Table 1: Potential indications for PFO closure.

(i) Secondary prevention
 (a) Stroke
 (b) Transient ischemic attack
 (c) Embolic myocardial infarction
 (d) Peripheral embolism
 (e) Decompression incident
 (f) High altitude pulmonary edema
(ii) Primary prevention
 (a) Aggravating PFO attributes
  (1) Atrial septal aneurysm
  (2) Eustachian valve
  (3) Chiari network
 (b) Prothrombotic state
 (c) Deep vein thrombosis
 (d) Pulmonary embolism
 (e) Pacemaker/defibrillator electrodes
 (f) Embolism-prone surgery
  (1) Major orthopedic
  (2) Cerebral in sitting position
 (g) Planned pregnancy
 (h) Carcinoid tumor
 (i) Special congenital situations
(iii) Therapeutic
 (a) Migraine (with aura)
 (b) Platypnea orthodeoxia
 (c) Provoked exercise desaturation
 (d) Sleep apnea
(iv) Vocational or recreational
 (a) Deep sea diver
 (b) Mountain climber, highlander
 (c) Brass musician
 (d) Glass blower
 (e) Tile setter
 (f) Military jet
 (g) Astronaut or commercial pilot driver
 (h) Acrobat pilot