About this Journal Submit a Manuscript Table of Contents
Scientifica
Volume 2013 (2013), Article ID 459405, 29 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2013/459405
Review Article

Laboratory Diagnosis of Invasive Aspergillosis: From Diagnosis to Prediction of Outcome

Mycology Reference Centre, Department of Microbiology, Leeds Teaching Hospitals Trust, Leeds LS1 3EX, UK

Received 15 October 2012; Accepted 14 November 2012

Academic Editors: J. R. Blazquez, G. Comi, and C.-Y. Hung

Copyright © 2013 Richard C. Barton. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Linked References

  1. J. P. Latge, “Aspergillus fumigatus and aspergillosis,” Clinical Microbiology Reviews, vol. 12, pp. 310–350, 1999.
  2. W. W. Hope, T. J. Walsh, and D. W. Denning, “The invasive and saprophytic syndromes due to Aspergillus spp.,” Medical Mycology, vol. 43, supplement 1, pp. S207–S238, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  3. Z. Erjavec, H. Kluin-Nelemans, and P. E. Verweij, “Trends in invasive fungal infections, with emphasis on invasive aspergillosis,” Clinical Microbiology and Infection, vol. 15, no. 7, pp. 625–633, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  4. R. Duthie and D. W. Denning, “Aspergillus fungemia: report of two cases and review,” Clinical Infectious Diseases, vol. 20, no. 3, pp. 598–605, 1995. View at Scopus
  5. J. J. Tarrand, M. Lichterfeld, I. Warraich et al., “Diagnosis of invasive septate mold infections: a correlation of microbiological culture and histologic or cytologic examination,” American Journal of Clinical Pathology, vol. 119, no. 6, pp. 854–858, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  6. C. R. Thornton, “Detection of invasive aspergillosis,” Advances in Applied Microbiology, vol. 70, pp. 187–216, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  7. S. Ascioglu, B. E. de Pauw, J. P. Donnelly, and L. Collette, “Reliability of clinical research on invasive fungal infections: a systematic review of the literature,” Medical Mycology, vol. 39, no. 1, pp. 35–40, 2001. View at Scopus
  8. S. Ascioglu, J. H. Rex, B. de Pauw et al., “Defining opportunistic invasive fungal infections in immunocompromised patients with cancer and hematopoietic stem cell transplants: an international consensus,” Clinical Infectious Diseases, vol. 34, no. 1, pp. 7–14, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  9. B. De Puaw, T. J. Walsh, J. P. Donnelly, et al., “Revised definitions of invasive fungal disease from the European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer/Invasive Fungal Infections Cooperative Group and the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases Mycoses Study Group (EORTC/MSG) Consensus Group,” Clinical Infectious Diseases, vol. 46, pp. 1813–1821, 2008.
  10. T. Avni, I. Levy, H. Sprecher, et al., “Diagnostic accuracy of PCR alone and compared to galactomannan in bronchoalveolar lavage for the diagnosis of invasive pulmonary aspergillosis: systematic review,” Journal of Clinical Microbiology, vol. 50, no. 11, pp. 3652–3658, 2012.
  11. S. A. Nouer, M. Nucci, N. S. Kumar, et al., “Earlier response assessment in invasive aspergillosis based on the kinetics of serum Aspergillus galactomannan: proposal for a new definition,” Clinical Infectious Diseases, vol. 53, pp. 671–676, 2011.
  12. F. Traunmuller, M. Popovic, K. H. Konz, et al., “Efficacy and safety of current drug therapies for invasive aspergillosis,” Pharmacology, vol. 88, pp. 213–224, 2011.
  13. D. Neofytos, J. A. Fishman, D. Horn et al., “Epidemiology and outcome of invasive fungal infections in solid organ transplant recipients,” Transplant Infectious Disease, vol. 12, no. 3, pp. 220–229, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  14. D. Neofytos, D. Horn, E. Anaissie et al., “Epidemiology and outcome of invasive fungal infection in adult hematopoietic stem cell transplant recipients: analysis of multicenter Prospective Antifungal Therapy (PATH) alliance registry,” Clinical Infectious Diseases, vol. 48, no. 5, pp. 265–273, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  15. T. J. Walsh, R. W. Finberg, C. Arndt, et al., “Liposomal amphotericin B for empirical therapy in patients with persistent fever and neutropenia. National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases Mycoses Study Group,” The New England Journal of Medicine, vol. 340, pp. 764–771, 1999.
  16. N. Wu, Y. Huang, Q. Li, C. Bai, H. D. Huang, and X. P. Yao, “Isolated invasive Aspergillus tracheobronchitis: a clinical study of 19 cases,” Clinical Microbiology and Infection, vol. 16, no. 6, pp. 689–695, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  17. E. Kazan, J. Maertens, R. Herbrecht et al., “A retrospective series of gut aspergillosis in haematology patients,” Clinical Microbiology and Infection, vol. 17, no. 4, pp. 588–594, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  18. S. R. Mays, M. A. Bogle, and G. P. Bodey, “Cutaneous fungal infections in the oncology patient: recognition and management,” American Journal of Clinical Dermatology, vol. 7, no. 1, pp. 31–43, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  19. C. Y. Chen, W. H. Sheng, A. Cheng, et al., “Invasive fungal sinusitis in patients with hematological malignancy: 15 years experience in a single university hospital in Taiwan,” BMC Infectious Diseases, vol. 11, article 250, 2011.
  20. P. Parize, M. O. Chandesris, F. Lanternier et al., “Antifungal therapy of aspergillus invasive otitis externa: efficacy of voriconazole and review,” Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy, vol. 53, no. 3, pp. 1048–1053, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  21. J. I. Pitt, “The current role of Aspergillus and Penicillium in human and animal health,” Journal of Medical and Veterinary Mycology, Supplement, vol. 32, supplement 1, pp. 17–32, 1994. View at Scopus
  22. W. J. Steinbach, K. A. Marr, E. J. Anaissie, et al., “Clinical epidemiology of 960 patients with invasive aspergillosis from the PATH Alliance registry,” Journal of Infection, vol. 65, no. 5, pp. 453–464, 2012.
  23. C. Lass-Flörl, K. Griff, A. Mayr et al., “Epidemiology and outcome of infections due to Aspergillus terreus: 10-Year single centre experience,” British Journal of Haematology, vol. 131, no. 2, pp. 201–207, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  24. E. Mokaddas, M. H. A. Burhamah, S. Ahmad, and Z. U. Khan, “Invasive pulmonary aspergillosis due to Aspergillus terreus: value of DNA, galactomannan and (1→3)-β-D-glucan detection in serum samples as an adjunct to diagnosis,” Journal of Medical Microbiology, vol. 59, no. 12, pp. 1519–1523, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  25. S. Krishnan, E. K. Manavathu, and P. H. Chandrasekar, “Aspergillus flavus: an emerging non-fumigatus Aspergillus species of significance,” Mycoses, vol. 52, no. 3, pp. 206–222, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  26. A. Chakrabarti, S. S. Chatterjee, A. Das, and M. R. Shivaprakash, “Invasive aspergillosis in developing countries,” Medical Mycology, vol. 49, supplement 1, pp. S35–S47, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  27. J. A. Sugui, S. W. Peterson, L. P. Clark, et al., “Aspergillus tanneri sp. nov., a new pathogen that causes invasive disease refractory to antifungal therapy,” Journal of Clinical Microbiology, vol. 50, pp. 3309–3317, 2012.
  28. S. A. Balajee, J. L. Gribskov, E. Hanley, D. Nickle, and K. A. Marr, “Aspergillus lentulus sp. nov., a new sibling species of A. fumigatus,” Eukaryotic Cell, vol. 4, no. 3, pp. 625–632, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  29. T. Yaguchi, Y. Horie, R. Tanaka, T. Matsuzawa, J. Ito, and K. Nishimura, “Molecular phylogenetics of multiple genes on Aspergillus section Fumigati isolated from clinical specimens in Japan,” Nihon Ishinkin Gakkai Zasshi, vol. 48, no. 1, pp. 37–46, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  30. S. J. Howard, E. Harrison, P. Bowyer, et al., “Cryptic species and azole resistance in the Aspergillus niger complex,” Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy, vol. 55, pp. 4802–4809, 2011.
  31. L. Alcazar-Fuoli, E. Mellado, A. Alastruey-Izquierdo, M. Cuenca-Estrella, and J. L. Rodriguez-Tudela, “Aspergillus section Fumigati: antifungal susceptibility patterns and sequence-based identification,” Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy, vol. 52, no. 4, pp. 1244–1251, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  32. R. D. Meyer, L. S. Young, D. Armstrong, and B. Yu, “Aspergillosis complicating neoplastic disease,” The American Journal of Medicine, vol. 54, no. 1, pp. 6–15, 1973. View at Scopus
  33. R. D. Diamond, R. Krzesicki, B. Epstein, and W. Jao, “Damage to hyphal forms of fungi by human leukocytes in vitro. A possible host defense mechanism in aspergillosis and mucormycosis,” American Journal of Pathology, vol. 91, no. 2, pp. 313–328, 1978. View at Scopus
  34. T. F. Patterson, “Risks stratification for invasive aspergillosis: early assesment of host susceptibility,” Medical Mycology, vol. 47, supplement 1, pp. S255–S260, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  35. L. Li, J. Wang, W. Zhang, et al., “Risk factors for invasive mold infections following allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation: a single center study of 190 recipients,” Scandinavian Journal of Infectious Diseases, vol. 44, pp. 100–107, 2012.
  36. M. C. Nicolle, T. Benet, A. Thiebaut, et al., “Invasive aspergillosis in patients with hematologic malignancies: incidence and description of 127 cases enrolled in a single institution prospective survey from 2004 to 2009,” Haematologica, vol. 96, pp. 1685–1691, 2011.
  37. O. Lortholary, J. P. Gangneux, K. Sitbon, et al., “Epidemiological trends in invasive aspergillosis in France: the SAIF network (2005–2007),” Clinical Microbiology and Infection, vol. 17, pp. 1882–1889, 2011.
  38. A. Bergeron, R. Porcher, A. Sulahian, et al., “The strategy for the diagnosis of invasive pulmonary aspergillosis should depend on both the underlying condition and the leukocyte count of patients with hematologic malignancies,” Blood, vol. 119, pp. 1831–1837, 2012.
  39. M. T. Montagna, G. O. De, C. Napoli, et al., “Invasive fungal infections in patients with hematologic malignancies (aurora project): lights and shadows during 18-months surveillance,” International Journal of Molecular Sciences, vol. 13, pp. 774–787, 2012.
  40. L. Slobbe, S. Polinder, J. K. Doorduijn et al., “Outcome and medical costs of patients with invasive aspergillosis and acute myelogenous leukemia-myelodysplastic syndrome treated with intensive chemotherapy: an observational study,” Clinical Infectious Diseases, vol. 47, no. 12, pp. 1507–1512, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  41. M. Rosenhagen, R. Feldhues, J. Schmidt, T. Hoppe-Tichy, and H. K. Geiss, “A risk profile for invasive aspergillosis in liver transplant recipients,” Infection, vol. 37, no. 4, pp. 313–319, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  42. S. M. Hosseini-Moghaddam and S. Husain, “Fungi and molds following lung transplantation,” Seminars in Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine, vol. 31, no. 2, pp. 222–233, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  43. M. Pacholczyk, B. Lagiewska, W. Lisik, et al., “Invasive fungal infections following liver transplantation—risk factors, incidence and outcome,” Annals of Transplantation, vol. 16, pp. 14–16, 2011.
  44. M. K. Ju, D. J. Joo, S. J. Kim et al., “Invasive pulmonary aspergillosis after solid organ transplantation: diagnosis and treatment based on 28 years of transplantation experience,” Transplantation Proceedings, vol. 41, no. 1, pp. 375–378, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  45. R. E. Lewis and D. P. Kontoyiannis, “Invasive aspergillosis in glucocorticoid-treated patients,” Medical Mycology, vol. 47, supplement 1, pp. S271–S281, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  46. A. Russo, M. Falcone, A. Vena, et al., “Invasive pulmonary aspergillosis in non-neutropenic patients: analysis of a 14-month prospective clinical experience,” Journal of Chemotherapy, vol. 23, pp. 290–294, 2011.
  47. J. Garbino, U. Fluckiger, L. Elzi, et al., “Survey of aspergillosis in non-neutropenic patients in Swiss teaching hospitals,” Clinical Microbiology and Infection, vol. 17, pp. 1366–1371, 2011.
