 4, pp. 101–114, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  104. A. M. Leone, I. Porto, A. R. De Caterina et al., “Maximal hyperemia in the assessment of fractional flow reserve: intracoronary adenosine versus intracoronary sodium nitroprusside versus intravenous adenosine: the NASCI (nitroprussiato versus adenosina nelle stenosi coronariche intermedie) study,” JACC: Cardiovascular Interventions, vol. 5, no. 4, pp. 402–408, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  105. Z.-X. Jin, J.-J. Zhou, M. Xin et al., “Postconditioning the human heart with adenosine in heart valve replacement surgery,” Annals of Thoracic Surgery, vol. 83, no. 6, pp. 2066–2072, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  106. G. Doolub and E. Dall'Armellina, “Intracoronary adenosine versus intravenous adenosine during primary PCI for ST-elevation myocardial infarction: which one offers better outcomes in terms of microvascular obstruction?” ISRN Cardiology, vol. 2013, Article ID 248476, 8 pages, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  107. M. L. Fokkema, P. J. Vlaar, M. Vogelzang et al., “Effect of high-dose intracoronary adenosine administration during primary percutaneous coronary intervention in acute myocardial infarction a randomized controlled trial,” Circulation: Cardiovascular Interventions, vol. 2, no. 4, pp. 323–329, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  108. W. Desmet, J. Bogaert, C. Dubois et al., “High-dose intracoronary adenosine for myocardial salvage in patients with acute ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction,” European Heart Journal, vol. 32, no. 7, pp. 867–877, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  109. L. Mauri, C. Rogers, and D. S. Baim, “Devices for distal protection during percutaneous coronary revascularization,” Circulation, vol. 113, no. 22, pp. 2651–2656, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  110. I. Porto, F. Belloni, G. Niccoli et al., “Filter no-reflow during percutaneous coronary intervention of saphenous vein grafts: incidence, predictors and effect of the type of protection device,” EuroIntervention, vol. 7, no. 8, pp. 955–961, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  111. J. Escaned, M. Echavarria-Pinto, T. Gorgadze et al., “Safety of lone thrombus aspiration without concomitant coronary stenting in selected patients with acute myocardial infarction,” EuroIntervention, vol. 8, pp. 1149–1156, 2013.
  112. S. de Waha, I. Eitel, S. Desch et al., “Thrombus Aspiration in ThrOmbus containing culpRiT lesions in Non-ST-Elevation Myocardial Infarction (TATORT-NSTEMI): study protocol for a randomized controlled trial,” Trials, vol. 14, p. 110, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  113. M. A. Kampinga, P. J. Vlaar, M. L. Fokkema, Y. L. Gu, and F. Zijlstra, “Thrombus aspiration during percutaneous coronary intervention in acute non-ST-elevation myocardial infarction study (TAPAS II)-study design,” Netherlands Heart Journal, vol. 17, no. 11, pp. 409–413, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  114. M. A. Vink, M. S. Patterson, J. V. Etten et al., “A randomized comparison of manual versus mechanical thrombus removal in primary percutaneous coronary intervention in the treatment of ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (TREAT-MI),” Catheterization and Cardiovascular Interventions, vol. 78, no. 1, pp. 14–19, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  115. G. Parodi, R. Valenti, A. Migliorini et al., “Comparison of manual thrombus aspiration with rheolytic thrombectomy in acute myocardial infarction,” Circulation: Cardiovascular Interventions, vol. 6, pp. 224–230, 2013.
  116. E. P. Navarese, G. Tarantini, G. Musumeci et al., “Manual vs mechanical thrombectomy during PCI for STEMI: a comprehensive direct and adjusted indirect meta-analysis of randomized trials,” American Journal of Cardiovascular Disease, vol. 3, pp. 146–157, 2013.
