Scientifica The latest articles from Hindawi Publishing Corporation © 2016 , Hindawi Publishing Corporation . All rights reserved. Medicinal Effect of Nutraceutical Fruits for the Cognition and Brain Health Thu, 04 Feb 2016 13:08:03 +0000 The recent era is witnessing evaluation of medicinal and nutritional value of fruits and fruit juices for the management and prevention of brain diseases like headache stress, anxiety, hypertension, and Alzheimer’s and Parkinson’s diseases by the scientists and researchers worldwide. Fruits possess various chemicals such as antioxidants and polyphenols, which reduce and balance the effect of hormone in brain responsible for brain disease. Natural remedy is cheap, easily available, nontoxic, and easy to prepare and provides good mental health as compared to other remedies. The main objective of this review is to acknowledge medicinal benefits of fruits for the cognition and management of brain disease. Raj K. Keservani, Anil K. Sharma, and Rajesh K. Kesharwani Copyright © 2016 Raj K. Keservani et al. All rights reserved. Biological Evaluation of Pupalia lappacea for Antidiabetic, Antiadipogenic, and Hypolipidemic Activity Both In Vitro and In Vivo Thu, 28 Jan 2016 13:04:18 +0000 Objective. The present study assesses the effect of Pupalia lappacea (L.) Juss. (Amaranthaceae) (PL) leaves ethanolic extract on adipocytes, blood glucose level, and lipid level in streptozotocin (STZ) induced diabetic rats. Materials and Methods. Male Albino rats were rendered diabetic by a single moderately sized dose of STZ (45 mg/kg, intraperitoneally) at once before starting the treatment. Animals were divided into five groups: normoglycemic control, diabetic control, reference group (glibenclamide, 5.0 mg/kg), AS001 (250 mg/kg extract), and AS002 (500 mg/kg extract) each containing six animals for in vivo study. Antidiabetic and hypolipidemic activity of extract were determined by in vivo method on STZ induced diabetic rats. Antiadipogenic activity was determined by in vitro method on 3T3-L1 cell line in comparison to simvastatin as reference drug. Result. The extract showed significant fall in fasting serum glucose (FSG), that is, 234.68 and 211.61 mg/dL, in STZ induced diabetic animals for dose groups AS001 and AS002, respectively. The PL extract also exhibited noteworthy antiadipogenic activity on 3T3-L1 cell line. The value of inhibitory concentration (IC50) of PL extract to reduce adipocyte cells was found to be 662.14 μg/mL. Conclusion. The PL extract exhibited significant antiadipogenic, antidiabetic, and hypolipidemic activities. Vivek Kumar, Parag Jain, Kalpana Rathore, and Zabeer Ahmed Copyright © 2016 Vivek Kumar et al. All rights reserved. International Appraisal of Nursing Culture and Curricula: A Qualitative Study of Erasmus Students Thu, 28 Jan 2016 09:26:35 +0000 Introduction. Globalization of knowledge has emphasized the need to promote the adoption of international exchange programs in nursing. Nevertheless, the differences in cultural, educational, and structural schemes have challenged the mutual appraisal and understanding of the nursing curricula between countries. Research on nursing curricula should allow performing an analysis of different cultural idiosyncrasies in which educational and health institutions are found. These studies would contribute valuable information to the educative and organizational systems and their cultural variability. Objective. To examine the experiences of nursing students on international exchange programs. Methods. Comparative Education was taken as theoretical background. The clinical practice diaries of seven Spanish Nursing Erasmus students (a European international exchange program) were used as field journals. These students undertook their placements in the United Kingdom. A content analysis was carried out to find major themes. Results. Data extracted from the students clinical practice diaries indicated cultural, educational, and structural differences between countries. Most students reflected the hidden curriculum in their diaries, writing about affective, ideological, personal, and social elements and beliefs. Conclusions. The students’ experiences on international exchange programs were found to be sources of interest to clarify the ideological and cultural connections that underlie educational and health systems. Jose Siles Gonzalez, Carmen Solano Ruiz, and Angela Gaban Gutierrez Copyright © 2016 Jose Siles Gonzalez et al. All rights reserved. Chlorophyllin Bait Formulation and Exposure to Different Spectrum of Visible Light on the Reproduction of Infected/Uninfected Snail Lymnaea acuminata Wed, 27 Jan 2016 09:43:04 +0000 Fasciolosis is a waterborne disease, caused by Fasciola species. Snail Lymnaea acuminata is an intermediate host of these flukes. Control of snail population is major tool in reducing the incidences. Variation in light intensity and wavelength caused significant changes in reproduction pattern of snails. Maximum fecundity was noted with bait containing carbohydrate (starch, 468 ± 0.10/20 snails) or amino acid (serine, 319 ± 0.29/20 snails) as attractant. Sublethal feeding of chlorophyllin bait with starch or serine attractant to infected and uninfected snails caused significant reduction in fecundity, hatchability, and survivability. These significant changes are observed in snails exposed to different spectral band of visible light and sunlight. Maximum fecundity of 536 ± 2.0 and minimum of 89.3 ± 0.4 were noted in snails not fed with bait and exposed to sunlight and red spectral band, respectively. There was complete arrest in the fecundity of infected and uninfected snails and no survivability of uninfected snails after 48 h feeding with bait containing chlorophyllin + attractant. Minimum hatchability (9.25 ± 0.5) was noted in red light exposed, chlorophyllin + starch fed infected snails and hatching period of bait fed snails was prolonged. Conclusively, chlorophyllin bait and red light reduce