  48. F. Ader, “Invasive pulmonary Aspergillosis in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: an emerging fungal disease,” Current Infectious Disease Reports, vol. 12, no. 6, pp. 409–416, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  49. M. Falcone, A. P. Massetti, A. Russo, V. Vullo, and M. Venditti, “Invasive aspergillosis in patients with liver disease,” Medical Mycology, vol. 49, no. 4, pp. 406–413, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  50. R. Dutkiewicz and C. A. Hage, “Aspergillus infections in the critically ill,” Proceedings of the American Thoracic Society, vol. 7, no. 3, pp. 204–209, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  51. A. Glockner and M. Karthaus, “Current aspects of invasive candidiasis and aspergillosis in adult intensive care patients,” Mycoses, vol. 54, pp. 420–433, 2011.
  52. C. Garcia-Vidal, P. Barba, M. Arnan, et al., “Invasive aspergillosis complicating pandemic influenza A, (H1N1) infection in severely immunocompromised patients,” Clinical Infectious Diseases, vol. 53, pp. e16–e19, 2011.
  53. J. Jensen, J. Guinea, M. Torres-Narbona, P. Muñoz, T. Peláez, and E. Bouza, “Post-surgical invasive aspergillosis: an uncommon and under-appreciated entity,” Journal of Infection, vol. 60, no. 2, pp. 162–167, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  54. A. I. Hidron, M. C. Gongora, A. M. L. Anderson, and C. A. DiazGranados, “Prolonged survival of a patient with AIDS and central nervous system aspergillosis,” Medical Mycology, vol. 47, no. 3, pp. 327–330, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  55. A. Gupta, M. McKean, S. Haynes et al., “Chronic granulomatous disease presenting as fulminant Aspergillus pneumonitis: a lethal combination?” Pediatric Critical Care Medicine, vol. 10, no. 4, pp. e43–e45, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  56. J. Lambourne, D. Agranoff, R. Herbrecht et al., “Association of mannose-binding lectin deficiency with acute invasive aspergillosis in immunocompromised patients,” Clinical Infectious Diseases, vol. 49, no. 10, pp. 1486–1491, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  57. P. Y. Bochud, J. W. Chien, K. A. Marr et al., “Toll-like receptor 4 polymorphisms and aspergillosis in stem-cell transplantation,” The New England Journal of Medicine, vol. 359, no. 17, pp. 1766–1777, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  58. D. W. Denning and D. A. Stevens, “Antifungal and surgical treatment of invasive aspergillosis: review of 2,121 published cases,” Reviews of Infectious Diseases, vol. 12, no. 6, pp. 1147–1201, 1990. View at Scopus
  59. M. C. Nicolle, T. Benet, A. Thiebaut, et al., “Invasive aspergillosis in patients with hematologic malignancies: incidence and description of 127 cases enrolled in a single institution prospective survey from 2004 to 2009,” Haematologica, vol. 96, pp. 1685–1691, 2011.
  60. F. B. Cakir, E. Cakir, S. G. Berrak et al., “Invasive respiratory aspergillosis is a treatable disease with early diagnosis and aggressive therapy,” Pediatric Hematology and Oncology, vol. 27, no. 6, pp. 422–434, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  61. M. Michallet, T. Benet, M. Sobh, et al., “Invasive aspergillosis: an important risk factor on the short- and long-term survival of acute myeloid leukemia (AML) patients,” European Journal of Clinical Microbiology & Infectious Diseases, vol. 31, pp. 991–997, 2012.
  62. J. Menzin, J. L. Meyers, M. Friedman et al., “Mortality, length of hospitalization, and costs associated with invasive fungal infections in high-risk patients,” American Journal of Health-System Pharmacy, vol. 66, no. 19, pp. 1711–1717, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  63. K. B. Tong, C. J. Lau, K. Murtagh, A. J. Layton, and R. Seifeldin, “The economic impact of aspergillosis: analysis of hospital expenditures across patient subgroups,” International Journal of Infectious Diseases, vol. 13, no. 1, pp. 24–36, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  64. A. Kim, D. P. Nicolau, and J. L. Kuti, “Hospital costs and outcomes among intravenous antifungal therapies for patients with invasive aspergillosis in the United States,” Mycoses, vol. 54, pp. e301–e312, 2011.
  65. L. Y. A. Chai, M. G. Netea, S. Teerenstra et al., “Early proinflammatory cytokines and C-reactive protein trends as predictors of outcome in invasive aspergillosis,” Journal of Infectious Diseases, vol. 202, no. 9, pp. 1454–1462, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  66. S. C. A. Chen and D. P. Kontoyiannis, “New molecular and surrogate biomarker-based tests in the diagnosis of bacterial and fungal infection in febrile neutropenic patients,” Current Opinion in Infectious Diseases, vol. 23, no. 6, pp. 567–577, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  67. D. Caillot, J. F. Couaillier, A. Bernard et al., “Increasing volume and changing characteristics of invasive pulmonary aspergillosis on sequential thoracic computed tomography scans in patients with neutropenia,” Journal of Clinical Oncology, vol. 19, no. 1, pp. 253–259, 2001. View at Scopus
  68. R. Greene, “The radiological spectrum of pulmonary aspergillosis,” Medical Mycology, vol. 43, supplement 1, pp. S147–S154, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  69. A. Hidalgo, R. Parody, R. Martino et al., “Correlation between high-resolution computed tomography and galactomannan antigenemia in adult hematologic patients at risk for invasive aspergillosis,” European Journal of Radiology, vol. 71, no. 1, pp. 55–60, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  70. N. Kawel, G. M. Schorer, L. Desbiolles, et al., “Discrimination between invasive pulmonary aspergillosis and pulmonary lymphoma using CT,” European Journal of Radiology, vol. 77, pp. 417–425, 2011.
  71. X. S. Li, H. X. Zhu, H. X. Fan, et al., “Pulmonary fungal infections after bone marrow transplantation: the value of high-resolution computed tomography in predicting their etiology,” Chinese Medical Journal, vol. 124, pp. 3249–3254, 2011.
  72. M. Petrik, G. M. Franssen, H. Haas, et al., “Preclinical evaluation of two 68Ga-siderophores as potential radiopharmaceuticals for Aspergillus fumigatus infection imaging,” European Journal of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging, vol. 39, pp. 1175–1183, 2012.
  73. B. J. A. Rijnders and L. Slobbe, “Bronchoalveolar lavage fluid galactomannan for diagnosis of invasive pulmonary aspergillosis,” Clinical Infectious Diseases, vol. 50, no. 7, pp. 1070–1072, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  74. A. Paugam, M. T. Baixench, A. Lebuisson, and J. Dupouy-Camet, “Diagnosis of invasive pulmonary aspergillosis: value of bronchoalveolar lavage galactomannan for immunocompromised patients,” Pathologie Biologie, vol. 58, no. 1, pp. 100–103, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  75. D. W. Denning, S. Park, C. Lass-Florl et al., “High-frequency triazole resistance found in nonculturable aspergillus fumigatus from lungs of patients with chronic fungal disease,” Clinical Infectious Diseases, vol. 52, no. 9, pp. 1123–1129, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  76. M. H. Nguyen, H. Leather, C. J. Clancy et al., “Galactomannan testing in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid facilitates the diagnosis of invasive pulmonary aspergillosis in patients with hematologic malignancies and stem cell transplant recipients,” Biology of Blood and Marrow Transplantation, vol. 17, no. 7, pp. 1043–1050, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  77. R. Rüchel and M. Schaffrinski, “Versatile fluorescent staining of fungi in clinical specimens by using the optical brightener Blankophor,” Journal of Clinical Microbiology, vol. 37, no. 8, pp. 2694–2696, 1999. View at Scopus
  78. P. B. De, T. J. Walsh, J. P. Donnelly, et al., “Revised definitions of invasive fungal disease from the European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer/Invasive Fungal Infections Cooperative Group and the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases Mycoses Study Group (EORTC/MSG) Consensus Group,” Clinical Infectious Diseases, vol. 46, pp. 1813–1821, 2008.
  79. M. H. Nguyen, H. Leather, C. J. Clancy et al., “Galactomannan testing in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid facilitates the diagnosis of invasive pulmonary aspergillosis in patients with hematologic malignancies and stem cell transplant recipients,” Biology of Blood and Marrow Transplantation, vol. 17, no. 7, pp. 1043–1050, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  80. D. W. Denning, C. C. Kibbler, and R. A. Barnes, “British Society for Medical Mycology proposed standards of care for patients with invasive fungal infections,” The Lancet Infectious Diseases, vol. 3, no. 4, pp. 230–240, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  81. J. K. Choi, J. Mauger, and K. L. McGowan, “Immunohistochemical detection of Aspergillus species in pediatric tissue samples,” American Journal of Clinical Pathology, vol. 121, no. 1, pp. 18–25, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  82. P. J. Paterson, S. Seaton, T. D. McHugh et al., “Validation and clinical application of molecular methods for the identification of molds in tissue,” Clinical Infectious Diseases, vol. 42, no. 1, pp. 51–56, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  83. J. A. Horvath and S. Dummer, “The use of respiratory-tract cultures in the diagnosis of invasive pulmonary aspergillosis,” American Journal of Medicine, vol. 100, no. 2, pp. 171–178, 1996. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  84. K. L. Mortensen, H. K. Johansen, K. Fuursted, et al., “A prospective survey of Aspergillus spp. in respiratory tract samples: prevalence, clinical impact and antifungal susceptibility,” European Journal of Clinical Microbiology & Infectious Diseases, vol. 30, pp. 1355–1363, 2011.
  85. T. G. M. Bauters and H. J. Nelis, “Rapid and sensitive plate method for detection of Aspergillus fumigatus,” Journal of Clinical Microbiology, vol. 38, no. 10, pp. 3796–3799, 2000. View at Scopus
  86. C. E. Leslie, B. Flannigan, and L. J. R. Milne, “Morphological studies on clinical isolates of Aspergillus fumigatus,” Journal of Medical and Veterinary Mycology, vol. 26, no. 6, pp. 335–341, 1988. View at Scopus
  87. P. B. De, T. J. Walsh, J. P. Donnelly, et al., “Revised definitions of invasive fungal disease from the European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer/Invasive Fungal Infections Cooperative Group and the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases Mycoses Study Group (EORTC/MSG) Consensus Group,” Clinical Infectious Diseases, vol. 46, pp. 1813–1821, 2008.
  88. P. B. De, T. J. Walsh, J. P. Donnelly, et al., “Revised definitions of invasive fungal disease from the European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer/Invasive Fungal Infections Cooperative Group and the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases Mycoses Study Group (EORTC/MSG) Consensus Group,” Clinical Infectious Diseases, vol. 46, pp. 1813–1821, 2008.
  89. M. L. Luong, C. J. Clancy, A. Vadnerkar et al., “Comparison of an aspergillus real-time polymerase chain reaction assay with galactomannan testing of bronchoalvelolar lavage fluid for the diagnosis of invasive pulmonary aspergillosis in lung transplant recipients,” Clinical Infectious Diseases, vol. 52, no. 10, pp. 1218–1226, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  90. A. C. Pasqualotto, M. O. Xavier, L. B. Sánchez et al., “Diagnosis of invasive aspergillosis in lung transplant recipients by detection of galactomannan in the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid,” Transplantation, vol. 90, no. 3, pp. 306–311, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  91. A. Bergeron, A. Belle, A. Sulahian et al., “Contribution of galactomannan antigen detection in BAL to the diagnosis of invasive pulmonary aspergillosis in patients with hematologic malignancies,” Chest, vol. 137, no. 2, pp. 410–415, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  92. J. Maertens, V. Maertens, K. Theunissen et al., “Bronchoalveolar lavage fluid galactomannan for the diagnosis of invasive pulmonary aspergillosis in patients with hematologic diseases,” Clinical Infectious Diseases, vol. 49, no. 11, pp. 1688–1693, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  93. J. Maertens, V. Maertens, K. Theunissen et al., “Bronchoalveolar lavage fluid galactomannan for the diagnosis of invasive pulmonary aspergillosis in patients with hematologic diseases,” Clinical Infectious Diseases, vol. 49, no. 11, pp. 1688–1693, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  94. E. Fréalle, K. Decrucq, F. Botterel et al., “Diagnosis of invasive aspergillosis using bronchoalveolar lavage in haematology patients: influence of bronchoalveolar lavage human DNA content on real-time PCR performance,” European Journal of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases, vol. 28, no. 3, pp. 223–232, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  95. M. H. Nguyen, H. Leather, C. J. Clancy et al., “Galactomannan testing in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid facilitates the diagnosis of invasive pulmonary aspergillosis in patients with hematologic malignancies and stem cell transplant Recipients,” Biology of Blood and Marrow Transplantation, vol. 17, no. 7, pp. 1043–1050, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  96. M. H. Nguyen, H. Leather, C. J. Clancy et al., “Galactomannan testing in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid facilitates the diagnosis of invasive pulmonary aspergillosis in patients with hematologic malignancies and stem cell transplant Recipients,” Biology of Blood and Marrow Transplantation, vol. 17, no. 7, pp. 1043–1050, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  97. M. H. Nguyen, H. Leather, C. J. Clancy et al., “Galactomannan testing in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid facilitates the diagnosis of invasive pulmonary aspergillosis in patients with hematologic malignancies and stem cell transplant Recipients,” Biology of Blood and Marrow Transplantation, vol. 17, no. 7, pp. 1043–1050, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  98. S. Y. Park, S. O. Lee, S. H. Choi et al., “Aspergillus galactomannan antigen assay in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid for diagnosis of invasive pulmonary aspergillosis,” Journal of Infection, vol. 61, no. 6, pp. 492–498, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  99. L. Y. Hsu, Y. Ding, J. Phua et al., “Galactomannan testing of bronchoalveolar lavage fluid is useful for diagnosis of invasive pulmonary aspergillosis in hematology patients,” BMC Infectious Diseases, vol. 10, article 44, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  100. R. Torelli, M. Sanguinetti, A. Moody, et al., “Diagnosis of invasive aspergillosis by a commercial real-time PCR assay for Aspergillus DNA in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid samples from high-risk patients compared to a galactomannan enzyme immunoassay.,” Journal of Clinical Microbiology, vol. 49, pp. 4273–4278, 2011.
