About this Journal Submit a Manuscript Table of Contents
Scientifica
Volume 2014 (2014), Article ID 802741, 9 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2014/802741
Review Article

Brain Mechanisms and Reading Remediation: More Questions Than Answers

The Department of Psychology, The Australian National University, Canberra, ACT 0200, Australia

Received 29 August 2013; Accepted 13 November 2013; Published 12 January 2014

Academic Editors: G. Chen, B. C. Shyu, and F. Vyskocil

Copyright © 2014 Kristen Pammer. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Linked References

  1. Boon, Submission to the Legislative Council of NSW Standing Committee on Social Issues, 2001.
  2. M. Snowling, Dyslexia, Malden and Blackwell, 2nd edition, 2000.
  3. M. Bruck, “Word-recognition skills of adults with childhood diagnoses of dyslexia,” Developmental Psychology, vol. 26, no. 3, pp. 439–454, 1990. View at Scopus
  4. C. Price, “A review and synthesis of the first 20 years of PET and fMRI studies of heard speech, spoken language and reading,” Neuroimage, vol. 62, pp. 816–847, 2012.
  5. M. Koyama, A. Di Martino, C. Kelly et al., “Cortical signatures of Dyslexia and remediation: an intrinsic functional connectivity approach,” PLOS ONE, vol. 8, no. 2, article e55454, 14 pages, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  6. F. Pulvermüller, “A brain perspective on language mechanisms: from discrete neuronal ensembles to serial order,” Progress in Neurobiology, vol. 67, no. 2, pp. 85–111, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  7. J. Hatcher, M. J. Snowling, and Y. M. Griffiths, “Cognitive assessment of dyslexic students in higher education,” British Journal of Educational Psychology, vol. 72, no. 1, pp. 119–133, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  8. S.-A. Lindgrén and M. Laine, “Cognitive-linguistic performances of multilingual university students suspected of dyslexia,” Dyslexia, vol. 17, no. 2, pp. 184–200, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  9. N. E. Jackson and H. L. Doellinger, “Resilient readers? University students who are poor recoders but sometimes good text comprehenders,” Journal of Educational Psychology, vol. 94, no. 1, pp. 64–78, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  10. M. Bruck, “Persistence of dyslexics' phonological awareness deficits,” Developmental Psychology, vol. 28, no. 5, pp. 874–886, 1992. View at Scopus
  11. R. P. Fink, “Literacy development in successful men and women with Dyslexia,” Annals of Dyslexia, vol. 48, pp. 311–342, 1998. View at Scopus
  12. A. M. Gallagher, V. Laxon, E. Armstrong, and U. Frith, “Phonological difficulties in high-functioning dyslexics,” Reading and Writing, vol. 8, no. 6, pp. 499–509, 1996. View at Scopus
  13. J. R. Nelson, G. J. Benner, and J. Gonzalez, “Learner characteristics that influence the treatment effectiveness of early literacy interventions: a meta-analytic review,” Learning Disabilities Research Practice, vol. 18, pp. 255–267, 2003.
  14. S. H. Greenblatt, “Left occipital lobectomy and the preangular anatomy of reading,” Brain and Language, vol. 38, no. 4, pp. 576–595, 1990. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  15. S. H. Greenblatt, “Alexia without agraphia or hemianopsia,” Brain, vol. 96, no. 2, pp. 307–316, 1973. View at Scopus
  16. C. Rosazza, I. Appollonio, V. Isella, and T. Shallice, “Qualitatively different forms of pure alexia,” Cognitive Neuropsychology, vol. 24, no. 4, pp. 393–418, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  17. K. Patterson and J. Kay, “Letter-by-letter reading: psychological descriptions of a neurological syndrome,” Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology A, vol. 34, no. 3, pp. 411–441, 1982. View at Scopus
  18. M. A. Tamhankar, H. B. Coslett, M. J. Fisher, L. N. Sutton, and G. T. Liu, “Alexia without agraphia following biopsy of a left thalamic tumor,” Pediatric Neurology, vol. 30, no. 2, pp. 140–142, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  19. S. Erdem and T. Kansu, “Alexia without either agraphia or hemianopia in temporal lobe lesion due to herpes simplex encephalitis,” Journal of Neuro-Ophthalmology, vol. 15, no. 2, pp. 102–104, 1995. View at Scopus
  20. V. W. Henderson, R. B. Friedman, E. L. Teng, and J. M. Weiner, “Left hemisphere pathways in reading: inferences from pure alexia without hemianopia,” Neurology, vol. 35, no. 7, pp. 962–968, 1985. View at Scopus
  21. Y. Sakurai, S. Takeuchi, T. Takada, E. Horiuchi, H. Nakase, and M. Sakuta, “Alexia caused by a fusiform or posterior inferior temporal lesion,” Journal of the Neurological Sciences, vol. 178, no. 1, pp. 42–51, 2000. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  22. J. Déjerine, “Sur un cas de cécité verbale avec agraphie, suivi d’autopsie,” Comptes Rendus Hebdomadaires des Séances et Mémoires de la Société de Biologie, vol. 3, pp. 197–201, 1891.
