Scientifica The latest articles from Hindawi Publishing Corporation © 2016 , Hindawi Publishing Corporation . All rights reserved. Spectroscopic and Docking Studies on the Binding of Liquiritigenin with Hyaluronidase for Antiallergic Mechanism Thu, 26 May 2016 17:15:10 +0000 The inhibitory effect of liquiritigenin on hyaluronidase and its binding mechanism were investigated systematically by UV-vis absorption, fluorescence, and molecular modeling approaches. These results indicated that liquiritigenin could interact with hyaluronidase to form a liquiritigenin-hyaluronidase complex. The binding constant, number of binding sites, and thermodynamic parameters were calculated, which indicated that liquiritigenin could spontaneously bind with hyaluronidase mainly through electrostatic and hydrophobic interactions with one binding site. Synchronous fluorescence, three-dimensional fluorescence, and molecular docking results revealed that liquiritigenin bound directly to the enzyme cavity site and this binding influenced the microenvironment of the hyaluronidase activity site, resulting in reduced hyaluronidase activity. The present study provides useful information for clinical applications of liquiritigenin as a hyaluronidase inhibitor. Hua-jin Zeng, Ran Yang, Jing You, Ling-bo Qu, and Yan-jun Sun Copyright © 2016 Hua-jin Zeng et al. All rights reserved. Unraveling the Limits of Mitochondrial Control Region to Estimate the Fine Scale Population Genetic Differentiation in Anadromous Fish Tenualosa ilisha Wed, 25 May 2016 08:32:33 +0000 The mitochondrial control region has been the first choice for examining the population structure but hypervariability and homoplasy have reduced its suitability. We analysed eight populations using control region for examining the population structure of Hilsa. Although the control region analysis revealed broad structuring between the Arabian Sea and Bay of Bengal (, ) it was unable to detect structure among riverine populations. These results suggest that the markers used must be able to distinguish populations and control region has led to an underestimation of genetic differentiation among populations of Hilsa. Rashmi Verma, Mahender Singh, and Sudhir Kumar Copyright © 2016 Rashmi Verma et al. All rights reserved. Phenotypic Plasticity and Selection: Nonexclusive Mechanisms of Adaptation Tue, 24 May 2016 06:54:14 +0000 Selection and plasticity are two mechanisms that allow the adaptation of a population to a changing environment. Interaction between these nonexclusive mechanisms must be considered if we are to understand population survival. This review discusses the ways in which plasticity and selection can interact, based on a review of the literature on selection and phenotypic plasticity in the evolution of populations. The link between selection and phenotypic plasticity is analysed at the level of the individual. Plasticity can affect an individual’s response to selection and so may modify the end result of genetic diversity evolution at population level. Genetic diversity increases the ability of populations or communities to adapt to new environmental conditions. Adaptive plasticity increases individual fitness. However this effect must be viewed from the perspective of the costs of plasticity, although these are not easy to estimate. It is becoming necessary to engage in new experimental research to demonstrate the combined effects of selection and plasticity for adaptation and their consequences on the evolution of genetic diversity. S. Grenier, P. Barre, and I. Litrico Copyright © 2016 S. Grenier et al. All rights reserved. Heavy Metals Exposure and Hygienic Behaviors of Workers in Sanitary Landfill Areas in Southern Thailand Mon, 23 May 2016 09:18:31 +0000 Objectives. The main objective of this study was to assess the cadmium and lead exposure levels in subject workers that work in sanitary landfill areas in southern Thailand. The study evaluated the blood cadmium and lead levels in terms of their possible role in worker contamination and transfer of cadmium and lead to the body. Materials and Methods. A cross-sectional study was conducted with 114 subjects. Whole blood samples were collected to determine cadmium and lead levels by graphite furnaces atomic absorption spectrometer chromium analyzer. Results and Discussion. The mean