  101. R. Torelli, M. Sanguinetti, A. Moody, et al., “Diagnosis of invasive aspergillosis by a commercial real-time PCR assay for Aspergillus DNA in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid samples from high-risk patients compared to a galactomannan enzyme immunoassay,” Journal of Clinical Microbiology, vol. 49, pp. 4273–4278, 2011.
  102. C. Althoff Souza, N. L. Müller, E. Marchiori, D. L. Escuissato, and T. Franquet, “Pulmonary invasive aspergillosis and candidiasis in immunocompromised patients: a comparative study of the high-resolution CT findings,” Journal of Thoracic Imaging, vol. 21, no. 3, pp. 184–189, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  103. T. J. Walsh, M. C. Wissel, K. J. Grantham, et al., “Molecular detection and species-specific identification of medically important Aspergillus species by real-time PCR in experimental invasive pulmonary aspergillosis,” Journal of Clinical Microbiology, vol. 49, pp. 4150–4157, 2011.
  104. D. Stynen, J. Sarfati, A. Goris et al., “Rat monoclonal antibodies against Aspergillus galactomannan,” Infection and Immunity, vol. 60, no. 6, pp. 2237–2245, 1992. View at Scopus
  105. M. A. S. H. Mennink-Kersten, J. P. Donnelly, and P. E. Verweij, “Detection of circulating galactomannan for the diagnosis and management of invasive aspergillosis,” The Lancet Infectious Diseases, vol. 4, no. 6, pp. 349–357, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  106. W. Morelle, M. Bernard, J. P. Debeaupuis, M. Buitrago, M. Tabouret, and J. P. Latgé, “Galactomannoproteins of Aspergillus fumigatus,” Eukaryotic Cell, vol. 4, no. 7, pp. 1308–1316, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  107. K. Y. Yuen, C. M. Chan, K. M. Chan et al., “Characterization of AFMP1: a novel target for serodiagnosis of Aspergillosis,” Journal of Clinical Microbiology, vol. 39, no. 11, pp. 3830–3837, 2001. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  108. M. A. S. H. Mennink-Kersten, J. P. Donnelly, and P. E. Verweij, “Detection of circulating galactomannan for the diagnosis and management of invasive aspergillosis,” The Lancet Infectious Diseases, vol. 4, no. 6, pp. 349–357, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  109. T. Fontaine, C. Simenel, G. Dubreucq et al., “Molecular organization of the alkali-insoluble fraction of Aspergillus fumigatus cell wall,” The Journal of Biological Chemistry, vol. 275, no. 36, pp. 27594–27607, 2000. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  110. M. A. S. H. Mennink-Kersten, D. Ruegebrink, N. Wasei, W. J. G. Melchers, and P. E. Verweij, “In vitro release by Aspergillus fumigatus of galactofuranose antigens, 1,3-β-D-glucan, and DNA, surrogate markers used for diagnosis of invasive aspergillosis,” Journal of Clinical Microbiology, vol. 44, no. 5, pp. 1711–1718, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  111. C. O. Morton, J. Loeffler, A. de Luca et al., “Dynamics of extracellular release of Aspergillus fumigatus DNA and galactomannan during growth in blood and serum,” Journal of Medical Microbiology, vol. 59, no. 4, pp. 408–413, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  112. M. A. S. H. Mennink-Kersten, J. P. Donnelly, and P. E. Verweij, “Detection of circulating galactomannan for the diagnosis and management of invasive aspergillosis,” The Lancet Infectious Diseases, vol. 4, no. 6, pp. 349–357, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  113. M. A. Mennink-Kersten, D. Ruegebrink, N. Wasei, et al., “In vitro release by Aspergillus fumigatus of galactofuranose antigens, 1, 3-beta-D-glucan, and DNA, surrogate markers used for diagnosis of invasive aspergillosis,” Journal of Clinical Microbiology, vol. 44, pp. 1711–1718, 2006.
  114. M. A. S. H. Mennink-Kersten, D. Ruegebrink, N. Wasei, W. J. G. Melchers, and P. E. Verweij, “In vitro release by Aspergillus fumigatus of galactofuranose antigens, 1,3-β-D-glucan, and DNA, surrogate markers used for diagnosis of invasive aspergillosis,” Journal of Clinical Microbiology, vol. 44, no. 5, pp. 1711–1718, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  115. W. W. Hope, M. J. Kruhlak, C. A. Lyman et al., “Pathogenesis of Aspergillus fumigatus and the kinetics of galactomannan in an in vitro model of early invasive pulmonary aspergillosis: implications for antifungal therapy,” Journal of Infectious Diseases, vol. 195, no. 3, pp. 455–466, 2007. View at Scopus
  116. T. Franquet, N. L. Müller, A. Giménez, P. Guembe, J. De La Torre, and S. Bagué, “Spectrum of pulmonary aspergillosis: histologic, clinical, and radiologic findings,” Radiographics, vol. 21, no. 4, pp. 825–837, 2001. View at Scopus
  117. P. E. Verweij, C. M. Weemaes, J. H. A. J. Curfs, S. Bretagne, and J. F. G. M. Meis, “Failure to detect circulating Aspergillus markers in a patient with chronic granulomatous disease and invasive aspergillosis,” Journal of Clinical Microbiology, vol. 38, no. 10, pp. 3900–3901, 2000. View at Scopus
  118. J. E. Bennett, M. M. Friedman, and B. Dupont, “Receptor-mediated clearance of aspergillus, galactomannan,” Journal of Infectious Diseases, vol. 155, no. 5, pp. 1005–1010, 1987. View at Scopus
  119. R. Herbrecht, V. Letscher-Bru, C. Oprea et al., “Aspergillus galactomannan detection in the diagnosis of invasive aspergillosis in cancer patients,” Journal of Clinical Oncology, vol. 20, no. 7, pp. 1898–1906, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  120. D. Stynen, J. Sarfati, A. Goris et al., “Rat monoclonal antibodies against Aspergillus galactomannan,” Infection and Immunity, vol. 60, no. 6, pp. 2237–2245, 1992. View at Scopus
  121. K. A. Haynes, J. P. Latge, and T. R. Rogers, “Detection of Aspergillus antigens associated with invasive infection,” Journal of Clinical Microbiology, vol. 28, no. 9, pp. 2040–2044, 1990. View at Scopus
  122. D. Stynen, J. Sarfati, A. Goris et al., “Rat monoclonal antibodies against Aspergillus galactomannan,” Infection and Immunity, vol. 60, no. 6, pp. 2237–2245, 1992. View at Scopus
  123. T. R. Rogers, K. A. Haynes, and R. A. Barnes, “Value of antigen detection in predicting invasive pulmonary aspergillosis,” The Lancet, vol. 336, no. 8725, pp. 1210–1213, 1990. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  124. D. Stynen, J. Sarfati, A. Goris et al., “Rat monoclonal antibodies against Aspergillus galactomannan,” Infection and Immunity, vol. 60, no. 6, pp. 2237–2245, 1992. View at Scopus
  125. D. Stynen, J. Sarfati, A. Goris et al., “Rat monoclonal antibodies against Aspergillus galactomannan,” Infection and Immunity, vol. 60, no. 6, pp. 2237–2245, 1992. View at Scopus
  126. R. R. Klont, M. A. S. H. Mennink-Kersten, and P. E. Verweij, “Utility of Aspergillus antigen detection in specimens other than serum specimens,” Clinical Infectious Diseases, vol. 39, no. 10, pp. 1467–1474, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  127. P. E. Verweij, J. P. Latge, A. J. M. M. Rijs et al., “Comparison of antigen detection and PCR assay using bronchoalveolar lavage fluid for diagnosing invasive pulmonary aspergillosis in patients receiving treatment for hematological malignancies,” Journal of Clinical Microbiology, vol. 33, no. 12, pp. 3150–3153, 1995. View at Scopus
  128. M. A. S. H. Mennink-Kersten, D. Ruegebrink, N. Wasei, W. J. G. Melchers, and P. E. Verweij, “In vitro release by Aspergillus fumigatus of galactofuranose antigens, 1,3-β-D-glucan, and DNA, surrogate markers used for diagnosis of invasive aspergillosis,” Journal of Clinical Microbiology, vol. 44, no. 5, pp. 1711–1718, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  129. M. A. S. H. Mennink-Kersten, D. Ruegebrink, N. Wasei, W. J. G. Melchers, and P. E. Verweij, “In vitro release by Aspergillus fumigatus of galactofuranose antigens, 1,3-β-D-glucan, and DNA, surrogate markers used for diagnosis of invasive aspergillosis,” Journal of Clinical Microbiology, vol. 44, no. 5, pp. 1711–1718, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  130. H. J. Seyfarth, P. Nenoff, J. Winkler, R. Krahl, U. F. Haustein, and J. Schauer, “Aspergillus detection in bronchoscopically acquired material. Significance and interpretation,” Mycoses, vol. 44, no. 9-10, pp. 356–360, 2001. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  131. Z. Racil, I. Kocmanova, M. Toskova, et al., “Galactomannan detection in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid for the diagnosis of invasive aspergillosis in patients with hematological diseases-the role of factors affecting assay performance,” International Journal of Infectious Diseases, vol. 15, pp. e874–e881, 2011.
  132. M. J. Becker, E. J. Lugtenburg, J. J. Cornelissen, C. Van Der Schee, H. C. Hoogsteden, and S. De Marie, “Galactomannan detection in computerized tomography-based broncho-alveolar lavage fluid and serum in haematological patients at risk for invasive pulmonary aspergillosis,” British Journal of Haematology, vol. 121, no. 3, pp. 448–457, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  133. R. Torelli, M. Sanguinetti, A. Moody, et al., “Diagnosis of invasive aspergillosis by a commercial real-time PCR assay for Aspergillus DNA in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid samples from high-risk patients compared to a galactomannan enzyme immunoassay,” Journal of Clinical Microbiology, vol. 49, pp. 4273–4278, 2011.
  134. P. Danpornprasert, S. Foongladda, and J. Tscheikuna, “Impact of bronchoalveolar lavage galactomannan on the outcome of patients at risk for invasive pulmonary aspergillosis,” Journal of the Medical Association of Thailand, vol. 93, supplement 1, pp. S86–S93, 2010. View at Scopus
  135. S. Y. Park, S. O. Lee, S. H. Choi et al., “Aspergillus galactomannan antigen assay in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid for diagnosis of invasive pulmonary aspergillosis,” Journal of Infection, vol. 61, no. 6, pp. 492–498, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  136. J. Maertens, V. Maertens, K. Theunissen et al., “Bronchoalveolar lavage fluid galactomannan for the diagnosis of invasive pulmonary aspergillosis in patients with hematologic diseases,” Clinical Infectious Diseases, vol. 49, no. 11, pp. 1688–1693, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  137. J. Maertens, V. Maertens, K. Theunissen et al., “Bronchoalveolar lavage fluid galactomannan for the diagnosis of invasive pulmonary aspergillosis in patients with hematologic diseases,” Clinical Infectious Diseases, vol. 49, no. 11, pp. 1688–1693, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  138. M. H. Nguyen, H. Leather, C. J. Clancy et al., “Galactomannan testing in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid facilitates the diagnosis of invasive pulmonary aspergillosis in patients with hematologic malignancies and stem cell transplant Recipients,” Biology of Blood and Marrow Transplantation, vol. 17, no. 7, pp. 1043–1050, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  139. S. Y. Park, S. O. Lee, S. H. Choi et al., “Aspergillus galactomannan antigen assay in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid for diagnosis of invasive pulmonary aspergillosis,” Journal of Infection, vol. 61, no. 6, pp. 492–498, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  140. W. Meersseman, K. Lagrou, J. Maertens et al., “Galactomannan in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid: a tool for diagnosing aspergillosis in intensive care unit patients,” American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine, vol. 177, no. 1, pp. 27–34, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  141. J. Acosta, M. Catalan, A. del Palacio-Peréz-Medel et al., “A prospective comparison of galactomannan in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid for the diagnosis of pulmonary invasive aspergillosis in medical patients under intensive care: comparison with the diagnostic performance of galactomannan and of (1→ 3) -β-d-glucan chromogenic assay in serum samples,” Clinical Microbiology and Infection, vol. 17, no. 7, pp. 1053–1060, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  142. P. E. Verweij, C. M. Weemaes, J. H. A. J. Curfs, S. Bretagne, and J. F. G. M. Meis, “Failure to detect circulating Aspergillus markers in a patient with chronic granulomatous disease and invasive aspergillosis,” Journal of Clinical Microbiology, vol. 38, no. 10, pp. 3900–3901, 2000. View at Scopus
  143. S. I. Kimura, J. Odawara, T. Aoki, M. Yamakura, M. Takeuchi, and K. Matsue, “Detection of sputum Aspergillus galactomannan for diagnosis of invasive pulmonary aspergillosis in haematological patients,” International Journal of Hematology, vol. 90, no. 4, pp. 463–470, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  144. M. Coates and J. Wilson, “Central nervous system aspergillus infection complicating renal transplantation,” Australasian Radiology, vol. 45, no. 3, pp. 338–342, 2001. View at Scopus
  145. M. Machetti, M. Zotti, L. Veroni et al., “Antigen detection in the diagnosis and management of a patient with probable cerebral aspergillosis treated with voriconazole,” Transplant Infectious Disease, vol. 2, no. 3, pp. 140–144, 2000. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  146. C. Viscoli, M. Machetti, P. Gazzola et al., “Aspergillus galactomannan antigen in the cerebrospinal fluid of bone marrow transplant recipients with probable cerebral aspergillosis,” Journal of Clinical Microbiology, vol. 40, no. 4, pp. 1496–1499, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  147. M. A. S. H. Mennink-Kersten, J. P. Donnelly, and P. E. Verweij, “Detection of circulating galactomannan for the diagnosis and management of invasive aspergillosis,” The Lancet Infectious Diseases, vol. 4, no. 6, pp. 349–357, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  148. M. A. S. H. Mennink-Kersten, D. Ruegebrink, R. R. Klont et al., “Improved detection of circulating Aspergillus antigen by use of a modified pretreatment procedure,” Journal of Clinical Microbiology, vol. 46, no. 4, pp. 1391–1397, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  149. I. Oren, I. Avidor, and H. Sprecher, “Lack of intra-laboratory reproducibility in using Platelia Aspergillus enzyme immunoassay test for detection of Aspergillus galactomannan antigen,” Transplant Infectious Disease, vol. 14, pp. 107–109, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  150. S. F. Dufresne, K. Datta, X. Li, et al., “Detection of urinary excreted fungal galactomannan-like antigens for diagnosis of invasive Aspergillosis,” PLoS One, vol. 7, Article ID e42736, 2012.
  151. C. M. A. Swanink, J. F. G. M. Meis, A. J. M. M. Rijs, J. P. Donnelly, and P. E. Verweij, “Specificity of a sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for detecting Aspergillus galactomannan,” Journal of Clinical Microbiology, vol. 35, no. 1, pp. 257–260, 1997. View at Scopus
  152. M. Mikulska, E. Furfaro, V. Del Bono, et al., “Galactomannan testing might be useful for early diagnosis of fusariosis,” Diagnostic Microbiology and Infectious Disease, vol. 72, pp. 367–369, 2012.
  153. Y. T. Huang, C. C. Hung, and P. R. Hsueh, “Aspergillus galactomannan antigenemia in penicilliosis marneffei,” AIDS, vol. 21, no. 14, pp. 1990–1991, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  154. P. Vergidis, R. C. Walker, D. R. Kaul, et al., “False-positive Aspergillus galactomannan assay in solid organ transplant recipients with histoplasmosis,” Transplant Infectious Disease, vol. 14, pp. 213–217, 2012.
  155. M. Mikulska, E. Furfaro, B. Del, et al., “Galactomannan testing might be useful for early diagnosis of fusariosis,” Diagnostic Microbiology and Infectious Disease, vol. 72, pp. 367–369, 2012.
  156. A. M. Tortorano, M. C. Esposto, A. Prigitano, et al., “Cross-reactivity of Fusarium spp. in the Aspergillus Galactomannan enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay,” Journal of Clinical Microbiology, vol. 50, pp. 1051–1053, 2012.
  157. F. Dalle, P. E. Charles, K. Blanc et al., “Cryptococcus neoformans galactoxylomannan contains an epitope(s) that is cross-reactive with Aspergillus galactomannan,” Journal of Clinical Microbiology, vol. 43, no. 6, pp. 2929–2931, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  158. A. Bonini, C. Capatti, M. Parmeggiani et al., “Galactomannan detection in Geotrichum capitatum invasive infections: report of 2 new cases and review of diagnostic options,” Diagnostic Microbiology and Infectious Disease, vol. 62, no. 4, pp. 450–452, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  159. C. M. A. Swanink, J. F. G. M. Meis, A. J. M. M. Rijs, J. P. Donnelly, and P. E. Verweij, “Specificity of a sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for detecting Aspergillus galactomannan,” Journal of Clinical Microbiology, vol. 35, no. 1, pp. 257–260, 1997. View at Scopus
  160. A. Sulahian, S. Touratier, and P. Ribaud, “False positive test for aspergillus antigenemia related to concomitant administration of piperacillin and tazobactam,” The New England Journal of Medicine, vol. 349, no. 24, pp. 2366–2367, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  161. C. Viscoli, M. Machetti, P. Cappellano et al., “False-positive galactomannan platelia Aspergillus test results for patients receiving piperacillin-tazobactam,” Clinical Infectious Diseases, vol. 38, no. 6, pp. 913–916, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  162. M. P. Gerlinger, P. Rousselot, S. Rigaudeau, et al., “False positive galactomannan Platelia due to piperacillin-tazobactam,” Médecine et Maladies Infectieuses, vol. 42, pp. 10–14, 2012.
  163. M. Mikulska, E. Furfaro, B. Del, V. Del Bono, et al., “Piperacillin/tazobactam (Tazocin) seems to be no longer responsible for false-positive results of the galactomannan assay,” Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy, vol. 67, pp. 1746–1748, 2012.
  164. L. Millon, F. Grenouillet, J. Crouzet et al., “False-positive Aspergillus real-time PCR assay due to a nutritional supplement in a bone marrow transplant recipient with GVH disease,” Medical Mycology, vol. 48, no. 4, pp. 661–664, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  165. A. Aceti, L. Corvaglia, and G. Faldella, “Infant formulas thickened with carob bean gum causing false-positive galactomannan test reactivity,” Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal, vol. 27, no. 8, p. 769, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  166. J. P. Gangneux, D. Lavarde, S. Bretagne, C. Guiguen, and V. Gandemer, “Transient aspergillus antigenaemia: t hink of milk,” The Lancet, vol. 359, no. 9313, p. 1251, 2002. View at Scopus
  167. R. Ansorg, R. van den Boom, and P. M. Rath, “Detection of Aspergillus galactomannan antigen in foods and antibiotics,” Mycoses, vol. 40, no. 9-10, pp. 353–357, 1997. View at Scopus
  168. R. Petraitiene, V. Petraitis, J. R. Witt III, et al., “Galactomannan antigenemia after infusion of gluconate-containing Plasma-Lyte,” Journal of Clinical Microbiology, vol. 49, pp. 4330–4332, 2011.
  169. Z. Racil, I. Kocmanova, M. Lengerova, J. Winterova, and J. Mayer, “Intravenous PLASMA-LYTE as a major cause of false-positive results of platelia Aspergillus test for galactomannan detection in serum,” Journal of Clinical Microbiology, vol. 45, no. 9, pp. 3141–3142, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  170. C. A. Hage, J. M. Reynolds, M. Durkin, L. J. Wheat, and K. S. Knox, “Plasmalyte as a cause of false-positive results for Aspergillus galactomannan in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid,” Journal of Clinical Microbiology, vol. 45, no. 2, pp. 676–677, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  171. M. A. S. H. Mennink-Kersten, R. R. Klont, A. Warris, H. J. M. Op Den Camp, and P. E. Verweij, “Bifidobacterium lipoteichoic acid and false ELISA reactivity in aspergillus antigen detection,” The Lancet, vol. 363, no. 9405, pp. 325–327, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  172. M. A. S. H. Mennink-Kersten, D. Ruegebrink, R. R. Klont et al., “Bifidobacterial lipoglycan as a new cause for false-positive Platelia aspergillus enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay reactivity,” Journal of Clinical Microbiology, vol. 43, no. 8, pp. 3925–3931, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  173. M. Siemann, M. Koch-Dörfler, and M. Gaude, “False-positive results in premature infants with the Platelia Aspergillus sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay,” Mycoses, vol. 41, no. 9-10, pp. 373–377, 1998. View at Scopus
  174. P. Rohrlich, J. Sarfati, P. Mariani et al., “Prospective sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for serum galactomannan: early predictive value and clinical use in invasive aspergillosis,” Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal, vol. 15, no. 3, pp. 232–237, 1996. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  175. S. H. Armenian, K. A. Nash, N. Kapoor et al., “Prospective monitoring for invasive aspergillosis using galactomannan and polymerase chain reaction in high risk pediatric patients,” Journal of Pediatric Hematology/Oncology, vol. 31, no. 12, pp. 920–926, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  176. X. Y. Zhang, S. Y. Zhao, and Z. F. Jiang, “Value of serum galactomannan assay in the diagnosis of pediatric invasive pulmonary aspergillosis,” Zhonghua er Ke Za Zhi, vol. 47, no. 2, pp. 83–86, 2009. View at Scopus
  177. E. Castagnola, E. Furfaro, I. Caviglia et al., “Performance of the galactomannan antigen detection test in the diagnosis of invasive aspergillosis in children with cancer or undergoing haemopoietic stem cell transplantation,” Clinical Microbiology and Infection, vol. 16, no. 8, pp. 1197–1203, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  178. C. D. Pfeiffer, J. P. Fine, and N. Safdar, “Diagnosis of invasive aspergillosis using a galactomannan assay: a meta-analysis,” Clinical Infectious Diseases, vol. 42, no. 10, pp. 1417–1427, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  179. P. B. De, T. J. Walsh, J. P. Donnelly, et al., “Revised definitions of invasive fungal disease from the European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer/Invasive Fungal Infections Cooperative Group and the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases Mycoses Study Group (EORTC/MSG) Consensus Group,” Clinical Infectious Diseases, vol. 46, pp. 1813–1821, 2008.
  180. M. M. Leeflang, Y. J. Debets-Ossenkopp, C. E. Visser et al., “Galactomannan detection for invasive aspergillosis in immunocompromized patients,” Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, no. 4, Article ID CD007394, 2008. View at Scopus
  181. K. A. Marr and W. Leisenring, “Design issues in studies evaluating diagnostic tests for aspergillosis,” Clinical Infectious Diseases, vol. 41, supplement 6, pp. S381–S386, 2005. View at Scopus
  182. W. K. Sun, F. Zhang, X. Y. Xu, et al., “A systematic review of the accuracy of diagnostic test of serum galactomannan antigen detection for invasive aspergillosis,” Zhonghua Jie He He Hu Xi Za Zhi, vol. 33, pp. 758–765, 2010.
  183. C. Mengoli, M. Cruciani, R. A. Barnes, J. Loeffler, and J. P. Donnelly, “Use of PCR for diagnosis of invasive aspergillosis: systematic review and meta-analysis,” The Lancet Infectious Diseases, vol. 9, no. 2, pp. 89–96, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  184. Y. L. Guo, Y. Q. Chen, K. Wang, S. M. Qin, C. Wu, and J. L. Kong, “Accuracy of BAL galactomannan in diagnosing invasive aspergillosis: a bivariate metaanalysis and systematic review,” Chest, vol. 138, no. 4, pp. 817–824, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  185. A. Onishi, D. Sugiyama, Y. Kogata, et al., “Diagnostic accuracy of serum 1, 3-beta-D-glucan for pneumocystis jiroveci pneumonia, invasive candidiasis, and invasive aspergillosis: systematic review and meta-analysis,” Journal of Clinical Microbiology, vol. 50, pp. 7–15, 2012.
  186. K. A. Marr, M. Laverdiere, A. Gugel, and W. Leisenring, “Antifungal therapy decreases sensitivity of the Aspergillus galactomannan enzyme immunoassay,” Clinical Infectious Diseases, vol. 40, no. 12, pp. 1762–1769, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  187. K. A. Marr, M. Laverdiere, A. Gugel, and W. Leisenring, “Antifungal therapy decreases sensitivity of the Aspergillus galactomannan enzyme immunoassay,” Clinical Infectious Diseases, vol. 40, no. 12, pp. 1762–1769, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  188. M. J. Becker, S. de Marie, M. H. A. M. Fens, H. A. Verbrugh, and I. A. J. M. Bakker-Woudenberg, “Effect of amphotericin B treatment on kinetics of cytokines and parameters of fungal load in neutropenic rats with invasive pulmonary aspergillosis,” Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy, vol. 52, no. 3, pp. 428–434, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  189. R. M. Winn, A. Warris, P. Gaustad, and T. G. Abrahamsen, “The effect of antifungal agents and human monocytes on in vitro galactomannan release by Aspergillus spp. in liquid culture medium,” Acta Pathologica, Microbiologica, et Immunologica Scandinavica, vol. 115, no. 12, pp. 1364–1369, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  190. R. Petraitiene, V. Petraitis, A. H. Groll et al., “Antifungal efficacy of caspofungin (MK-0991) in experimental pulmonary aspergillosis in persistently neutropenic rabbits: pharmacokinetics, drug disposition, and relationship to galactomannan antigenemia,” Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy, vol. 46, no. 1, pp. 12–23, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  191. C. Cordonnier, F. Botterel, R. Ben Amor et al., “Correlation between galactomannan antigen levels in serum and neutrophil counts in haematological patients with invasive aspergillosis,” Clinical Microbiology and Infection, vol. 15, no. 1, pp. 81–86, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  192. H. He, L. Ding, B. Sun, et al., “Role of galactomannan determinations in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid samples from critically ill patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease for the diagnosis of invasive pulmonary aspergillosis: a prospective study,” Critical Care, vol. 16, article R138, 2012.
  193. J. Guinea, M. Torres-Narbona, P. Gijón et al., “Pulmonary aspergillosis in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: incidence, risk factors, and outcome,” Clinical Microbiology and Infection, vol. 16, no. 7, pp. 870–877, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  194. S. Husain, E. J. Kwak, A. Obman et al., “Prospective assessment of Platelia Aspergillus galactomannan antigen for the diagnosis of invasive aspergillosis in lung transplant recipients,” American Journal of Transplantation, vol. 4, no. 5, pp. 796–802, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  195. C. J. Clancy, R. A. Jaber, H. L. Leather et al., “Bronchoalveolar lavage galactomannan in diagnosis of invasive pulmonary aspergillosis among solid-organ transplant recipients,” Journal of Clinical Microbiology, vol. 45, no. 6, pp. 1759–1765, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  196. P. Tabarsi, A. Soraghi, M. Marjani, et al., “Comparison of serum and bronchoalveolar lavage galactomannan in diagnosing invasive aspergillosis in solid-organ transplant recipients,” Experimental and Clinical Transplantation, vol. 10, pp. 278–281, 2012.
  197. J. Maertens, J. Verhaegen, K. Lagrou, J. Van Eldere, and M. Boogaerts, “Screening for circulating galactomannan as a noninvasive diagnostic tool for invasive aspergillosis in prolonged neutropenic patients and stem cell transplantation recipients: a prospective validation,” Blood, vol. 97, no. 6, pp. 1604–1610, 2001. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  198. F. Suarez, O. Lortholary, S. Buland et al., “Detection of circulating Aspergillus fumigatus DNA by real-time PCR assay of large serum volumes improves early diagnosis of invasive aspergillosis in high-risk adult patients under hematologic surveillance,” Journal of Clinical Microbiology, vol. 46, no. 11, pp. 3772–3777, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  199. “Anon,” 2012, http://www.bio-rad.com/cmc_upload/Literature/inserts/62794_881051_GB.pdf.
  200. W. K. Sun, F. Zhang, X. Y. Xu, et al., “A systematic review of the accuracy of diagnostic test of serum galactomannan antigen detection for invasive aspergillosis,” Zhonghua Jie He He Hu Xi Za Zhi, vol. 33, pp. 758–765, 2010.
  201. M. Zou, L. Tang, S. Zhao, et al., “Systematic review and meta-analysis of detecting galactomannan in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid for diagnosing invasive aspergillosis,” PLoS One, vol. 7, Article ID e43347, 2012.
  202. L. J. Wheat and T. J. Walsh, “Diagnosis of invasive aspergillosis by galactomannan antigenemia detection using an enzyme immunoassay,” European Journal of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases, vol. 27, no. 4, pp. 245–251, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  203. J. Salonen, O. P. Lehtonen, M. R. Teräsjärvi, and J. Nikoskelainen, “Aspergillus antigen in serum, urine and bronchoalveolar lavage specimens of neutropenic patients in relation to clinical outcome,” Scandinavian Journal of Infectious Diseases, vol. 32, no. 5, pp. 485–490, 2000. View at Scopus
  204. J. Maertens, V. Maertens, K. Theunissen et al., “Bronchoalveolar lavage fluid galactomannan for the diagnosis of invasive pulmonary aspergillosis in patients with hematologic diseases,” Clinical Infectious Diseases, vol. 49, no. 11, pp. 1688–1693, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  205. R. Desai, L. A. Ross, and J. A. Hoffman, “The role of bronchoalveolar lavage galactomannan in the diagnosis of pediatric invasive aspergillosis,” Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal, vol. 28, no. 4, pp. 283–286, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  206. S. Y. Park, S. O. Lee, S. H. Choi et al., “Aspergillus galactomannan antigen assay in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid for diagnosis of invasive pulmonary aspergillosis,” Journal of Infection, vol. 61, no. 6, pp. 492–498, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  207. J. Maertens, J. Verhaegen, K. Lagrou, J. Van Eldere, and M. Boogaerts, “Screening for circulating galactomannan as a noninvasive diagnostic tool for invasive aspergillosis in prolonged neutropenic patients and stem cell transplantation recipients: a prospective validation,” Blood, vol. 97, no. 6, pp. 1604–1610, 2001. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  208. S. Husain, C. J. Clancy, M. H. Nguyen et al., “Performance characteristics of the platelia Aspergillus enzyme immunoassay for detection of Aspergillus galactomannan antigen in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid,” Clinical and Vaccine Immunology, vol. 15, no. 12, pp. 1760–1763, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  209. J. P. Latgé, “The cell wall: a carbohydrate armour for the fungal cell,” Molecular Microbiology, vol. 66, no. 2, pp. 279–290, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  210. M. A. S. H. Mennink-Kersten, D. Ruegebrink, N. Wasei, W. J. G. Melchers, and P. E. Verweij, “In vitro release by Aspergillus fumigatus of galactofuranose antigens, 1,3-β-D-glucan, and DNA, surrogate markers used for diagnosis of invasive aspergillosis,” Journal of Clinical Microbiology, vol. 44, no. 5, pp. 1711–1718, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  211. F. M. Marty and S. Koo, “Role of (I → 3)-β-D-glucan in the diagnosis of invasive aspergillosis,” Medical Mycology, vol. 47, supplement 1, pp. S233–S240, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  212. T. Miyazaki, S. Kohno, K. Mitsutake, S. Maesaki, K. I. Tanaka, and K. Hara, “(1→3)-β-D-glucan in culture fluid of fungi activates factor G, a limulus coagulation factor,” Journal of Clinical Laboratory Analysis, vol. 9, no. 5, pp. 334–339, 1995. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  213. Z. Odabasi, V. L. Paetznick, J. R. Rodriguez, E. Chen, M. R. McGinnis, and L. Ostrosky-Zeichner, “Differences in beta-glucan levels in culture supernatants of a variety of fungi,” Medical Mycology, vol. 44, no. 3, pp. 267–272, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  214. T. Miyazaki, S. Kohno, K. Mitsutake et al., “Plasma (1→3)-β-D-glucan and fungal antigenemia in patients with candidemia, aspergillosis, and cryptococcosis,” Journal of Clinical Microbiology, vol. 33, no. 12, pp. 3115–3118, 1995. View at Scopus
  215. T. Miyazaki, S. Kohno, H. Koga et al., “G test, a new direct method for diagnosis of candida infection: comparison with assays for beta-glucan and mannan antigen in a rabbit model of systemic candidiasis,” Journal of Clinical Laboratory Analysis, vol. 6, no. 5, pp. 315–318, 1992. View at Scopus
  216. K. Mitsutake, S. Kohno, T. Miyazaki et al., “Detection of (1-3)-β-D-glucan in a rat model of aspergillosis,” Journal of Clinical Laboratory Analysis, vol. 9, no. 2, pp. 119–122, 1995. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  217. T. Obayashi, M. Yoshida, T. Mori et al., “Plasma (1 → 3)-β-D-glucan measurement in diagnosis of invasive deep mycosis and fungal febrile episodes,” The Lancet, vol. 345, no. 8941, pp. 17–20, 1995. View at Scopus
  218. M. Kami, Y. Tanaka, Y. Kanda et al., “Computed tomographic scan of the chest, latex agglutination test and plasma (1→3)-β-D-glucan assay in early diagnosis of invasive pulmonary aspergillosis: a prospective study of 215 patients,” Haematologica, vol. 85, no. 7, pp. 745–752, 2000. View at Scopus
  219. M. Yoshida, T. Obayashi, A. Iwama et al., “Detection of plasma (1 → 3)-β-d-glucan in patients with Fusarium, Trichosporon, Saccharomyces and Acremonium fungaemias,” Medical Mycology, vol. 35, no. 5, pp. 371–374, 1997. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  220. J. W. Pickering, H. W. Sant, C. A. P. Bowles, W. L. Roberts, and G. L. Woods, “Evaluation of a (1→3)-β-D-glucan assay for diagnosis of invasive fungal infections,” Journal of Clinical Microbiology, vol. 43, no. 12, pp. 5957–5962, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  221. F. M. Marty, S. Koo, J. Bryar, and L. R. Baden, “(1→3)β-D-glucan assay positivity in patients with Pneumocystis (carinii) jiroveci pneumonia,” Annals of Internal Medicine, vol. 147, no. 1, pp. 70–72, 2007. View at Scopus
  222. H. Kanda, K. Kubo, K. Hamasaki et al., “Influence of various hemodialysis membranes on the plasma (1→3)-β-D-glucan level,” Kidney International, vol. 60, no. 1, pp. 319–323, 2001. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  223. M. Ogawa, H. Hori, S. Niiguchi, E. Azuma, and Y. Komada, “False-positive plasma (1→3)-β-D-glucan test following immunoglobulin product replacement in an adult bone marrow recipient,” International Journal of Hematology, vol. 80, no. 1, pp. 97–98, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  224. M. A. S. H. Mennink-Kersten, A. Warris, and P. E. Verweij, “1,3-β-D-glucan in patients receiving intravenous amoxicillin- clavulanic acid,” The New England Journal of Medicine, vol. 354, no. 26, pp. 2834–2835, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  225. J. Digby, J. Kalbfleisch, A. Glenn, A. Larsen, W. Browder, and D. Williams, “Serum glucan levels are not specific for presence of fungal infections in intensive care unit patients,” Clinical and Diagnostic Laboratory Immunology, vol. 10, no. 5, pp. 882–885, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  226. M. A. S. H. Mennink-Kersten, D. Ruegebrink, and P. E. Verweij, “Pseudomonas aeruginosa as a cause of 1,3-β-d-glucan assay reactivity,” Clinical Infectious Diseases, vol. 46, no. 12, pp. 1930–1931, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  227. Z. Odabasi, G. Mattiuzzi, E. Estey et al., “β-D-glucan as a diagnostic adjunct for invasive fungal infections: validation, cutoff development, and performance in patients with acute myelogenous leukemia and myelodysplastic syndrome,” Clinical Infectious Diseases, vol. 39, no. 2, pp. 199–205, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  228. L. Senn, J. O. Robinson, S. Schmidt et al., “1,3-β-D-glucan antigenemia for early diagnosis of invasive fungal infections in neutropenic patients with acute leukemia,” Clinical Infectious Diseases, vol. 46, no. 6, pp. 878–885, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  229. Z. Racil, I. Kocmanova, M. Toskova, et al., “Reactivity of the 1, 3-beta-D-glucan assay during bacteraemia: limited evidence from a prospective study,” Mycoses. In press.
  230. G. Metan, K. A. Nedret, C. Agkus, et al., “Can bacteraemia lead to false positive results in 1, 3-beta-d-glucan test? Analysis of 83 bacteraemia episodes in high-risk patients for invasive fungal infections,” Revista Iberoamericana de Micología, vol. 29, pp. 169–171, 2012.
