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Scientifica
Volume 2013 (2013), Article ID 393975, 17 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2013/393975
Review Article

LIS1 and DCX: Implications for Brain Development and Human Disease in Relation to Microtubules

Department of Molecular Genetics, The Weizmann Institute of Science, 76100 Rehovot, Israel

Received 8 January 2013; Accepted 7 February 2013

Academic Editors: K. Endres and D. Jun

Copyright © 2013 Orly Reiner. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Abstract

Proper lamination of the cerebral cortex requires the orchestrated motility of neurons from their place of birth to their final destination. Improper neuronal migration may result in a wide range of diseases, including brain malformations, such as lissencephaly, mental retardation, schizophrenia, and autism. Ours and other studies have implicated that microtubules and microtubule-associated proteins play an important role in the regulation of neuronal polarization and neuronal migration. Here, we will review normal processes of brain development and neuronal migration, describe neuronal migration diseases, and will focus on the microtubule-associated functions of LIS1 and DCX, which participate in the regulation of neuronal migration and are involved in the human developmental brain disease, lissencephaly.