  23. C. Chase and A. R. Jenner, “Magnocellular visual deficits affect temporal processing of dyslexics,” Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, vol. 682, pp. 326–329, 1993. View at Scopus
  24. P. Cornelissen, A. Richardson, A. Mason, S. Fowler, and J. Stein, “Contrast sensitivity and coherent motion detection measured at photopic luminance levels in dyslexics and controls,” Vision Research, vol. 35, no. 10, pp. 1483–1494, 1995. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  25. G. F. Eden, J. W. VanMeter, J. M. Rumsey, J. M. Maisog, R. P. Woods, and T. A. Zeffiro, “Abnormal processing of visual motion in dyslexia revealed by functional brain imaging,” Nature, vol. 382, no. 6586, pp. 66–69, 1996. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  26. P. C. Hansen, J. F. Stein, S. R. Orde, J. L. Winter, and J. B. Talcott, “Are dyslexics' visual deficits limited to measures of dorsal stream function?” NeuroReport, vol. 12, no. 7, pp. 1527–1530, 2001. View at Scopus
  27. M. S. Livingstone, G. D. Rosen, F. W. Drislane, and A. M. Galaburda, “Physiological and anatomical evidence for a magnocellular defect in developmental dyslexia,” Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, vol. 88, no. 18, pp. 7943–7947, 1991. View at Scopus
  28. S. Lehmkuhle, R. P. Garzia, L. Turner, T. Hash, and J. A. Baro, “A defective visual pathway in children with reading disability,” New England Journal of Medicine, vol. 328, no. 14, pp. 989–996, 1993. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  29. K. Pammer and C. Wheatley, “Isolating the M(y)-cell response in dyslexia using the spatial frequency doubling illusion,” Vision Research, vol. 41, no. 16, pp. 2139–2147, 2001. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  30. K. Pammer, R. Lavis, P. Hansen, and P. L. Cornelissen, “Symbol-string sensitivity and children's reading,” Brain and Language, vol. 89, no. 3, pp. 601–610, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  31. K. Pammer, R. Lavis, and P. Cornelissen, “Visual encoding mechanisms and their relationship to text presentation preference,” Dyslexia, vol. 10, no. 2, pp. 77–94, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  32. K. Pammer, R. Lavis, C. Cooper, P. C. Hansen, and P. L. Cornelissen, “Symbol-string sensitivity and adult performance in lexical decision,” Brain and Language, vol. 94, no. 3, pp. 278–296, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  33. K. Pammer and A. Kevan, “The contribution of visual sensitivity, phonological processing, and nonverbal IQ to children's reading,” Scientific Studies of Reading, vol. 11, no. 1, pp. 33–53, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  34. U. Goswami, J. Thomson, U. Richardson et al., “Amplitude envelope onsets and developmental dyslexia: a new hypothesis,” Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, vol. 99, no. 16, pp. 10911–10916, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  35. A. M. Galaburda, “Neurology of developmental dyslexia,” Current Opinion in Neurobiology, vol. 3, no. 2, pp. 237–242, 1993. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  36. S. Heim, C. Eulitz, J. Kaufmann et al., “Atypical organisation of the auditory cortex in dyslexia as revealed by MEG,” Neuropsychologia, vol. 38, no. 13, pp. 1749–1759, 2000. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  37. K. I. McAnally and J. F. Stein, “Auditory temporal coding in dyslexia,” Proceedings of the Royal Society of London B, vol. 263, no. 1373, pp. 961–965, 1996. View at Scopus
  38. S. Birch and C. Chase, “Visual and language processing deficits in compensated and uncompensated college students with dyslexia,” Journal of Learning Disabilities, vol. 37, no. 5, pp. 389–410, 2004. View at Scopus
  39. J. Hämäläinen, P. Leppanen, M. Torppa, K. Muller, and H. Lyytinen, “Detection of sound rise time by adults with dyslexia,” Brain and Language, vol. 94, pp. 32–42, 2005.
  40. D. Flowers, Developmental and Acquired Dyslexia, Kluwer Academic, Dodrecht, The Netherlands, 1995.
  41. M. J. Snowling, “The development of grapheme-phoneme correspondence in normal and dyslexic readers,” Journal of Experimental Child Psychology, vol. 29, no. 2, pp. 294–305, 1980. View at Scopus
  42. E. Corcos and D. Willows, Visual Processes in Reading and Reading Disabilities, Erlbaum, Hillsdale, NJ, USA, 1993.
  43. E. Paulesu, U. Frith, M. Snowling et al., “Is developmental dyslexia a disconnection syndrome? Evidence from PET scanning,” Brain, vol. 119, no. 1, pp. 143–157, 1996. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  44. S. E. Shaywitz, B. A. Shaywitz, R. K. Fulbright et al., “Neural systems for compensation and persistence: young adult outcome of childhood reading disability,” Biological Psychiatry, vol. 54, no. 1, pp. 25–33, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  45. M. Ingvar, P. Af Trampe, T. Greitz, L. Eriksson, S. Stone-Elander, and C. von Euler, “Residual differences in language processing in compensated dyslexics revealed in simple word reading tasks,” Brain and Language, vol. 83, no. 2, pp. 249–267, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  46. K. Cain and J. Oakhill, “Profiles of children with specific reading comprehension difficulties,” British Journal of Educational Psychology, vol. 76, no. 4, pp. 683–696, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  47. K. R. Pugh, W. E. Mencl, A. R. Jenner et al., “Neurobiological studies of reading and reading disability,” Journal of Communication Disorders, vol. 34, no. 6, pp. 479–492, 2001. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  48. K. Nation and M. J. Snowling, “Individual differences in contextual facilitation: evidence from dyslexia and poor reading comprehension,” Child Development, vol. 69, no. 4, pp. 996–1011, 1998. View at Scopus
  49. K. Nation and M. J. Snowling, “Semantic processing and the development of word-recognition skills: evidence from children with reading comprehension difficulties,” Journal of Memory and Language, vol. 39, no. 1, pp. 85–101, 1998. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  50. S. Bookheimer, “Functional MRI of language: new approaches to understanding the cortical organization of semantic processing,” Annual Review of Neuroscience, vol. 25, pp. 151–188, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  51. N. Brunswick, E. McCrory, C. J. Price, C. D. Frith, and U. Frith, “Explicit and implicit processing of words and pseudowords by adult developmental dyslexics. A search for Wernicke's Wortschatz?” Brain, vol. 122, no. 10, pp. 1901–1917, 1999. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  52. J. M. Rumsey, K. Nace, B. Donohue, D. Wise, J. M. Maisog, and P. Andreason, “A positron emission tomographic study of impaired word recognition and phonological processing in dyslexic men,” Archives of Neurology, vol. 54, no. 5, pp. 562–573, 1997. View at Scopus
  53. K. Stanovich, “Toward an interactive compensatory model of individual differences in the development of reading fluency,” Reading Research Quarterly, vol. 16, pp. 32–71, 1980.
  54. J. Kujala, K. Pammer, P. Cornelissen, A. Roebroeck, E. Formisano, and R. Salmelin, “Phase coupling in a cerebro-cerebellar network at 8–13 Hz during reading,” Cerebral Cortex, vol. 17, no. 6, pp. 1476–1485, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  55. B. A. Wright and S. G. Zecker, “Learning problems, delayed development, and puberty,” Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, vol. 101, no. 26, pp. 9942–9946, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  56. M. S. Brainard and E. I. Knudsen, “Sensitive periods for visual calibration of the auditory space map in the barn owl optic tectum,” Journal of Neuroscience, vol. 18, no. 10, pp. 3929–3942, 1998. View at Scopus
  57. D. V. M. Bishop and G. M. McArthur, “Immature cortical responses to auditory stimuli in specific language impairment: evidence from ERPs to rapid tone sequences,” Developmental Science, vol. 7, no. 4, pp. F11–F18, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  58. D. V. M. Bishop and G. M. McArthur, “Individual differences in auditory processing in specific language impairment: a follow-up study using event-related potentials and behavioural thresholds,” Cortex, vol. 41, no. 3, pp. 327–341, 2005. View at Scopus
  59. G. McArthur and D. Bishop, “Event-related potentials reflect individual differences in age-invariant auditory skills,” NeuroReport, vol. 13, no. 8, pp. 1079–1082, 2002. View at Scopus
  60. G. M. McArthur and D. V. M. Bishop, “Speech and non-speech processing in people with specific language impairment: a behavioural and electrophysiological study,” Brain and Language, vol. 94, no. 3, pp. 260–273, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  61. R. Salmelin, E. Service, P. Kiesilä, K. Uutela, and O. Salonen, “Impaired visual word processing in dyslexia revealed with magnetoencephalography,” Annals of Neurology, vol. 40, no. 2, pp. 157–162, 1996. View at Scopus
  62. D. L. Flowers, F. B. Wood, and C. E. Naylor, “Regional cerebral blood flow correlates of language processes in reading disability,” Archives of Neurology, vol. 48, no. 6, pp. 637–643, 1991. View at Scopus
  63. K. Pugh, W. Mencl, A. Jenner, L. Katz, S. Frost, et al., “Functional neuroimaging studies of reading and reading disability (developmental dyslexia),” Mental Retardation and Developmental Disabilities Research Reviews, vol. 6, pp. 207–213, 2000.
  64. S. E. Shaywitz, B. A. Shaywitz, K. R. Pugh et al., “Functional disruption in the organization of the brain for reading in dyslexia,” Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, vol. 95, no. 5, pp. 2636–2641, 1998. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  65. T. Klingberg, M. Hedehus, E. Temple et al., “Microstructure of temporo-parietal white matter as a basis for reading ability: evidence from diffusion tensor magnetic resonance imaging,” Neuron, vol. 25, no. 2, pp. 493–500, 2000. View at Scopus
  66. B. Horwitz, J. M. Rumsey, and B. C. Donohue, “Functional connectivity of the angular gyrus in normal reading and dyslexia,” Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, vol. 95, no. 15, pp. 8939–8944, 1998. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  67. H. Wimmer, M. Schurz, D. Sturm et al., “A dual-route perspective on poor reading in a regular orthography: an fMRI study,” Cortex, vol. 46, no. 10, pp. 1284–1298, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  68. F. Hoeft, B. D. McCandliss, J. M. Black et al., “Neural systems predicting long-term outcome in dyslexia,” Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, vol. 108, no. 1, pp. 361–366, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  69. E. H. Aylward, T. L. Richards, V. W. Berninger et al., “Instructional treatment associated with changes in brain activation in children with dyslexia,” Neurology, vol. 61, no. 2, pp. 212–219, 2003. View at Scopus
  70. G. F. Eden, K. M. Jones, K. Cappell et al., “Neural changes following remediation in adult developmental dyslexia,” Neuron, vol. 44, no. 3, pp. 411–422, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  71. A. Meyler, T. A. Keller, V. L. Cherkassky, J. D. E. Gabrieli, and M. A. Just, “Modifying the brain activation of poor readers during sentence comprehension with extended remedial instruction: a longitudinal study of neuroplasticity,” Neuropsychologia, vol. 46, no. 10, pp. 2580–2592, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  72. E. Temple, G. K. Deutsch, R. A. Poldrack et al., “Neural deficits in children with dyslexia ameliorated by behavioral remediation: evidence from functional MRI,” Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, vol. 100, no. 5, pp. 2860–2865, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  73. T. A. Keller and M. A. Just, “Altering cortical connectivity: remediation-induced changes in the white matter of poor readers,” Neuron, vol. 64, no. 5, pp. 624–631, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  74. A. J. Krafnick, D. L. Flowers, E. M. Napoliello, and G. F. Eden, “Gray matter volume changes following reading intervention in dyslexic children,” NeuroImage, vol. 57, no. 3, pp. 733–741, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  75. B. Biswal, F. Z. Yetkin, V. M. Haughton, and J. S. Hyde, “Functional connectivity in the motor cortex of resting human brain using echo-planar MRI,” Magnetic Resonance in Medicine, vol. 34, no. 4, pp. 537–541, 1995. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  76. R. Buckner, F. Krienen, and T. Yeo, “Opportunities and limitations of intrinsic functional connectivity MRI,” Nature Neuroscience, vol. 16, pp. 832–837, 2013.