  231. L. Ostrosky-Zeichner, B. D. Alexander, D. H. Kett et al., “Multicenter clinical evaluation of the (1→3) β-D-glucan assay as an aid to diagnosis of fungal infections in humans,” Clinical Infectious Diseases, vol. 41, no. 5, pp. 654–659, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  232. R. Y. Hachem, D. P. Kontoyiannis, R. F. Chemaly, Y. Jiang, R. Reitzel, and I. Raad, “Utility of galactomannan enzyme immunoassay and (1,3) β-D-Glucan in diagnosis of invasive fungal infections: low sensitivity for aspergillus fumigatus infection in hematologic malignancy patients,” Journal of Clinical Microbiology, vol. 47, no. 1, pp. 129–133, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  233. P. F. Xu, J. Y. Zhou, H. Zhou, et al., “Serum antigens assay combined with chest CT scan in diagnosis of invasive pulmonary aspergillosisn,” Zhejiang Da Xue Xue Bao Yi Xue Ban, vol. 41, pp. 332–338, 2012.
  234. A. P. Bellanger, F. Grenouillet, T. Henon et al., “Retrospective assessment of β-d-(1,3)-glucan for presumptive diagnosis of fungal infections,” Acta Pathologica, Microbiologica, et Immunologica Scandinavica, vol. 119, no. 4-5, pp. 280–286, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  235. X. Gao, L. Chen, G. Hu, and H. Mei, “Invasive pulmonary aspergillosis in acute exacerbation of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and the diagnostic value of combined serological tests,” Annals of Saudi Medicine, vol. 30, no. 3, pp. 193–197, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  236. M. Lengerova, I. Kocmanova, Z. Racil, et al., “Detection and measurement of fungal burden in a guinea pig model of invasive pulmonary aspergillosis by novel quantitative nested real-time PCR compared with galactomannan and (1, 3)-beta-D-glucan detection,” Journal of Clinical Microbiology, vol. 50, pp. 602–608, 2012.
  237. C. L. Spreadbury, T. Krausz, S. Pervez, and J. Cohen, “Invasive aspergillosis: clinical and pathological features of a new animal model,” Journal of Medical and Veterinary Mycology, vol. 27, no. 1, pp. 5–15, 1989. View at Scopus
  238. C. M. Tang, D. W. Holden, A. Aufauvre-Brown, and J. Cohen, “The detection of Aspergillus spp. by the polymerase chain reaction and its evaluation in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid,” American Review of Respiratory Disease, vol. 148, no. 5, pp. 1313–1317, 1993. View at Scopus
  239. H. Einsele, H. Hebart, G. Roller et al., “Detection and identification of fungal pathogens in blood by using molecular probes,” Journal of Clinical Microbiology, vol. 35, no. 6, pp. 1353–1360, 1997. View at Scopus
  240. L. Klingspor and J. Loeffler, “Aspergillus PCR formidable challenges and progress,” Medical Mycology, vol. 47, supplement 1, pp. S241–S247, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  241. P. L. White, S. Bretagne, L. Klingspor et al., “Aspergillus PCR: one step closer to standardization,” Journal of Clinical Microbiology, vol. 48, no. 4, pp. 1231–1240, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  242. P. B. De, T. J. Walsh, J. P. Donnelly, et al., “Revised definitions of invasive fungal disease from the European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer/Invasive Fungal Infections Cooperative Group and the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases Mycoses Study Group (EORTC/MSG) Consensus Group,” Clinical Infectious Diseases, vol. 46, pp. 1813–1821, 2008.
  243. L. Millon, F. Grenouillet, F. Legrand et al., “Ribosomal and mitochondrial DNA target for real-time PCR diagnosis of invasive aspergillosis,” Journal of Clinical Microbiology, vol. 49, no. 3, pp. 1058–1063, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  244. W. C. Nierman, A. Pain, M. J. Anderson, et al., “Genomic sequence of the pathogenic and allergenic filamentous fungus Aspergillus fumigatus,” Nature, vol. 438, pp. 1151–1156, 2005.
  245. M. A. S. H. Mennink-Kersten, D. Ruegebrink, N. Wasei, W. J. G. Melchers, and P. E. Verweij, “In vitro release by Aspergillus fumigatus of galactofuranose antigens, 1,3-β-D-glucan, and DNA, surrogate markers used for diagnosis of invasive aspergillosis,” Journal of Clinical Microbiology, vol. 44, no. 5, pp. 1711–1718, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  246. P. White and A. Barnes, “Polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based tests,” in Aspergillosis: From Diagnosis To Prevention, A. Pasqualotto, Ed., pp. 135–157, Springer, London, UK, 2010.
  247. S. Perkhofer, B. E. Kehrel, M. P. Dierich et al., “Human platelets attenuate Aspergillus species via granule-dependent mechanisms,” Journal of Infectious Diseases, vol. 198, no. 8, pp. 1243–1246, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  248. E. C. M. Williamson, J. P. Leeming, H. M. Palmer et al., “Diagnosis of invasive aspergillosis in bone marrow transplant recipients by polymerase chain reaction,” British Journal of Haematology, vol. 108, no. 1, pp. 132–139, 2000. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  249. C. Costa, D. Vidaud, M. Olivi, E. Bart-Delabesse, M. Vidaud, and S. Bretagne, “Development of two real-time quantitative TaqMan PCR assays to detect circulating Aspergillus fumigatus DNA in serum,” Journal of Microbiological Methods, vol. 44, no. 3, pp. 263–269, 2001. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  250. M. E. Bougnoux, C. Dupont, J. Mateo et al., “Serum is more suitable than whole blood for diagnosis of systemic candidiasis by nested PCR,” Journal of Clinical Microbiology, vol. 37, no. 4, pp. 925–930, 1999. View at Scopus
  251. P. L. White, C. Mengoli, S. Bretagne, et al., “Evaluation of Aspergillus PCR protocols for testing serum specimens,” Journal of Clinical Microbiology, vol. 49, pp. 3842–3848, 2011.
  252. E. McCulloch, G. Ramage, B. Jones et al., “Don't throw your blood clots away: use of blood clot may improve sensitivity of PCR diagnosis in invasive aspergillosis,” Journal of Clinical Pathology, vol. 62, no. 6, pp. 539–541, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  253. J. Loeffler, H. Hebart, U. Brauchle, U. Schumacher, and H. Einsele, “Comparison between plasma and whole blood specimens for detection of Aspergillus DNA by PCR,” Journal of Clinical Microbiology, vol. 38, no. 10, pp. 3830–3833, 2000. View at Scopus
  254. J. Springer, H. Schlossnagel, W. Heinz, et al., “A novel extraction method combining plasma with a whole-blood fraction shows excellent sensitivity and reproducibility for patients at high risk for invasive aspergillosis,” Journal of Clinical Microbiology, vol. 50, pp. 2585–2591, 2012.
  255. M. Hummel, B. Spiess, K. Kentouche et al., “Detection of Aspergillus DNA in cerebrospinal fluid from patients with cerebral aspergillosis by a nested PCR assay,” Journal of Clinical Microbiology, vol. 44, no. 11, pp. 3989–3993, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  256. T. Vollmer, M. Störmer, K. Kleesiek, and J. Dreier, “Evaluation of novel broad-range real-time PCR assay for rapid detection of human pathogenic fungi in various clinical specimens,” Journal of Clinical Microbiology, vol. 46, no. 6, pp. 1919–1926, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  257. G. L. Johnson, D. F. Bibby, S. Wong, et al., “A MIQE-compliant real-time PCR assay for Aspergillus detection,” PLoS One, vol. 7, Article ID e40022, 2012.
  258. P. L. White, R. Barton, M. Guiver et al., “A consensus on fungal polymerase chain reaction diagnosis?: A United Kingdom-Ireland evaluation of polymerase chain reaction methods for detection of systemic fungal infections,” Journal of Molecular Diagnostics, vol. 8, no. 3, pp. 376–384, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  259. D. N. Fredricks, C. Smith, and A. Meier, “Comparison of six DNA extraction methods for recovery of fungal DNA as assessed by quantitative PCR,” Journal of Clinical Microbiology, vol. 43, no. 10, pp. 5122–5128, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  260. D. Buchheidt, C. Baust, H. Skladny et al., “Detection of Aspergillus species in blood and bronchoalveolar lavage samples from immunocompromised patients by means of 2-step polymerase chain reaction: clinical results,” Clinical Infectious Diseases, vol. 33, no. 4, pp. 428–435, 2001. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  261. J. Loeffler, H. Hebart, R. Bialek et al., “Contaminations occurring in fungal PCR assays,” Journal of Clinical Microbiology, vol. 37, no. 4, pp. 1200–1202, 1999. View at Scopus
  262. L. J. Griffiths, M. Anyim, S. R. Doffman, M. Wilks, M. R. Millar, and S. G. Agrawal, “Comparison of DNA extraction methods for Aspergillus fumigatus using real-time PCR,” Journal of Medical Microbiology, vol. 55, no. 9, pp. 1187–1191, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  263. J. Springer, J. Loeffler, W. Heinz et al., “Pathogen-specific DNA enrichment does not increase sensitivity of pcr for diagnosis of invasive aspergillosis in neutropenic patients,” Journal of Clinical Microbiology, vol. 49, no. 4, pp. 1267–1273, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  264. J. Loeffler, K. Kloepfer, H. Hebart et al., “Polymerase chain reaction detection of Aspergillus DNA in experimental models of invasive aspergillosis,” Journal of Infectious Diseases, vol. 185, no. 8, pp. 1203–1206, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  265. P. L. White, M. D. Perry, J. Loeffler et al., “Critical stages of extracting DNA from Aspergillus fumigatus in whole-blood specimens,” Journal of Clinical Microbiology, vol. 48, no. 10, pp. 3753–3755, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  266. M. L. Herrera, A. C. Vallor, J. A. Gelfond, T. F. Patterson, and B. L. Wickes, “Strain-dependent variation in 18S ribosomal DNA copy numbers in aspergillus fumigatus,” Journal of Clinical Microbiology, vol. 47, no. 5, pp. 1325–1332, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  267. L. Klingspor and S. Jalal, “Molecular detection and identification of Candida and Aspergillus spp. from clinical samples using real-time PCR,” Clinical Microbiology and Infection, vol. 12, no. 8, pp. 745–753, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  268. V. Rickerts, G. Just-Nübling, F. Konrad et al., “Diagnosis of invasive aspergillosis and mucormycosis in immunocompromised patients by seminested PCR assay of tissue samples,” European Journal of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases, vol. 25, no. 1, pp. 8–13, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  269. E. Hardak, M. Yigla, I. Avivi, O. Fruchter, H. Sprecher, and I. Oren, “Impact of PCR-based diagnosis of invasive pulmonary aspergillosis on clinical outcome,” Bone Marrow Transplantation, vol. 44, no. 9, pp. 595–599, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  270. M. Ramírez, C. Castro, J. C. Palomares et al., “Molecular detection and identification of Aspergillus spp. from clinical samples using real-time PCR,” Mycoses, vol. 52, no. 2, pp. 129–134, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  271. P. L. White, C. J. Linton, M. D. Perry, E. M. Johnson, and R. A. Barnes, “The evolution and evaluation of a whole blood polymerase chain reaction assay for the detection of invasive aspergillosis in hematology patients in a routine clinical setting,” Clinical Infectious Diseases, vol. 42, no. 4, pp. 479–486, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  272. C. Schabereiter-Gurtner, B. Selitsch, M. L. Rotter, A. M. Hirschl, and B. Willinger, “Development of novel real-time PCR assays for detection and differentiation of eleven medically important Aspergillus and Candida species in clinical specimens,” Journal of Clinical Microbiology, vol. 45, no. 3, pp. 906–914, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  273. A. Lau, S. Chen, T. Sorrell et al., “Development and clinical application of a panfungal PCR assay to detect and identify Fungal DNA in tissue specimens,” Journal of Clinical Microbiology, vol. 45, no. 2, pp. 380–385, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  274. L. V. Reddy, A. Kumar, and V. P. Kurup, “Specific amplification of Aspergillus fumigatus DNA by polymerase chain reaction,” Molecular and Cellular Probes, vol. 7, no. 2, pp. 121–126, 1993. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  275. M. Cuenca-Estrella, Y. Meije, C. Diaz-Pedroche et al., “Value of serial quantification of fungal DNA by a real-time PCR-based technique for early diagnosis of invasive aspergillosis in patients with febrile neutropenia,” Journal of Clinical Microbiology, vol. 47, no. 2, pp. 379–384, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  276. D. W. Denning, S. Park, C. Lass-Florl et al., “High-frequency triazole resistance found in nonculturable aspergillus fumigatus from lungs of patients with chronic fungal disease,” Clinical Infectious Diseases, vol. 52, no. 9, pp. 1123–1129, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  277. J. W. M. van der Linden, E. Snelders, J. P. Arends, S. M. Daenen, W. J. G. Melchers, and P. E. Verweij, “Rapid diagnosis of azole-resistant aspergillosis by direct PCR using tissue specimens,” Journal of Clinical Microbiology, vol. 48, no. 4, pp. 1478–1480, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  278. B. Spiess, W. Seifarth, N. Merker, et al., “Development of novel PCR assays to detect azole resistance-mediating mutations of the Aspergillus fumigatus cyp51A gene in primary clinical samples from neutropenic patients,” Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy, vol. 56, pp. 3905–3910, 2012.