reproduction capacity in snails. Navneet Kumar, D. K. Singh, and Vinay Kumar Singh Copyright © 2016 Navneet Kumar et al. All rights reserved. Symbiotic N2-Fixation Estimated by the 15N Tracer Technique and Growth of Pueraria phaseoloides (Roxb.) Benth. Inoculated with Bradyrhizobium Strain in Field Conditions Sun, 24 Jan 2016 11:48:20 +0000 This field experiment was established in Eastern Cameroon to examine the effect of selected rhizobial inoculation on N2-fixation and growth of Pueraria phaseoloides. Treatments consisted of noninoculated and Bradyrhizobium yuanmingense S3-4-inoculated Pueraria with three replications each. Ipomoea batatas as a non-N2-fixing reference was interspersed in each Pueraria plot. All the twelve plots received 2 gN/m2 of 15N ammonium sulfate 10% atom excess. At harvest, dry matter yields and the nitrogen derived from atmospheric N2-fixation (%Ndfa) of inoculated Pueraria were significantly () higher (81% and 10.83%, resp.) than those of noninoculated Pueraria. The inoculation enhanced nodule dry weight 2.44-fold. Consequently, the harvested N significantly () increased by 83% in inoculated Pueraria, resulting from the increase in N2-fixation and soil N uptake. A loss of 55 to 60% of the N fertilizer was reported, and 36 to 40% of it was immobilized in soil. Here, we demonstrated that both N2-fixing potential of P. phaseoloides and soil N uptake are improved through field inoculations using efficient bradyrhizobial species. In practice, the inoculation contributes to maximize N input in soils by the cover crop’s biomass and represent a good strategy to improve soil fertility for subsequent cultivation. Papa Saliou Sarr, Judith Wase Okon, Didier Aime Boyogueno Begoude, Shigeru Araki, Zachée Ambang, Makoto Shibata, and Shinya Funakawa Copyright © 2016 Papa Saliou Sarr et al. All rights reserved. In Vitro Cytotoxicity of Calcium Silicate-Based Endodontic Cement as Root-End Filling Materials Thu, 21 Jan 2016 14:27:38 +0000 The aim of this study was to evaluate the cytotoxicity of three types of calcium silicate-based endodontic cement after different incubation periods with human periodontal ligament fibroblasts. Human periodontal ligament fibroblasts were cultured from extracted third molars and seeded in 96-well plates. MTA, calcium enriched mixture (CEM) cement, and Biodentine were prepared and added to culture insert plates which were immediately placed into 96-well plates containing cultured cells. After incubation periods of 24, 48, and 72 hours, cell viability was determined with WST-1 assay. Data were analysed statistically by ANOVA with repeated measures and Bonferroni tests. There was no significant difference in cell viability amongst the test materials after each incubation period (). MTA and CEM presented more than 90% cell viability after 24 and 48 hours of incubation and showed statistically significant decrease in cell viability after 72 hours of incubation (). Biodentine showed significantly less cell viability (73%) after 24 hours of incubation, whereas more than 90% cell viability was seen after 48 and 72 hours of incubation (). Despite the significant changes in cell viability over time, materials presented similar cytotoxicity profile. Biodentine and CEM can be considered as alternative materials for root-end surgery procedures. Selen Küçükkaya, Mehmet Ömer Görduysus, Naciye Dilara Zeybek, and Sevda Fatma Müftüoğlu Copyright © 2016 Selen Küçükkaya et al. All rights reserved. Serological Survey and Factors Associated with Toxoplasma gondii Infection in Domestic Goats in Myanmar Thu, 21 Jan 2016 13:48:54 +0000 Goat farming is important for the livelihood of millions of rural people because it contributes to food security and creation of assets. However, infection of goats with Toxoplasma gondii could be a source of parasite transmission to humans. The information on T. gondii infection of goat was not reported yet in Myanmar. A total of 119 goat serum samples were collected from three cities in the central region of Myanmar for T. gondii antibody survey. With the occurrence value obtained in this first study, a second one, more complete, with larger number (162) of animals and properties, was carried out and the risk factors and prevalence were determined. In both studies the samples were analyzed by the LAT. Of these, 32 (11.4%) samples were showed to be positive. The infection was associated with the presence of cats at the farm (odds ratio [OR] = 4.66, 95% confidential interval [CI] = 1.03–21.06), farming with different animal species (sheep, cattle, and pigs) (OR = 4.33, 95% CI = 1.57–11.94), and farming without good management practices (OR = 0.23, 95% CI = 0.06–0.83). This is the first T. gondii prevalence study in goats in the country. Saw Bawm, Wint Yi Maung, Myat Yee Win, May June Thu, Hla Myet Chel, Tin Aye Khaing, Soe Soe Wai, Lat Lat Htun, Tin Tin Myaing, Saruda Tiwananthagorn, Makoto Igarashi, and Ken Katakura Copyright © 2016 Saw Bawm et al. All rights reserved. Prevention of Mother-to-Child Transmission of HIV/AIDS: Perception of Health Care Workers in Rural Areas of Oyo State Tue, 19 Jan 2016 07:19:05 +0000 Introduction. Proper implementation of prevention of mother-to-child transmission (PMTCT) services requires adequate knowledge and appropriate attitudes and practices on the part of the health care providers especially in rural areas where access to health care delivery is very limited in Oyo State. Materials and Methods. This is a descriptive cross-sectional survey of 350 health care workers in a two-stage sampling technique. Data was obtained using interviewer-administered, pretested, semistructured questionnaires. The data was analyzed using Epi Info software version 7. Results. The knowledge of PMTCT of HIV was poor among the health care workers (69.1%). However, more than half (58.3%) had good attitudes towards PMTCT of HIV/AIDS. Predictors of good knowledge of PMTCT were religion [AOR = 1.6, 95% CI (1.1–2.6)], cadre of occupation [AOR = 10.2, 95% CI (2.9–35.1)], and length of service [AOR = 4.3, 95% CI (2.3–19.4)]. Predictors of good attitude towards PMTCT were length of service in the current hospital [AOR = 2.8, 95% CI (1.5–5.2)] and cadre of occupation [AOR = 3.9, 95% CI (1.28–11.9)]. Conclusion. Despite poor knowledge of PMTCT of HIV/AIDS among the health care workers, the attitude towards PMTCT of HIV/AIDS was good. There is need for the involvement of the stakeholders in bridging the gap between knowledge of and attitude towards prevention of MTCT of HIV/AIDS among health care workers in the rural areas. Usman Aishat and Ayinde Olubunmi Copyright © 2016 Usman Aishat and Ayinde Olubunmi. All rights reserved. Primary Lymphoepithelioma-Like Carcinoma of the Prostate Gland: A Review of the Literature Mon, 11 Jan 2016 07:14:38 +0000 Background. Primary lymphoepithelioma-like carcinoma of the prostate gland (PLELCP) is rare with hardly any information on its diagnostic features and biological behaviour. Aim. To review the literature. Method. Various Internet data bases were searched. Literature Review. PLELCP is extremely rare and there are hardly any pictures of the tumour involving the prostate; hence it would appear that clinicians would need to use their knowledge of the microscopic and immunohistochemical characteristics of the tumour in the nasopharynx and urinary bladder as diagnostic aid. PLELCP on microscopy mimics nasopharyngeal LELC. The LELC component of the tumour is characterized by indistinct cytoplasmic borders and a syncytial growth pattern. The stroma may be densely infiltrated by lymphoid cells admixed with some plasma cells and neutrophils and at times prominent infiltration of eosinophils. PLELCPs tend to have adenocarcinoma, either as the only pattern or with additional ductal components or adenosquamous carcinoma. PLELCPs stain positively with PSA, PSAP, AMACR/P504S, EMA, and cytokeratins AE1/AE3, 7, 8, and 20. There is no consensus on treatment of PLECP. The reported prognosis has been poor. Conclusions. PLELCPs should be entered into a multicenter trial to determine the biological behaviour and to find the best treatment option that would improve the prognosis. Anthony Kodzo-Grey Venyo Copyright © 2016 Anthony Kodzo-Grey Venyo. All rights reserved. Multivariate Analysis of Grain Yield and Its Attributing Traits in Different Maize Hybrids Grown under Heat and Drought Stress Sun, 20 Dec 2015 09:06:19 +0000 This study was carried out to evaluate F1 single cross-maize hybrids in four crop growing seasons (2010–2012). Morphological traits and physiological parameters of twelve maize hybrids were evaluated (i) to construct seed yield equation and (ii) to determine grain yield attributing traits of well-performing maize genotype using a previously unexplored method of two-way hierarchical clustering. In seed yield predicting equation photosynthetic rate contributed the highest variation (46%). Principal component analysis data showed that investigated traits contributed up to 90.55% variation in dependent structure. From factor analysis, we found that factor 1 contributed 49.6% variation () with primary important traits (i.e., number of leaves per plant, plant height, stem diameter, fresh leaves weight, leaf area, stomata conductance, substomata CO2 absorption rate, and photosynthetic rate). The results of two-way hierarchical clustering demonstrated that Cluster III had outperforming genotype H12 (Sultan × Soneri) along with its most closely related traits (photosynthetic rate, stomata conductance, substomata CO2 absorption rate, chlorophyll contents, leaf area, and fresh stem weight). Our data shows that H12 (Sultan × Soneri) possessed the highest grain yield per plant under environmentally stress conditions, which are most likely to exist in arid and semiarid climatic conditions, such as in Pakistan. Fawad Ali, Naila Kanwal, Muhammmad Ahsan, Qurban Ali, Irshad Bibi, and Nabeel Khan Niazi Copyright © 2015 Fawad Ali et al. All rights reserved. Does Ramadan Fasting Adversely Affect Cognitive Function in Young Females? Mon, 30 Nov 2015 06:50:10 +0000 We examined the effects of Ramadan fasting on cognitive function in 17 female athletes. Data were obtained from participants of two fasting () and nonfasting () groups at three periods of the study (before Ramadan, at the third week in Ramadan, and after Ramadan). Digit span test (DST) and Stroop color test were employed to assess short-term memory and inhibition/cognitive flexibility at each time point. There were no significant changes for DST and Stroop task 1 in both groups, whereas Stroop task 2 and task 3 showed significant improvements in Ramadan condition (). Interference indices did not change significantly across the study except in post-Ramadan period of fasting group (). Group × week interaction was significant only for error numbers (). Athletes in nonfasting showed a significant decrease in number of errors in Ramadan compared to baseline (). The results suggest that Ramadan fasting may not adversely affect cognitive function in female athletes. Mahboubeh Ghayour Najafabadi, Laya Rahbar Nikoukar, Amir Memari, Hamed Ekhtiari, and Sara Beygi Copyright © 2015 Mahboubeh Ghayour Najafabadi et al. All rights reserved. An Analytic Contemplation of the Conspicuous Vicissitudes in the Histomorphology of Corpuscles of Stannius of a Freshwater Catfish Mystus tengara (Hamilton, 1822) due to the Exposure of ZnS Nanoparticles Sun, 29 Nov 2015 12:53:45 +0000 Enhanced surface photooxidation property associated with the ZnS nanoparticles caused the reduction of dissolved oxygen content in water in a dose dependent manner, when ZnS nanoparticles of different sizes are exposed to the water in various concentrations. This property was more prominent for ZnS nanoparticles with smaller sizes. Mystus tengara, exposed to ZnS nanoparticles, responded to hypoxia with varied behavioural, physiological, and cellular responses in order to maintain homeostasis and organ function