  117. F. Burzotta, M. De Vita, Y. L. Gu et al., “Clinical impact of thrombectomy in acute ST-elevation myocardial infarction: an individual patient-data pooled analysis of 11 trials,” European Heart Journal, vol. 30, no. 18, pp. 2193–2203, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  118. T. Svilaas, P. J. Vlaar, I. C. van der Horst et al., “Thrombus aspiration during primary percutaneous coronary intervention,” The New England Journal of Medicine, vol. 358, no. 6, pp. 557–567, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  119. D. Dudek, W. Mielecki, F. Burzotta et al., “Thrombus aspiration followed by direct stenting: a novel strategy of primary percutaneous coronary intervention in ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction. Results of the Polish-Italian-Hungarian RAndomized ThrombEctomy Trial (PIHRATE Trial),” American Heart Journal, vol. 160, no. 5, pp. 966–972, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  120. P. Silva-Orrego, P. Colombo, R. Bigi et al., “Thrombus aspiration before primary angioplasty improves myocardial reperfusion in acute myocardial infarction: the DEAR-MI (Dethrombosis to Enhance Acute Reperfusion in Myocardial Infarction) study,” Journal of the American College of Cardiology, vol. 48, no. 8, pp. 1552–1559, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  121. F. Burzotta, C. Trani, E. Romagnoli et al., “Manual thrombus-aspiration improves myocardial reperfusion: the randomized evaluation of the effect of mechanical reduction of distal embolization by thrombus-aspiration in primary and rescue angioplasty (REMEDIA) trial,” Journal of the American College of Cardiology, vol. 46, no. 2, pp. 371–376, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  122. L. De Luca, G. Sardella, C. J. Davidson et al., “Impact of intracoronary aspiration thrombectomy during primary angioplasty on left ventricular remodelling in patients with anterior ST elevation myocardial infarction,” Heart, vol. 92, no. 7, pp. 951–957, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  123. C.-L. Chao, C.-S. Hung, Y.-H. Lin et al., “Time-dependent benefit of initial thrombosuction on myocardial reperfusion in primary percutaneous coronary intervention,” International Journal of Clinical Practice, vol. 62, no. 4, pp. 555–561, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  124. J. Lipiecki, S. Monzy, N. Durel et al., “Effect of thrombus aspiration on infarct size and left ventricular function in high-risk patients with acute myocardial infarction treated by percutaneous coronary intervention. Results of a prospective controlled pilot study,” American Heart Journal, vol. 157, no. 3, pp. 583–e1, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  125. B. Chevalier, M. Gilard, I. Lang et al., “Systematic primary aspiration in acute myocardial percutaneous intervention: a multicentre randomised controlled trial of the export aspiration catheter,” EuroIntervention, vol. 4, no. 2, pp. 222–228, 2008. View at Scopus
  126. L. Galiuto, B. Garramone, F. Burzotta et al., “Thrombus aspiration reduces microvascular obstruction after primary coronary intervention: a myocardial contrast echocardiography substudy of the REMEDIA trial,” Journal of the American College of Cardiology, vol. 48, no. 7, pp. 1355–1360, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  127. F. Liistro, S. Grotti, P. Angioli et al., “Impact of thrombus aspiration on myocardial tissue reperfusion and left ventricular functional recovery and remodeling after primary angioplasty,” Circulation: Cardiovascular Interventions, vol. 2, no. 5, pp. 376–383, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  128. G. Sardella, M. Mancone, C. Bucciarelli-Ducci et al., “Thrombus aspiration during primary percutaneous coronary intervention improves myocardial reperfusion and reduces infarct size. The EXPIRA (thrombectomy with export catheter in infarct-related artery during primary percutaneous coronary intervention) prospective, randomized trial,” Journal of the American College of Cardiology, vol. 53, no. 4, pp. 309–315, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  129. P. J. Vlaar, T. Svilaas, I. C. van der Horst et al., “Cardiac death and reinfarction after 1 year in the Thrombus Aspiration during Percutaneous coronary intervention in Acute myocardial infarction Study (TAPAS): a 1-year follow-up study,” The Lancet, vol. 371, no. 9628, pp. 1915–1920, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  130. O. Frobert, B. Lagerqvist, G. K. Olivecrona et al., “Thrombus aspiration during ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction,” The New England Journal of Medicine, vol. 369, no. 17, pp. 1587–1597, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  131. M. De Carlo, G. D. Aquaro, C. Palmieri et al., “A prospective randomized trial of thrombectomy versus no thrombectomy in patients with ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction and thrombus-rich lesions: MUSTELA (MUltidevice Thrombectomy in Acute ST-Segment ELevation Acute Myocardial Infarction) trial,” JACC: Cardiovascular Interventions, vol. 5, pp. 1223–1230, 2012.
  132. S. Minha, R. Kornowski, H. Vaknin-Assa et al., “The impact of intracoronary thrombus aspiration on STEMI outcomes,” Cardiovascular Revascularization Medicine, vol. 13, pp. 167–171, 2012.
  133. M. De Vita, F. Burzotta, I. Porto et al., “Thrombus aspiration in ST elevation myocardial infarction: comparative efficacy in patients treated early and late after onset of symptoms,” Heart, vol. 96, no. 16, pp. 1287–1290, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  134. Y. Onuma, L. Thuesen, R. J. van Geuns et al., “Randomized study to assess the effect of thrombus aspiration on flow area in patients with ST-elevation myocardial infarction: an optical frequency domain imaging study—TROFI trial,” European Heart Journal, vol. 34, pp. 1050–1060, 2013.
  135. S. P. Fojtik and L. S. Kronick, “Cardiovascular innovations: novel mechanical aspiration system to improve thrombus aspiration speed, force, and control,” Cardiovascular Revascularization Medicine, vol. 14, no. 3, pp. 160–163, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar