- About this Journal ·
- Abstracting and Indexing ·
- Advance Access ·
- Aims and Scope ·
- Article Processing Charges ·
- Articles in Press ·
- Author Guidelines ·
- Bibliographic Information ·
- Citations to this Journal ·
- Contact Information ·
- Editorial Board ·
- Editorial Workflow ·
- Free eTOC Alerts ·
- Publication Ethics ·
- Reviewers Acknowledgment ·
- Submit a Manuscript ·
- Subscription Information ·
- Table of Contents
Volume 2013 (2013), Article ID 394807, 4 pages
Age- and Gender-Specific Components of the Metabolic Syndrome in 2228 First Graders: The PEP Family Heart Study
1Arteriosklerose-Präventions-Institut, München-Nürnberg, 81477 München, Germany
2Ludwig Maximilians Universität München, 80539 München, Germany
3Institut für Klinische Chemie, Laboratoriumsmedizin und Transfusionsmedizin-Zentrallaboratorium, Klinikum Nürnberg, 90419 Nürnberg, Germany
Received 17 December 2012; Accepted 20 January 2013
Academic Editors: S. Parthasarathy and N. Sarrafzadegan
Copyright © 2013 Peter Schwandt et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
- J. Steinberger, S. R. Daniels, R. H. Eckel et al., “Progress and challenges in metabolic syndrome in children and adolescents. A scientific statement from the American heart association atherosclerosis, hypertension, and obesity in the young committee of the council on cardiovascular disease in the young; council on cardiovascular nursing; and council on nutrition, physical activity, and metabolism,” Circulation, vol. 119, no. 4, pp. 628–647, 2009.
- P. Zimmet, G. Alberti, F. Kaufman et al., et al., “The metabolic syndrome in children and adolescents,” The Lancet, vol. 369, no. 9579, pp. 2059–2061, 2007.
- A. Datar, V. Shier, and R. Sturm, “Changes in body mass during elementary and middle school in a national cohort of Kindergarteners,” Pediatrics, vol. 128, no. 6, pp. e1411–e1417, 2011.
- J. A. Morrison, L. A. Friedman, and C. Gray-McGuire, “Metabolic syndrome in childhood predicts adult cardiovascular disease 25 years later: the Princeton lipid research clinics follow-up study,” Pediatrics, vol. 120, no. 2, pp. 340–345, 2007.
- P. Schwandt, H. C. Geiß, M. M. Ritter et al., “The Prevention Education Program (PEP). A prospective study of the efficacy of family-oriented life style modification in the reduction of cardiovascular risk and disease: design and baseline data,” Journal of Clinical Epidemiology, vol. 52, no. 8, pp. 791–800, 1999.
- P. Schwandt, H. A. Bischoff-Ferrari, H. B. Staehelin, and G. M. Haas, “Cardiovascular risk screening in school children predicts risk in parents,” Atherosclerosis, vol. 205, no. 2, pp. 626–631, 2009.
- G. M. Haas, E. Liepold, and P. Schwandt, “Predicting cardiovascular risk factors by different body fat patterns in 3850 german children: the PEP family heart study,” International Journal of Preventive Medicine, vol. 2, no. 1, pp. 15–19, 2011.
- G. M. Haas, E. Liepold, and P. Schwandt, “Percentile curves for fat patterning in German adolescents,” World Journal of Pediatrics, vol. 7, no. 1, pp. 16–23, 2011.
- P. Schwandt, A. von Eckardstein, and G. M. Haas, “Percentile of percentage body fat in German children and adolescents: an international comparison,” International Journal of Preventive Medicine, vol. 3, no. 12, pp. 839–845, 2012.
- T. J. Cole, “The LMS method for constructing normalized growth standards,” European Journal of Clinical Nutrition, vol. 44, no. 1, pp. 45–60, 1990.
- National High Blood Pressure Education Program Working Group on High Blood Pressure in Children and Adolescents, “The fourth report on the diagnosis, evaluation, and treatment of high blood pressure in children and adolescents,” Pediatrics, vol. 114, no. 2, pp. 555–576, 2004.
- H. K. Neuhauser, M. Thamm, U. Ellert, H. W. Hense, and A. Schaffrath-Rosario, “Blood pressure percentiles by age and height from nonoverweight children and adolescents in Germany,” Pediatrics, vol. 127, no. 4, pp. e978–e988, 2011.
- S. D. de Ferranti, K. Gauvreau, D. S. Ludwig, E. J. Neufeld, J. W. Newburger, and N. Rifai, “Prevalence of the metabolic syndrome in American adolescents: findings from the third national health and nutrition examination survey,” Circulation, vol. 110, no. 16, pp. 2494–2497, 2004.
- E. S. Ford, C. Li, G. Zhao, W. S. Pearson, and A. H. Mokdad, “Prevalence of the metabolic syndrome among U.S. adolescents using the definition from the international diabetes federation,” Diabetes Care, vol. 31, no. 3, pp. 587–589, 2008.
- U. Ekelund, S. Anderssen, L. B. Andersen et al., “Prevalence and correlates of the metabolic syndrome in a population-based sample of European youth,” American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, vol. 89, no. 1, pp. 90–96, 2009.
- A. Esmaillzadeh, P. Mirmiran, L. Azadbakht, A. Etemadi, and F. Azizi, “High prevalence of the metabolic syndrome in Iranian adolescents,” Obesity, vol. 14, no. 3, pp. 377–382, 2006.
- R. Kelishadi, P. Schwandt, G. M. Haas, M. Hosseini, and P. Mirmoghtadaee, “Reference curves of anthropometric indices and serum lipid profiles in representative samples of Asian and European children,” Archives of Medical Science, vol. 4, no. 3, pp. 329–335, 2008.
- C. J. Jolliffe and I. Janssen, “Development of age-specific adolescent metabolic syndrome criteria that are linked to the adult treatment panel III and international diabetes federation criteria,” Journal of the American College of Cardiology, vol. 49, no. 8, pp. 891–898, 2007.
- E. S. Ford and C. Li, “Defining the metabolic syndrome in children and adolescents: will the real definition please stand up?” Journal of Pediatrics, vol. 152, no. 2, pp. 160.e13–164.e13, 2008.
- T. J. Cole, M. C. Bellizzi, K. M. Flegal, and W. H. Dietz, “Establishing a standard definition for child overweight and obesity worldwide: international survey,” British Medical Journal, vol. 320, no. 7244, pp. 1240–1243, 2000.