  279. J. Loeffler, H. Hebart, P. Cox, N. Flues, U. Schumacher, and H. Einsele, “Nucleic acid sequence-based amplification of Aspergillus RNA in blood samples,” Journal of Clinical Microbiology, vol. 39, no. 4, pp. 1626–1629, 2001. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  280. D. S. Perlin and Y. Zhao, “Molecular diagnostic platforms for detecting Aspergillus,” Medical Mycology, vol. 47, supplement 1, pp. S223–S232, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  281. C. Park, E. Y. Kwon, N. Y. Shin et al., “Evaluation of nucleic acid sequence based amplification using fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET-NASBA) in quantitative detection of Aspergillus 18S rRNA,” Medical Mycology, vol. 49, no. 1, pp. 73–79, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  282. J. H. Yoo, S. M. Choi, J. H. Choi, E. Y. Kwon, C. Park, and W. S. Shin, “Construction of internal control for the quantitative assay of Aspergillus fumigatus using real-time nucleic acid sequence-based amplification,” Diagnostic Microbiology and Infectious Disease, vol. 60, no. 1, pp. 121–124, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  283. Y. Zhao, S. Park, P. Warn, R. Shrief, E. Harrison, and D. S. Perlin, “Detection of aspergillus fumigatus in a rat model of invasive pulmonary aspergillosis by real-time nucleic acid sequence-based amplification,” Journal of Clinical Microbiology, vol. 48, no. 4, pp. 1378–1383, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  284. J. H. Yoo, S. M. Choi, D. G. Lee et al., “Comparison of the real-time nucleic acid sequence-based amplification (RTi-NASBA) with conventional NASBA, and galactomannan assay for the diagnosis of invasive aspergillosis,” Journal of Korean Medical Science, vol. 22, no. 4, pp. 672–676, 2007. View at Scopus
  285. C. O. Morton, L. A. de, L. Romani, et al., “RT-qPCR detection of Aspergillus fumigatus RNA in vitro and in a murine model of invasive aspergillosis utilizing the PAXgene(R) and Tempus RNA stabilization systems,” Medical Mycology, vol. 50, pp. 661–666, 2012.
  286. J. Loeffler, N. Henke, H. Hebart et al., “Quantification of fungal DNA by using fluorescence resonance energy transfer and the Light Cycler system,” Journal of Clinical Microbiology, vol. 38, no. 2, pp. 586–590, 2000. View at Scopus
  287. M. Kami, T. Fukui, S. Ogawa et al., “Use of real-time PCR on blood samples for diagnosis of invasive aspergillosis,” Clinical Infectious Diseases, vol. 33, no. 9, pp. 1504–1512, 2001. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  288. A. S. Pham, J. J. Tarrand, G. S. May, M. S. Lee, D. P. Kontoyiannis, and X. Y. Han, “Diagnosis of invasive mold infection by real-time quantitative PCR,” American Journal of Clinical Pathology, vol. 119, no. 1, pp. 38–44, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  289. C. Costa, J. M. Costa, C. Desterke, F. Botterel, C. Cordonnier, and S. Bretagne, “Real-time PCR coupled with automated DNA extraction and detection of galactomannan antigen in serum by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for diagnosis of invasive aspergillosis,” Journal of Clinical Microbiology, vol. 40, no. 6, pp. 2224–2227, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  290. C. Halliday, Q. X. Wu, G. James, and T. Sorrell, “Development of a nested qualitative real-time PCR assay to detect Aspergillus species DNA in clinical specimens,” Journal of Clinical Microbiology, vol. 43, no. 10, pp. 5366–5368, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  291. P. Badiee, A. Alborzi, M. Karimi, et al., “Diagnostic potential of nested PCR, galactomannan EIA, and beta-D-glucan for invasive aspergillosis in pediatric patients,” Journal of Infection in Developing Countries, vol. 6, pp. 352–357, 2012.
  292. J. Faber, N. Moritz, N. Henninger, F. Zepp, and M. Knuf, “Rapid detection of common pathogenic Aspergillus species by a novel real-time PCR approach,” Mycoses, vol. 52, no. 3, pp. 228–233, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  293. I. Hadrich, C. Mary, F. Makni et al., “Comparison of PCR-ELISA and Real-Time PCR for invasive aspergillosis diagnosis in patients with hematological malignancies,” Medical Mycology, vol. 49, no. 5, pp. 489–494, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  294. N. Mancini, D. Clerici, R. Diottï et al., “Molecular diagnosis of sepsis in neutropenic patients with haematological malignancies,” Journal of Medical Microbiology, vol. 57, no. 5, pp. 601–604, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  295. F. Lamoth, K. Jaton, G. Prod'hom et al., “Multiplex blood PCR in combination with blood cultures for improvement of microbiological documentation of infection in febrile neutropenia,” Journal of Clinical Microbiology, vol. 48, no. 10, pp. 3510–3516, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  296. M. von Lilienfeld-Toal, L. E. Lehmann, A. D. Raadts et al., “Utility of a commercially available multiplex real-time PCR assay to detect bacterial and fungal pathogens in febrile neutropenia,” Journal of Clinical Microbiology, vol. 47, no. 8, pp. 2405–2410, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  297. J. Steinmann, J. Buer, P. M. Rath, A. Paul, and F. Saner, “Invasive aspergillosis in two liver transplant recipients: diagnosis by SeptiFast: case report,” Transplant Infectious Disease, vol. 11, no. 2, pp. 175–178, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  298. J. C. Palomares, S. Bernal, M. Marin, et al., “Molecular diagnosis of Aspergillus fumigatus endocarditis,” Diagnostic Microbiology and Infectious Disease, vol. 70, pp. 534–537, 2011.
  299. P. L. White, M. D. Perry, A. Moody, S. A. Follett, G. Morgan, and R. A. Barnes, “Evaluation of analytical and preliminary clinical performance of myconostica mycassay aspergillus when testing serum specimens for diagnosis of invasive aspergillosis,” Journal of Clinical Microbiology, vol. 49, no. 6, pp. 2169–2174, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  300. R. Torelli, M. Sanguinetti, A. Moody, et al., “Diagnosis of invasive aspergillosis by a commercial real-time PCR assay for Aspergillus DNA in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid samples from high-risk patients compared to a galactomannan enzyme immunoassay,” Journal of Clinical Microbiology, vol. 49, pp. 4273–4278, 2011.
  301. C. Lass-Florl, S. A. Follett, A. Moody, et al., “Detection of Aspergillus in lung and other tissue samples using the MycAssay Aspergillus real-time PCR kit,” Canadian Journal of Microbiology, vol. 57, pp. 765–768, 2011.
  302. C. Halliday, R. Hoile, T. Sorrell et al., “Role of prospective screening of blood for invasive aspergillosis by polymerase chain reaction in febrile neutropenic recipients of haematopoietic stem cell transplants and patients with acute leukaemia,” British Journal of Haematology, vol. 132, no. 4, pp. 478–486, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  303. R. L. da Silva, P. Ribeiro, N. Abreu et al., “Early diagnosis of invasive aspergillosis in neutropenic patients. comparison between serum galactomannan and polymerase chain reaction,” Clinical Medicine Insights, vol. 4, pp. 81–88, 2010. View at Scopus
  304. S. H. Armenian, K. A. Nash, N. Kapoor et al., “Prospective monitoring for invasive aspergillosis using galactomannan and polymerase chain reaction in high risk pediatric patients,” Journal of Pediatric Hematology/Oncology, vol. 31, no. 12, pp. 920–926, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  305. M. Hummel, B. Spiess, J. Roder et al., “Detection of Aspergillus DNA by a nested PCR assay is able to improve the diagnosis of invasive aspergillosis in paediatric patients,” Journal of Medical Microbiology, vol. 58, no. 10, pp. 1291–1297, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  306. W. K. Sun, F. Zhang, X. Y. Xu, et al., “A systematic review of the accuracy of diagnostic test of serum galactomannan antigen detection for invasive aspergillosis,” Zhonghua Jie He He Hu Xi Za Zhi, vol. 33, pp. 758–765, 2010.
  307. M. Reinwald, B. Spiess, W. J. Heinz, et al., “Diagnosing pulmonary aspergillosis in patients with hematological malignancies: a multicenter prospective evaluation of an Aspergillus PCR assay and a galactomannan ELISA in bronchoalveolar lavage samples,” European Journal of Haematology, vol. 89, pp. 120–127, 2012.
  308. P. B. De, T. J. Walsh, J. P. Donnelly, et al., “Revised definitions of invasive fungal disease from the European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer/Invasive Fungal Infections Cooperative Group and the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases Mycoses Study Group (EORTC/MSG) Consensus Group,” Clinical Infectious Diseases, vol. 46, pp. 1813–1821, 2008.
  309. E. McCulloch, G. Ramage, R. Rajendran, et al., “Antifungal treatment affects the laboratory diagnosis of invasive aspergillosis,” Journal of Clinical Pathology, vol. 65, pp. 83–86, 2012.
  310. M. Reinwald, M. Hummel, E. Kovalevskaya, et al., “Therapy with antifungals decreases the diagnostic performance of PCR for diagnosing invasive aspergillosis in bronchoalveolar lavage samples of patients with haematological malignancies,” Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy, vol. 67, pp. 2260–2267, 2012.
  311. M. Hummel, B. Spiess, O. A. Cornely, M. Dittmer, H. Mörz, and D. Buchheidt, “Aspergillus PCR testing: results from a prospective PCR study within the AmBiLoad trial,” European Journal of Haematology, vol. 85, no. 2, pp. 164–169, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  312. S. H. Armenian, K. A. Nash, N. Kapoor et al., “Prospective monitoring for invasive aspergillosis using galactomannan and polymerase chain reaction in high risk pediatric patients,” Journal of Pediatric Hematology/Oncology, vol. 31, no. 12, pp. 920–926, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  313. B. Musher, D. Fredricks, W. Leisenring, S. A. Balajee, C. Smith, and K. A. Marr, “Aspergillus galactomannan enzyme immunoassay and quantitative PCR for diagnosis of invasive aspergillosis with bronchoalveolar lavage fluid,” Journal of Clinical Microbiology, vol. 42, no. 12, pp. 5517–5522, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  314. C. R. Thornton, “Development of an immunochromatographic lateral-flow device for rapid serodiagnosis of invasive aspergillosis,” Clinical and Vaccine Immunology, vol. 15, no. 7, pp. 1095–1105, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  315. C. Thornton, G. Johnson, and S. Agrawal, “Detection of invasive pulmonary aspergillosis in haematological malignancy patients by using lateral-flow technology,” Journal of Visualized Experiments, vol. 61, article 3721, 2012.
  316. N. P. Wiederhold, C. R. Thornton, L. K. Najvar, W. R. Kirkpatrick, R. Bocanegra, and T. F. Patterson, “Comparison of lateral flow technology and galactomannan and (1→3)-β-D-glucan assays for detection of invasive pulmonary aspergillosis,” Clinical and Vaccine Immunology, vol. 16, no. 12, pp. 1844–1846, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  317. M. Schütte, P. Thullier, T. Pelat et al., “Identification of a putative Crf splice variant and generation of recombinant antibodies for the specific detection of Aspergillus fumigatus,” PLoS One, vol. 4, no. 8, Article ID e6625, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  318. W. Hao, Y. X. Pan, Y. Q. Ding et al., “Well-characterized monoclonal antibodies against cell wall antigen of Aspergillus species improve immunoassay specificity and sensitivity,” Clinical and Vaccine Immunology, vol. 15, no. 2, pp. 194–202, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  319. M. Neustadt, V. Costina, C. Kupfahl et al., “Characterization and identification of proteases secreted by Aspergillus fumigatus using free flow electrophoresis and MS,” Electrophoresis, vol. 30, no. 12, pp. 2142–2150, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  320. A. Kumar, R. Ahmed, P. K. Singh, and P. K. Shukla, “Identification of virulence factors and diagnostic markers using immunosecretome of Aspergillus fumigatus,” Journal of Proteomics, vol. 74, no. 7, pp. 1104–1112, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  321. A. Puri, A. Ahmad, and B. P. Panda, “Development of an HPTLC-based diagnostic method for invasive aspergillosis,” Biomedical Chromatography, vol. 24, no. 8, pp. 887–892, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  322. M. P. Domingo, C. Colmenarejo, L. Martinez-Lostao, et al., “Bis(methyl)gliotoxin proves to be a more stable and reliable marker for invasive aspergillosis than gliotoxin and suitable for use in diagnosis,” Diagnostic Microbiology and Infectious Disease, vol. 73, pp. 57–64, 2012.