in an oxygen-depleted environment. The histomorphology of corpuscles of Stannius of the fish showed conspicuous vicissitudes under exposure of ZnS nanoparticles. The population of the cell type with granular cytoplasm showed significant increase at the expense of the other that consisted of agranular cytoplasm with increasing nanoparticle concentration. This can be explained as the defence mechanism of the fish against ZnS nanoparticle induced hypoxia and environmental acidification. The altering histomorphology has been studied employing an analytical approach. Nilanjana Chatterjee and Baibaswata Bhattacharjee Copyright © 2015 Nilanjana Chatterjee and Baibaswata Bhattacharjee. All rights reserved. Evaluation of Gingival Microleakage in Class II Composite Restorations with Different Lining Techniques: An In Vitro Study Sun, 29 Nov 2015 11:41:01 +0000 Aim. To compare the microleakage in class II composite restorations without a liner/with resin modified glass ionomer and flowable composite liner. Method. Forty standardized MO cavities were prepared on human permanent mandibular molars extracted for periodontal reasons and then divided into 4 groups of ten specimens. The cavity preparations were etched, rinsed, blot dried, and light cured and Adper Single Bond 2 is applied. Group 1 is restored with Filtek P60 packable composite in 2 mm oblique increments. Group 2 is precure group where 1 mm Filtek Z350 flowable liner is applied and light cured for 20 sec. Group 3 is the same as Group 2, but the liner was cocured with packable composite. In Group 4, 1 mm RMGIC, Fuji Lining LC is applied and cured for 20 sec. All the teeth were restored as in Group 1. The specimens were coated with nail varnish leaving 1 mm around the restoration, subjected to thermocycling, basic fuchsin dye penetration, sectioned mesiodistally, and observed under a stereomicroscope. Results. The mean leakage scores of the individual study groups were Group 1 (33.40), Group 2 (7.85), Group 3 (16.40), and Group 4 (24.35). Group 1 without a liner showed maximum leakage. Flowable composite liner precured was the best. Vedavathi Bore Gowda, B. V. Sreenivasa Murthy, Swaroop Hegde, Swapna Devarasanahalli Venkataramanaswamy, Veena Suresh Pai, and Rashmi Krishna Copyright © 2015 Vedavathi Bore Gowda et al. All rights reserved. Antinociceptive and Anti-Inflammatory Activities of Teucrium persicum Boiss. Extract in Mice Mon, 16 Nov 2015 08:09:07 +0000 Background. Therapeutic properties of Teucrium species as antioxidant, antibacterial, analgesic, anticancer, diuretic, and tonic compounds have been proved earlier. Materials and Methods. In this study, the antinociceptive and anti-inflammatory effects of the aqueous extract of Teucrium persicum on chronic pain, sciatic nerve ligation as a model of neuropathic pain, and inflammatory models were investigated by formalin, hot-plate, and cotton pellet-induced granuloma models in mice, respectively. T. persicum aqueous extracts (100, 200, and 400 mg/kg) were orally gavaged for one week. On 8th day, the time spent and the number of lickings were recorded in formalin test. Morphine and Diclofenac were used intraperitoneally as positive controls. In sciatic nerve ligated animals, as a model of neuropathic pain, doses (100, 200, and 400 mg/kg) of T. persicum extract (TPE) were orally gavaged for 14 consecutive days. The analgesic effect of this extract was examined 14 days after sciatic nerve ligation using the hot-plate test. Controls received saline and Imipramine (40 mg/kg, i.p.) was used a positive control for neuropathic pain model. Results. In the formalin test, a week oral gavage of all TPE doses (100, 200, and 400 mg/kg) caused a significant decrease on the licking response compared to the control negative animals. In the hot-plate test, doses of 200 and 400 mg/kg showed significant analgesic effects in sciatic nerve ligated animals. Oral gavaged of TPE revealed significant analgesic effect on chronic pain in both formalin test and sciatic nerve ligated animals. The TPEs did not have any significant anti-inflammatory effects in cotton pellet-induced granuloma formation in mice. Conclusions. These results suggest that the aqueous extract from T. persicum Boiss. produced antinociceptive effects. Its exact mechanism of action still remains indistinct. Abdolhossein Miri, Javad Sharifi-Rad, Kaveh Tabrizian, and Ali Akbar Nasiri Copyright © 2015 Abdolhossein Miri et al. All rights reserved. Impacts of Different Tree Species of Different Sizes on Spatial Distribution of Herbaceous Plants in the Nigerian Guinea Savannah Ecological Zone Thu, 05 Nov 2015 10:45:01 +0000 This study was aimed at finding the impacts of different tree species and individual trees of different sizes on species richness, diversity, and composition of the herbaceous layer. All the three tree species have greatly increased species richness and diversity both within and outside their crown zones compared with the open grassland. Both species richness and diversity were found to be higher under all the three tree species than outside their crowns, which was in turn higher than the open field. Daniella oliveri has the highest species richness and diversity both within and outside its crown zone followed by Vitellaria paradoxa and then Parkia biglobosa. The result also revealed that the same tree species with different sizes leads to different herbaceous species richness, diversity, and composition under and around the trees’ crowns. P. biglobosa and V. paradoxa trees with smaller sizes showed higher species richness and diversity under their crowns than the bigger ones. The dissimilarity of species composition differs between the inside and outside crown zones of the individuals of the same tree species and among the different trees species and the open field. Toma Buba Copyright © 2015 Toma Buba. All rights reserved. Biodegradation of PAHs by Burkholderia sp. VITRSB1 Isolated from Marine Sediments Wed, 28 Oct 2015 08:01:13 +0000 The polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) pollution to the environment is a major threat to the living organisms, and hence the degradation of these PAHs is necessary. Studies on PAHs degrading bacteria have focussed on terrestrial microbes and the potential of marine derived microbes is undermined. Herein we report the isolation and characterization of PAHs degrading Burkholderia sp. from lagoon sediments collected at the Southern coast of India. The strain was Gram negative, rod-shaped, motile, and ∼2–5 μm in length. Based on the phylogenetic data the strain was identified as Burkholderia and designated as VITRSB1. Initial PAHs degradation ability of the strain was assessed using basal salt medium supplemented with diesel, kerosene, toluene, aniline, naphthalene, and phenol. The strain was found to be effectively degrading kerosene, diesel, toluene, and aniline even at higher concentration (1%). However, naphthalene and aniline were degraded only at lower concentration (0.1%) and phenol, camphor, and DAP inhibited the growth of the strain. Furthermore, the degraded end products of the PAHs were determined using FTIR. Notably, none of the end products were found to be toxic to the biosphere. Our results indicate that the isolated Burkholderia sp. could be a prospective candidate for the effective degradation of selective PAHs. T. Revathy, M. A. Jayasri, and K. Suthindhiran Copyright © 2015 T. Revathy et al. All rights reserved. Pharmacology and Phytochemistry of Oleo-Gum Resin of Commiphora wightii (Guggulu) Mon, 26 Oct 2015 11:33:07 +0000 Guggulu is an oleo-gum resin which exudes out as a result of injury from the bark of Commiphora wightii (Arnott) Bhandari [syn.  Commiphora mukul (Hook. Ex Stocks) Engl; Balsamodendron mukul (Hook. Ex Stocks); Family, Burseraceae]. It has been used in the Ayurveda since time immemorial for the treatment of variety of disorders such as inflammation, gout, rheumatism, obesity, and disorders of lipids metabolism. It is a mixture of phytoconstituents like volatile oil which contains terpenoidal constituents such as monoterpenoids, sesquiterpenoids, diterpenoids, and triterpenoids; steroids; flavonoids; guggultetrols; lignans; sugars; and amino acids. This review is an effort to compile all the information available on all of its chemical constituents which are responsible for its therapeutic potential. The wild occurrence of this species is restricted mainly to the dry regions of Rajasthan and Gujarat States of India, and the bordering regions of Pakistan. Oleo-gum resin, guggulu, tapped from the stems of this species, is consumed in high volumes by the Indian herbal industries. There has been a decline in its wild population over the last several decades, as a result of habitat loss and degradation, coupled with unregulated harvesting and tapping of oleo-gum resin. This species is consequently assessed as Critically Endangered and enlisted in the IUCN red list of threatened species. Prerna Sarup, Suman Bala, and Sunil Kamboj Copyright © 2015 Prerna Sarup et al. All rights reserved. Study of Collagen Birefringence in Different Grades of Oral Squamous Cell Carcinoma Using Picrosirius Red and Polarized Light Microscopy Mon, 26 Oct 2015 09:33:45 +0000 Objectives. The present study was done to evaluate birefringence pattern of collagen fibres in different grades of oral squamous cell carcinoma using Picrosirius red stain and polarization microscopy and to determine if there is a change in collagen fibres between different grades of oral squamous cell carcinoma. Materials and Methods. Picrosirius red stained 5 μm thick sections of previously diagnosed different grades of squamous cell carcinoma and normal oral mucosa were studied under polarization microscopy for arrangement as well as birefringence of collagen fibres around tumour islands. Results. It was found that thin collagen fibres increased and thick collagen fibres decreased with dedifferentiation of OSCC (). It was observed that there was change in polarization colours of thick fibres from yellowish orange to greenish yellow with dedifferentiation of OSCC indicating loosely packed fibres (). Conclusion. There was a gradual change of birefringence of collagen from yellowish orange to greenish yellow from well to poorly differentiated squamous cell carcinoma, indicating that there is a change from mature form of collagen to immature form as tumour progresses. Studying collagen fibres with Picrosirius red for stromal changes around tumour islands along with routine staining may help in predicting the prognosis of tumour. Pillai Arun Gopinathan, Ganganna Kokila, Mahadesh Jyothi, Chatterjee Ananjan, Linganna Pradeep, and Salroo Humaira Nazir Copyright © 2015 Pillai Arun Gopinathan et al. All rights reserved. Clinical Outcomes from Unselected “Real-World” Patients with Long Coronary Lesion Receiving 40 mm Biodegradable Polymer Coated Sirolimus-Eluting Stent Thu, 22 Oct 2015 07:41:36 +0000 Background. Long lesions being implanted with drug-eluting stents (DES) are associated with relatively high restenosis rates and higher incidences of adverse events. Objectives. We aimed to examine the safety and efficacy of the long (40 mm) biodegradable polymer coated Indolimus sirolimus-eluting stent (SES) in real-world patients with long coronary lesions. Methods. This study was observational, nonrandomized, retrospective, and carried out in real-world patients. A total of 258 patients were enrolled for the treatment of long coronary lesions, with 40 mm Indolimus. The primary endpoints in the study were incidence of major adverse cardiac events (MACE), a miscellany of cardiac death, myocardial infarction (MI), target lesion revascularization (TLR) or target vessel revascularization (TVR), and stent thrombosis (ST) up to 6-month follow-up. Results. The study population included higher proportion of males (74.4%) and average age was 53.2 ± 11.0 years. A total of 278 lesions were intervened successfully with 280 