Table 1: Representative psychrophilic enzymes of known crystal structure.

Cold-adapted proteinSourcePDB entryReferences

Alpha-amylase Antarctic bacterium Pseudoalteromonas haloplanktis 1AQH [116, 117]
Xylanase Antarctic bacterium Pseudoalteromonas haloplanktis 1H12 [118]
Cellulase Antarctic bacterium Pseudoalteromonas haloplanktis 1TVN [119]
Superoxide dismutase Antarctic bacterium Pseudoalteromonas haloplanktis 3LJF [120]
S-Formylglutathione hydrolase Antarctic bacterium Pseudoalteromonas haloplanktis 3LS2 [121]
Ca2+ Zn2+ protease Antarctic bacterium Pseudomonas sp. 1G9K [122]
Beta-lactamase Antarctic bacterium Pseudomonas fluorescens 2QZ6 [123]
Citrate synthase Antarctic bacterium Arthrobacter sp. 1A59 [124]
Beta-galactosidase Antarctic bacterium Arthrobacter sp. 1YQ2 [125]
Subtilisine Antarctic bacterium Bacillus sp. 2GKO [126]
Aliphatic amidase Antarctic bacterium Nesterenkonia sp. 3HKX [127]
Alkaline phosphatase Antarctic bacterium 2IUC [128]
Aminopeptidase Arctic bacterium Colwellia psychrerythraea 3CIA [129]
Phenylalanine hydroxylase Arctic bacterium Colwellia psychrerythraea 2V27 [130]
Malate dehydrogenase Arctic bacterium Aquaspirillum arcticum 1B8P [131]
Serine proteinase Arctic bacterium Vibrio sp. 1SH7 [132]
Isocitrate dehydrogenase Arctic bacterium Desulfotalea psychrophila 2UXQ [133]
Aspartate carbamoyltransferase Deep-sea bacterium Moritella profunda 2BE7 [134]
Adenylate kinase Bacteria Bacillus globisporus and Marinibacillus marinus 1S3G, 3FB4 [135, 136]
Triose-phosphate isomerase Marine bacterium Vibrio marinus 1AW1 [137]
Ca2+ Zn2+ protease Marine bacterium Flavobacterium sp. 1U1R [138]
Tyrosine phosphatase Bacterium Shewanella sp. 1V73 [139]
Catalase Bacterium Vibrio salmonicida 2ISA [140]
Endonuclease I Bacterium Vibrio salmonicida 2PU3 [141]
Lipase Bacterium Photobacterium lipolytica 2ORY [142]
Superoxide dismutase Bacterium Aliivibrio salmonicida 2W7W [143]
Alkaline phosphatase Bacteria Vibrio sp. and Shewanella sp. 3E2D, 3A52 [144, 145]
Alkaline phosphatase Arctic shrimp Pandalus borealis 1K7H [146]
Lactate dehydrogenase Antarctic icefish Champsocephalus gunnari 2V65 [147]
Trypsin Atlantic salmon Salmo salar 2TBS [148]
Elastase Atlantic salmon Salmo salar 1ELT [149]
Pepsin Atlantic cod Gadus morhua 1AM5 [150]
Uracil-DNA glycosylase Atlantic cod Gadus morhua 1OKB [151]