  77. K. Pammer, P. C. Hansen, M. L. Kringelbach et al., “Visual word recognition: the first half second,” NeuroImage, vol. 22, no. 4, pp. 1819–1825, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  78. L. A. Hald, M. C. M. Bastiaansen, and P. Hagoort, “EEG theta and gamma responses to semantic violations in online sentence processing,” Brain and Language, vol. 96, no. 1, pp. 90–105, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  79. F. Varela, J.-P. Lachaux, E. Rodriguez, and J. Martinerie, “The brainweb: phase synchronization and large-scale integration,” Nature Reviews Neuroscience, vol. 2, no. 4, pp. 229–239, 2001. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  80. W. Singer, “Neuronal synchrony: a versatile code for the definition of relations?” Neuron, vol. 24, no. 1, pp. 49–65, 1999. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  81. G. Thut, C. Miniussi, and J. Gross, “The functional importance of rhythmic activity in the brain,” Current Biology, vol. 22, pp. 658–663, 2012.
  82. J. Burke, K. Zaghloul, J. Jacobs et al., “Synchronous and asynchronous theta and gamma activity during episodic memory formation,” Journal of Neuroscience, vol. 33, pp. 292–304, 2013.
  83. B. C. Lega, J. Jacobs, and M. Kahana, “Human hippocampal theta oscillations and the formation of episodic memories,” Hippocampus, vol. 22, no. 4, pp. 748–761, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  84. R. Moran, P. Campo, F. Maestu, R. Reilly, R. Dolan, and B. Strange, “Peak frequency in the theta and alpha bands correlates with human working memory capacity,” Frontiers in Human Neuroscience, vol. 4, pp. 1–12, 2010.
  85. P. Sauseng, W. Klimesch, K. F. Heise et al., “Brain oscillatory substrates of visual short-term memory capacity,” Current Biology, vol. 19, no. 21, pp. 1846–1852, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  86. O. Jensen, J. Kaiser, and J.-P. Lachaux, “Human gamma-frequency oscillations associated with attention and memory,” Trends in Neurosciences, vol. 30, no. 7, pp. 317–324, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  87. Z. Gao, A. Goldstein, Y. Harpaz, M. Hansel, E. Zion-Golumbic, and S. Bentin, “A magnetoencephalographic study of face processing: M170, gamma-band oscillations and source localization,” Human Brain Mapping, vol. 34, no. 8, pp. 1783–1795, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  88. U. Friese, G. G. Supp, J. F. Hipp, A. K. Engel, and T. Gruber, “Oscillatory MEG gamma band activity dissociates perceptual and conceptual aspects of visual object processing: a combined repetition/conceptual priming study,” NeuroImage, vol. 59, no. 1, pp. 861–871, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  89. J. Martinovic, T. Gruber, and M. M. Müller, “Coding of visual object features and feature conjunctions in the human brain,” PLoS ONE, vol. 3, no. 11, Article ID e3781, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  90. C. Tallon-Baudry and O. Bertrand, “Oscillatory gamma activity in humans and its role in object representation,” Trends in Cognitive Sciences, vol. 3, no. 4, pp. 151–162, 1999. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  91. M. Nazari, E. Mosanezhad, T. Hashemi, and A. Jahan, “The effectiveness of neurofeedback training on EEG coherence and neuropsychological functions in children with reading disability,” Clinical EEG and Neuroscience, vol. 43, pp. 315–322, 2012.
  92. G. M. McArthur, J. H. Hogben, V. T. Edwards, S. M. Heath, and E. D. Mengler, “On the “specifics” of specific reading disability and specific language impairment,” Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry and Allied Disciplines, vol. 41, no. 7, pp. 869–874, 2000. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  93. S. Heim, A. Keil, N. Choundry, J. Friedman, and A. Benasich, “Early gamma oscillations during rapid auditory processing in children with a language-learning impairment: changes in neural mass activity after training,” Neuropsychologia, vol. 51, pp. 990–1001, 2013.
  94. M. Koyama, A. DiMartino, A. Kelly, et al., “Cortical signatures of dyslexia and remediation: an intrinsic functional connectivity approach,” PLoS ONE, vol. 8, pp. 1–14, 2013.