stents. The observed MACE at 6-month follow-up was 2.0%, which included 0.8% cardiac death and 1.2% MI. There were no TLR or TVR and ST observed during 6-month follow-up. Conclusions. The long (40 mm) Indolimus stent demonstrated low MACE rate and was proven to be safe and effective treatment for long lesions in “real-world” patients. Anurag Polavarapu, Raghava Sarma Polavarapu, Jayesh Prajapati, Kamlesh Thakkar, Asif Raheem, Tamanpreet Mayall, and Ashok Thakkar Copyright © 2015 Anurag Polavarapu et al. All rights reserved. Potential Use of Natural Killer Cell Transfer Therapy in the Perioperative Period to Improve Oncologic Outcomes Wed, 21 Oct 2015 11:15:19 +0000 Immune suppression after oncologic surgery is a common phenomenon. Several studies have demonstrated that it is associated with poor survival owing to cancer progression. Immunotherapy, especially NK cell transfer therapy, is an attractive alternative because current methodologies to isolate, generate, and expand NK cells have shown good safety profiles in current active investigations. We believe that the use of NK cell transfer therapy in the context of postoperative minimal residual disease deserves significant investigation. Juan P. Cata, Claudius Conrad, and Katy Rezvani Copyright © 2015 Juan P. Cata et al. All rights reserved. Adaptive Evolution Coupled with Retrotransposon Exaptation Allowed for the Generation of a Human-Protein-Specific Coding Gene That Promotes Cancer Cell Proliferation and Metastasis in Both Haematological Malignancies and Solid Tumours: The Extraordinary Case of MYEOV Gene Mon, 19 Oct 2015 09:45:40 +0000 The incidence of cancer in human is high as compared to chimpanzee. However previous analysis has documented that numerous human cancer-related genes are highly conserved in chimpanzee. Till date whether human genome includes species-specific cancer-related genes that could potentially contribute to a higher cancer susceptibility remains obscure. This study focuses on MYEOV, an oncogene encoding for two protein isoforms, reported as causally involved in promoting cancer cell proliferation and metastasis in both haematological malignancies and solid tumours. First we document, via stringent in silico analysis, that MYEOV arose de novo in Catarrhini. We show that MYEOV short-isoform start codon was evolutionarily acquired after Catarrhini/Platyrrhini divergence. Throughout the course of Catarrhini evolution MYEOV acquired a gradually elongated translatable open reading frame (ORF), a gradually shortened translation-regulatory upstream ORF, and alternatively spliced mRNA variants. A point mutation introduced in human allowed for the acquisition of MYEOV long-isoform start codon. Second, we demonstrate the precious impact of exonized transposable elements on the creation of MYEOV gene structure. Third, we highlight that the initial part of MYEOV long-isoform coding DNA sequence was under positive selection pressure during Catarrhini evolution. MYEOV represents a Primate Orphan Gene that acquired, via ORF expansion, a human-protein-specific coding potential. Spyros I. Papamichos, Dimitrios Margaritis, and Ioannis Kotsianidis Copyright © 2015 Spyros I. Papamichos et al. All rights reserved. Core Muscle Activity, Exercise Preference, and Perceived Exertion during Core Exercise with Elastic Resistance versus Machine Sun, 18 Oct 2015 15:56:31 +0000 Objectives. To investigate core muscle activity, exercise preferences, and perceived exertion during two selected core exercises performed with elastic resistance versus a conventional training machine. Methods. 17 untrained men aged 26–67 years participated in surface electromyography (EMG) measurements of five core muscles during torso-twists performed from left to right with elastic resistance and in the machine, respectively. The order of the exercises was randomized and each exercise consisted of 3 repetitions performed at a 10 RM load. EMG amplitude was normalized (nEMG) to maximum voluntary isometric contraction (MVC). Results. A higher right erector spinae activity in the elastic exercise compared with the machine exercise (50% [95% CI 36–64] versus 32% [95% CI 18–46] nEMG) was found. By contrast, the machine exercise, compared with the elastic exercise, showed higher left external oblique activity (77% [95% CI 64–90] versus 54% [95% CI 40–67] nEMG). For the rectus abdominis, right external oblique, and left erector spinae muscles there were no significant differences. Furthermore, 76% preferred the torso-twist with elastic resistance over the machine exercise. Perceived exertion (Borg CR10) was not significantly different between machine (5.8 [95% CI 4.88–6.72]) and elastic exercise (5.7 [95% CI 4.81–6.59]). Conclusion. Torso-twists using elastic resistance showed higher activity of the erector spinae, whereas torso-twist in the machine resulted in higher activity of the external oblique. For the remaining core muscles the two training modalities induced similar muscular activation. In spite of similar perceived exertion the majority of the participants preferred the exercise using elastic resistance. Jonas Vinstrup, Emil Sundstrup, Mikkel Brandt, Markus D. Jakobsen, Joaquin Calatayud, and Lars L. Andersen Copyright © 2015 Jonas Vinstrup et al. All rights reserved. Perceptions of Nigerian Women about Human Papilloma Virus, Cervical Cancer, and HPV Vaccine Tue, 13 Oct 2015 16:44:05 +0000 Background. Cervical cancer caused by human papilloma virus (HPV) though preventable has claimed the lives of many women worldwide. This study was embarked upon to evaluate the general knowledge and perceptions of Nigerian women on HPV, cervical cancer, and HPV vaccine. Methods. Structured questionnaires were administered to a cross section of 737 women randomly selected from the general population in two southwestern States of Nigeria. Statistical analysis was done using SPSS computer software version 16. A value >0.05 was considered statistically significant. Results. One hundred and seventy-six (23.9%) of the respondents had knowledge of HPV; 474 (64.3%) are aware of cervical cancer but only 136 (18.5%) know that HPV causes cervical cancer. 