  323. R. Kappe and D. Rimek, “Mycoserology did we move on? Aspergillus,” Mycoses, vol. 53, supplement 1, pp. 26–29, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  324. L. N. Shi, F. Q. Li, J. F. Lu, et al., “Antibody specific to thioredoxin reductase as a new biomarker for serodiagnosis of invasive aspergillosis in non-neutropenic patients,” Clinica Chimica Acta, vol. 413, pp. 938–943, 2012.
  325. J. Sarfati, M. Monod, P. Recco et al., “Recombinant antigens as diagnostic markers for aspergillosis,” Diagnostic Microbiology and Infectious Disease, vol. 55, no. 4, pp. 279–291, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  326. S. T. Chambers, A. Scott-Thomas, and M. Epton, “Developments in novel breath tests for bacterial and fungal pulmonary infection,” Current Opinion in Pulmonary Medicine, vol. 18, pp. 228–232, 2012.
  327. T. Mahfouz and E. Anaissie, “Prevention of fungal infections in the immunocomprised host,” Current Opinion in Investigational Drugs, vol. 4, no. 8, pp. 974–990, 2003. View at Scopus
  328. P. D. Ziakas, I. S. Kourbeti, E. Mylonakis, and M. Voulgarelis, “Effectiveness of systemic antifungal prophylaxis in patients with neutropenia after chemotherapy: a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials,” Clinical Therapeutics, vol. 32, no. 14, pp. 2316–2336, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  329. M. C. Ethier, M. Science, J. Beyene, et al., “Mould-active compared with fluconazole prophylaxis to prevent invasive fungal diseases in cancer patients receiving chemotherapy or haematopoietic stem-cell transplantation: a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomised controlled trials,” British Journal of Cancer, vol. 106, pp. 1626–1637, 2012.
  330. E. D. Ashley, R. Drew, M. Johnson, et al., “Cost of invasive fungal infections in the era of new diagnostics and expanded treatment options,” Pharmacotherapy, vol. 32, pp. 890–901, 2012.
  331. E. Snelders, H. A. L. Van Der Lee, J. Kuijpers et al., “Emergence of azole resistance in Aspergillus fumigatus and spread of a single resistance mechanism,” PLoS Medicine, vol. 5, no. 11, article e219, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  332. W. T. Hughes, D. Armstrong, G. P. Bodey et al., “2002 Guidelines for the use of antimicrobial agents in neutropenic patients with cancer,” Clinical Infectious Diseases, vol. 34, no. 6, pp. 730–751, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  333. T. J. Walsh, R. W. Finberg, C. Arndt, et al., “Liposomal amphotericin B for empirical therapy in patients with persistent fever and neutropenia. National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases Mycoses Study Group,” The New England Journal of Medicine, vol. 340, pp. 764–771, 1999.
  334. P. A. Pizzo, K. J. Robichaud, F. A. Gill, and F. G. Witebsky, “Empiric antibiotic and antifungal therapy for cancer patients with prolonged fever and granulocytopenia,” American Journal of Medicine, vol. 72, no. 1, pp. 101–111, 1982. View at Scopus
  335. B. E. De Pauw and J. P. Donnelly, “Timely intervention for invasive fungal disease: should the road now lead to the laboratory instead of the pharmacy?” Clinical Infectious Diseases, vol. 48, no. 8, pp. 1052–1054, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  336. M. R. Nanda-Rajah, M. A. Slavin, and K. T. Thursky, “The case for antifungal stewardship,” Current Opinion in Infectious Diseases, vol. 25, pp. 107–115, 2012.
  337. C. O. Morrissey, P. G. Bardy, M. A. Slavin et al., “Diagnostic and therapeutic approach to persistent or recurrent fevers of unknown origin in adult stem cell transplantation and haematological malignancy,” Internal Medicine Journal, vol. 38, no. 6, pp. 477–495, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  338. D. Caillot, O. Casasnovas, A. Bernard et al., “Improved management of invasive pulmonary aspergillosis in neutropenic patients using early thoracic computed tomographic scan and surgery,” Journal of Clinical Oncology, vol. 15, no. 1, pp. 139–147, 1997. View at Scopus
  339. A. Hauggaard, M. Ellis, and L. Ekelund, “Early chest radiography and CT in the diagnosis, management and outcome of invasive pulmonary aspergillosis,” Acta Radiologica, vol. 43, no. 3, pp. 292–298, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  340. M. Weisser, C. Rausch, A. Droll et al., “Galactomannan does not precede major signs on a pulmonary computerized tomographic scan suggestive of invasive aspergillosis in patients with hematological malignancies,” Clinical Infectious Diseases, vol. 41, no. 8, pp. 1143–1149, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  341. J. Maertens, K. Theunissen, G. Verhoef et al., “Galactomannan and computed tomography-based preemptive antifungal therapy in neutropenic patients at high risk for invasive fungal infection: a prospective feasibility study,” Clinical Infectious Diseases, vol. 41, no. 9, pp. 1242–1250, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  342. B. E. de Pauw and C. Viscoli, “Managing invasive fungal infections: relying on clinical instincts or on a rational navigation system?” Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy, vol. 66, supplement 1, pp. i55–i58, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  343. R. A. Barnes, P. L. White, C. Bygrave, N. Evans, B. Healy, and J. Kell, “Clinical impact of enhanced diagnosis of invasive fungal disease in high-risk haematology and stem cell transplant patients,” Journal of Clinical Pathology, vol. 62, no. 1, pp. 64–69, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  344. C. Girmenia, A. Micozzi, G. Gentile et al., “Clinically driven diagnostic antifungal approach in neutropenic patients: a prospective feasibility study,” Journal of Clinical Oncology, vol. 28, no. 4, pp. 667–674, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  345. L. Millon, R. Piarroux, E. Deconinck et al., “Use of real-time PCR to process the first galactomannan-positive serum sample in diagnosing invasive aspergillosis,” Journal of Clinical Microbiology, vol. 43, no. 10, pp. 5097–5101, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  346. O. Marchetti, F. Lamoth, M. Mikulska, et al., “ECIL recommendations for the use of biological markers for the diagnosis of invasive fungal diseases in leukemic patients and hematopoietic SCT recipients,” Bone Marrow Transplantation, vol. 47, pp. 846–854, 2012.
  347. M. J. Ruping, J. J. Vehreschild, A. Groll, et al., “Current issues in the clinical management of invasive aspergillosis–the AGIHO, DMykG, OGMM and PEG web-based survey and expert consensus conference 2009,” Mycoses, vol. 54, pp. e557–e568, 2011.
  348. J. Maertens, A. H. Groll, C. Cordonnier, R. de la Cámara, E. Roilides, and O. Marchetti, “Treatment and timing in invasive mould disease,” Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy, vol. 66, supplement 1, Article ID dkq440, pp. i37–i43, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  349. J. Deeks, “Assessing outcomes following tests,” in Evidence-Based Laboratory Medicine, C. Price and R. Christenson, Eds., pp. 95–111, AACC Press, Washington, DC, USA, 2007.
  350. H. Hebart, L. Klingspor, T. Klingebiel et al., “A prospective randomized controlled trial comparing PCR-based and empirical treatment with liposomal amphotericin B in patients after allo-SCT,” Bone Marrow Transplantation, vol. 43, no. 7, pp. 553–561, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  351. O. Blennow, M. Remberger, L. Klingspor et al., “Randomized PCR-based therapy and risk factors for invasive fungal infection following reduced-intensity conditioning and hematopoietic SCT,” Bone Marrow Transplantation, vol. 45, no. 12, pp. 1710–1718, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  352. C. Cordonnier, C. Pautas, S. Maury et al., “Empirical versus preemptive antifungal therapy for high-risk, febrile, neutropenic patients: a randomized, controlled trial,” Clinical Infectious Diseases, vol. 48, no. 8, pp. 1042–1051, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  353. C. O. Morrissey, S. C. A. Chen, T. C. Sorrell et al., “Design issues in a randomized controlled trial of a pre-emptive versus empiric antifungal strategy for invasive aspergillosis in patients with high-risk hematologic malignancies,” Leukemia and Lymphoma, vol. 52, no. 2, pp. 179–193, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  354. N. Freemantle, P. Tharmanathan, and R. Herbrecht, “Systematic review and mixed treatment comparison of randomized evidence for empirical, pre-emptive and directed treatment strategies for invasive mould disease,” Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy, vol. 66, supplement 1, pp. i25–i35, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  355. K. A. Marr, “Aspergillus galactomannan index: a surrogate end point to assess outcome of therapy?” Clinical Infectious Diseases, vol. 46, no. 9, pp. 1423–1425, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  356. J. Maertens, K. Buvé, K. Theunissen et al., “Galactomannan serves as a surrogate endpoint for outcome of pulmonary invasive aspergillosis in neutropenic hematology patients,” Cancer, vol. 115, no. 2, pp. 355–362, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  357. G. Woods, M. H. Miceli, M. L. Grazziutti, W. Zhao, B. Barlogie, and E. Anaissie, “Serum aspergillus galactomannan antigen values strongly correlate with outcome of invasive aspergillosis: a study of 56 patients with hematologic cancer,” Cancer, vol. 110, no. 4, pp. 830–834, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  358. A. Bergeron, R. Porcher, J. Menotti, et al., “Prospective evaluation of clinical and biological markers to predict the outcome of invasive pulmonary aspergillosis in hematological patients,” Journal of Clinical Microbiology, vol. 50, pp. 823–830, 2012.
  359. M. H. Miceli, M. L. Grazziutti, G. Woods et al., “Strong correlation between serum aspergillus galactomannan index and outcome of aspergillosis in patients with hematological cancer: clinical and research implications,” Clinical Infectious Diseases, vol. 46, no. 9, pp. 1412–1422, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  360. S. Koo, J. M. Bryar, L. R. Baden, and F. M. Marty, “Prognostic features of galactomannan antigenemia in galactomannan-positive invasive aspergillosis,” Journal of Clinical Microbiology, vol. 48, no. 4, pp. 1255–1260, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  361. F. Boutboul, C. Alberti, T. Leblanc et al., “Invasive aspergillosis in allogeneic stem cell transplant recipients: increasing antigenemia is associated with progressive disease,” Clinical Infectious Diseases, vol. 34, no. 7, pp. 939–943, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  362. O. Penack, P. Rempf, B. Graf, I. W. Blau, and E. Thiel, “Aspergillus galactomannan testing in patients with long-term neutropenia: implications for clinical management,” Annals of Oncology, vol. 19, no. 5, pp. 984–989, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  363. L. Y. Chai, B. J. Kullberg, E. M. Johnson, et al., “Early serum galactomannan trend as a predictor of outcome of invasive aspergillosis,” Journal of Clinical Microbiology, vol. 50, pp. 2330–2336, 2012.
  364. H. Einsele, K. Quabeck, K. D. Muller et al., “Prediction of invasive pulmonary aspergillosis from colonisation of lower respiratory tract before marrow transplantation,” The Lancet, vol. 352, no. 9138, p. 1443, 1998. View at Scopus
  365. S. H. Kim, C. Park, E. Y. Kwon, et al., “Real-time nucleic acid sequence-based amplification to predict the clinical outcome of invasive aspergillosis,” Journal of Korean Medical Science, vol. 27, pp. 10–15, 2012.
  366. S. Koo, L. R. Baden, and F. M. Marty, “Post-diagnostic kinetics of the (1 →3)-beta-D-glucan assay in invasive aspergillosis, invasive candidiasis and Pneumocystis jirovecii pneumonia,” Clinical Microbiology and Infection, vol. 18, pp. E122–E127, 2012.
  367. V. R. Aquino, F. Nagel, H. F. Andreolla, et al., “The performance of real-time PCR, galactomannan, and fungal culture in the diagnosis of invasive aspergillosis in ventilated patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD),” Mycopathologia, vol. 174, pp. 163–169, 2012.
  368. P. B. De, T. J. Walsh, J. P. Donnelly, et al., “Revised definitions of invasive fungal disease from the European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer/Invasive Fungal Infections Cooperative Group and the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases Mycoses Study Group (EORTC/MSG) Consensus Group,” Clinical Infectious Diseases, vol. 46, pp. 1813–1821, 2008.
  369. N. Azie, D. Neofytos, M. Pfaller, et al., “The PATH (Prospective Antifungal Therapy) Alliance(R) registry and invasive fungal infections: update 2012,” Diagnostic Microbiology and Infectious Disease, vol. 73, pp. 293–300, 2012.
  370. T. Pelaez, P. Munoz, J. Guinea, et al., “Outbreak of invasive aspergillosis after major heart surgery caused by spores in the air of the intensive care unit,” Clinical Infectious Diseases, vol. 54, pp. e24–e31, 2012.
  371. A. Mikolajewska, S. Schwartz, and M. Ruhnke, “Antifungal treatment strategies in patients with haematological diseases or cancer: from prophylaxis to empirical, pre-emptive and targeted therapy,” Mycoses, vol. 55, pp. 2–16, 2012.