200 (27.1%) are aware that there is an HPV vaccine while 300 (40.7%) had knowledge of Pap smear test. Two hundred and sixty (35.3%) of the respondents know that early detection of HPV can prevent cervical cancer and in spite of this, only 110 (14.9%) have taken the Pap smear test before while 151 (20.5%) are not willing to go for the test at all. Conclusions. There is therefore the need to create proper awareness on the HPV and its possible consequence of cervical carcinoma. Olusola Anuoluwapo Akanbi, Abiodun Iyanda, Folakemi Osundare, and Oluyinka Oladele Opaleye Copyright © 2015 Olusola Anuoluwapo Akanbi et al. All rights reserved. Antifungal Effect of Lavender Essential Oil (Lavandula angustifolia) and Clotrimazole on Candida albicans: An In Vitro Study Tue, 13 Oct 2015 11:21:31 +0000 Background. The treatment of candidiasis infections is an important problem in the health care system. This study aimed to investigate the in vitro effect of lavender essential oil and clotrimazole on isolated C. albicans from vaginal candidiasis. Materials and Methods. In this clinical trial, C. albicans isolated from the vaginal discharge samples was obtained. Results. The pairwise comparison showed that lavender and clotrimazole had a significant difference; this difference in the lavender group was lower than clotrimazole. But, after 48 hours, there was no difference seen between groups. There was a significant difference between clotrimazole and DMSO groups. Comparing the changes between groups based on the same dilution, at 24 h and 48 h in clotrimazole group, showed a significant difference two times in the fungal cell count that its average during 48 h was less than 24 h. A significant difference was observed between the two periods in lavender group, only at the dilutions of 1/20 and 1/80. The average fungal cell count after 48 h was also lower in lavender group. Conclusions. Given that the lavender has antifungal activity, this can be used as an antifungal agent. However, more clinical studies are necessary to validate its use in candida infection. Fereshteh Behmanesh, Hajar Pasha, Ali Asghar Sefidgar, Mohsen Taghizadeh, Ali Akbar Moghadamnia, Hajar Adib Rad, and Leyla Shirkhani Copyright © 2015 Fereshteh Behmanesh et al. All rights reserved. Anthropometry of Iranian Guidance School Students with Different Ethnicities: A Comparative Study Thu, 08 Oct 2015 17:16:59 +0000 Objective. We measured some anthropometric dimensions of Iranian guidance school students selected from different ethnicities. Background. Anthropometric dimensions are used for design of equipment, furniture, and clothing. Furniture with inappropriate design not fulfilling the users’ anthropometric dimensions may have a negative effect on health. Method. A total of 7400 Iranian guidance school students aged 12–14 years entered the study and their static anthropometric dimensions were measured. Descriptive statistics such as mean, standard deviation, and key percentiles were calculated. All dimensions were compared among different ethnicities and different genders. Results. This study showed significant differences in a set of 22 anthropometric dimensions regarding gender, age, and ethnicity. Conclusion. According to the results of this study, difference between genders and among different ethnicities should be taken into account by designers and manufacturers of guidance school furniture. Application. This study has prepared a data bank of anthropometric dimensions of 12–14-year-old students which can be used as basic information to find appropriate dimensions of school furniture. Amir Houshang Mehrparvar, Rahmatollah Hafezi, Seyyed Jalil Mirmohammadi, Mehrdad Mostaghaci, and Mohammad Hossein Davari Copyright © 2015 Amir Houshang Mehrparvar et al. All rights reserved. Evaluation of Podoplanin in Oral Leukoplakia and Oral Squamous Cell Carcinoma Thu, 08 Oct 2015 10:58:13 +0000 Background. Recent studies have demonstrated that podoplanin was expressed in some dysplastic lesions adjacent to primary oral cancers suggesting that podoplanin expression may occur in early oral tumorigenesis and lymphangiogenesis and therefore is related to tumor growth. The purpose of this study is to determine the role of podoplanin as a biomarker for cancer risk assessment in oral leukoplakia and correlation of podoplanin expression with grades of oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC). Materials and Methods. In the present retrospective study, podoplanin expression was investigated immunohistochemically in 40 patients each of oral leukoplakia and OSCC. The scores were analyzed statistically using one-way ANOVA test followed by Tukey HSD. Results. By applying one-way ANOVA test, there was a highly significant increase of the podoplanin expression from mild to severe dysplasia and from well to poorly differentiated OSCC (). Statistically highly significant difference was present between scores of mild to moderate dysplasia, moderate to severe dysplasia, well to poorly differentiated OSCC, and moderately to poorly differentiated OSCC (Tukey HSD test, ). Conclusion. Podoplanin can be used as a biomarker for early oral tumorigenesis and for malignant transformation risk assessment of premalignant lesions and as a tumor progression biomarker for advanced grades of OSCC. Ashok Patil, Kishor Patil, Suyog Tupsakhare, Mahesh Gabhane, Shrikant Sonune, and Shilpa Kandalgaonkar Copyright © 2015 Ashok Patil et al. All rights reserved. Heavy Metal Detoxification by Different Bacillus Species Isolated from Solar Salterns Wed, 07 Oct 2015 09:52:52 +0000 The biosorption mechanism is an alternative for chemical precipitation and ultrafiltration which have been employed to treat heavy metal contamination with a limited success. In the present study, three species of Bacillus which were isolated from solar salterns were screened for their detoxification potential of the heavy metals, lead, chromium, and copper, by biosorption. Biosorption potential of each isolate was determined by Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy (AAS), Inductively Coupled Plasma-Optical Emission Spectroscopy (ICP-OES), and Energy Dispersive Spectroscopy (EDS) as the amount of metal present in the medium after the treatment with the isolates. Bacterial isolates, Bacillus licheniformis NSPA5, Bacillus cereus NSPA8, and Bacillus subtilis NSPA13, showed significant level of lead biosorption with maximum of 87–90% by Bacillus cereus NSPA8. The biosorption of copper and chromium was relatively low in comparison with lead. With the obtained results, we have concluded that the bacterial isolates are potential agents to treat metal contamination in more efficient and ecofriendly manner. Shameer Syed and Paramageetham Chinthala Copyright © 2015 Shameer Syed and Paramageetham Chinthala. All rights reserved. Three-Dimensional Kinetic Adaptations of Gait throughout Pregnancy and Postpartum Wed, 30 Sep 2015 09:13:12 +0000 Biomechanical adaptations that occur during pregnancy can lead to changes on gait pattern. Nevertheless, these adaptations of gait are still not fully understood. The purpose was to determine the effect of pregnancy on the biomechanical pattern of walking, regarding the kinetic parameters. A three-dimensional analysis was performed in eleven participants. The kinetic parameters in the joints of the lower limb during gait were compared at the end of the first, second, and third trimesters of pregnancy and in the postpartum period, in healthy pregnant women. The main results showed a reduction in the normalized vertical reaction forces, throughout pregnancy, particularly the third peak. Pregnant women showed, during most of the stance phase, medial reaction forces as a motor response to promote the body stability. Bilateral changes were observed in hip joint, with a decrease in the participation of the hip extensors and in the eccentric contraction of hip flexors. In ankle joint a decrease in the participation of ankle plantar flexors was found. In conclusion, the overall results point to biomechanical adjustments that showed a decrease of the mechanical load of women throughout pregnancy, with exception for few unilateral changes of hip joint moments. Marco Branco, Rita Santos-Rocha, Filomena Vieira, Liliana Aguiar, and António Prieto Veloso Copyright © 2015 Marco Branco et al. All rights reserved. Macrophage Heterogeneity and Plasticity: Impact of Macrophage Biomarkers on Atherosclerosis Sun, 27 Sep 2015 14:16:54 +0000 Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is a global epidemic, currently representing the worldwide leading cause of morbidity and mortality. Atherosclerosis is the fundamental pathophysiologic component of CVD, where the immune system plays an essential role. Monocytes and macrophages are key mediators in this aspect: due to their heterogeneity and plasticity, these cells may act as either pro- or anti-inflammatory mediators. Indeed, monocytes may develop heterogeneous functional phenotypes depending on the predominating pro- or anti-inflammatory microenvironment within the lesion, resulting in classic, intermediate, and non-classic monocytes, each with strikingly differing features. Similarly, macrophages may also adopt heterogeneous profiles being mainly M1 and M2, the former showing a proinflammatory profile while the latter demonstrates anti-inflammatory traits; they are further subdivided in several subtypes with more specialized functions. Furthermore, macrophages may display plasticity by dynamically shifting between phenotypes in response to specific signals. Each of these distinct cell profiles is associated with diverse biomarkers which may be exploited for therapeutic intervention, including IL-10, IL-13, PPAR-γ, LXR, NLRP3 inflammasomes, and microRNAs. Direct modulation of the molecular pathways concerning these potential macrophage-related targets represents a promising field for new therapeutic alternatives in atherosclerosis and CVD. Joselyn Rojas, Juan Salazar, María Sofía Martínez, Jim Palmar, Jordan Bautista, Mervin Chávez-Castillo, Alexis Gómez, and Valmore Bermúdez Copyright © 2015 Joselyn Rojas et al. All rights reserved. Will the Increasing of Anthropogenic Pressures Reduce the Biopotential Value of Sponges? Sun, 20 Sep 2015 14:05:48 +0000 Production of bioactive compounds from marine benthic organisms is suggested to relate ecologically with environment. However, anthropogenic pressures cause a considerable damage to coral reefs environment. This research aimed to define the pattern sponges biopotential values at the increasing of anthropogenic pressures to coral reef environment. Three representative sponges were selected (Theonella sp., Hyrtios sp., and Niphates sp.) and study had been conducted in Hoga Island, Indonesia, to define the relationship between seawater variables (DO, pH, phosphate, and ammonia ions), sponges spatial competition, and their bioactivity level (Brine Shrimp Lethality Test). The study showed anthropogenic pressures affect the reef environment, as abiotic cover was increased and eutrophication was detected at the site closer to the run-off domesticated area. Statistical multivariate analyses revealed sponges spatial competition was significantly different () between groups of high, moderate, and low bioactivity level. Abiotic cover was detected as the major factor (36.19%) contributed to the differences and also the most discriminant factor distinguishing sponges spatial competition in the groups of bioactivity level (93.91%). These results showed the increasing anthropogenic pressures may result in a higher abiotic area and may directly be a consequence to the lower production of bioactive compounds in sponges. Hedi Indra Januar, Asri Pratitis, and Aditya Bramandito Copyright © 2015 Hedi Indra Januar et al. All rights reserved.