blood cadmium levels and blood lead levels of subjects workers were  μg/L (range 1.58–7.03 μg/L) and  μg/dL (range 1.98–11.12 μg/dL), respectively. Gender, income, smoked cigarettes, work position, duration of work, personal protective equipment (PPE), and personal hygiene were significantly associated with blood cadmium level and blood lead levels ( and ). A multiple regression model was constructed. Significant predictors of blood cadmium levels and blood lead levels included smoked cigarettes, hours worked per day, days worked per week, duration of work (years), work position, use of PPE (mask and gloves), and personal hygiene behavior (ate snacks or drank water at work and washed hands before lunch). Conclusion. The elevated body burden of toxic metals in the solid waste exposure of subject workers is an indication of occupational metal toxicity associated with personal hygiene practices. Somsiri Decharat Copyright © 2016 Somsiri Decharat. All rights reserved. Laboratory Evaluation of Different Insecticides against Hibiscus Mealybug, Maconellicoccus hirsutus (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae) Sun, 22 May 2016 13:56:10 +0000 Hibiscus mealybug, Maconellicoccus hirsutus (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae), is the major pest of many vegetables, fruits, crops, and ornamental plants causing losses to the farmers and its control has been an issue of significance in the pest management. This study was aimed at evaluating different concentrations (0.06%, 0.1%, and 0.14%) of Telsta, Advantage, Talstar, Imidacloprid, and their mixtures against hibiscus mealybug in the Laboratory of Systematics and Pest Management at University of Gujrat, Pakistan. The toxic effect was evaluated in the laboratory bioassay after 24 and 48 h of the application of insecticides. The highest mortality (95.83%) was shown by Talstar and Talstar + Imidacloprid at the concentration of 0.14% after 48 h followed by Advantage + Talstar with 87.50% mortality at 0.14% concentration after 48 h of application. The study also showed that the least effective treatment observed was Advantage + Telsta with no mortality after 24 h and 25% mortality after 48 h at 0.14% concentration. The study revealed that the concentration 0.14% was highly effective in lowering the mealybug population and insecticide mixtures were effective in reducing mealybug density. The study emphasizes the use of such insecticide mixtures to develop better management strategy for mealybug populations attacking ornamental plants. However effects of such insecticide mixtures on other organisms and biological control agents should be checked under field conditions. Samman Fatima, Mubashar Hussain, Shama Shafqat, Muhammad Faheem Malik, Zaheer Abbas, Nadia Noureen, and Noor ul Ane Copyright © 2016 Samman Fatima et al. All rights reserved. Extract of Sesbania grandiflora Ameliorates Hyperglycemia in High Fat Diet-Streptozotocin Induced Experimental Diabetes Mellitus Sun, 22 May 2016 10:51:46 +0000 Background. Sesbania grandiflora has been traditionally used as antidiabetic, antioxidant, antipyretic, and expectorant and in the management of various ailments. Materials and Methods. The study evaluates the antidiabetic activity of methanolic extract of Sesbania grandiflora (MESG) in type 2 diabetic rats induced by low dose streptozotocine and high fat diet. Diabetic rats were given vehicle, MESG (200 and 400 mg/kg, p.o.), and the standard drug, metformin (10 mg/kg), for 28 days. During the experimental period, body weight, abdominal girth, food intake, fasting serum glucose, urine analyses were measured. Insulin tolerance test was carried out on 25th day of drug treatment period. Serum analyses for lipid profile and SGOT and SGPT and serums creatinine, urea, protein, SOD, and MDA were also carried out. At the end of the experiment, animals were euthanized, the liver and pancreas were immediately dissected out, and the ratio of pancreas to body weight and hepatic glycogen were calculated. Results. MESG (200 and 400 mg/kg, p.o.) induced significant reduction () of raised blood glucose levels in diabetic rats and also restored other parameters to normal level. Conclusion. Therefore, it is concluded that MESG has potential antihyperglycemic and antihyperlipemic activities and alleviate insulin resistance conditions. Ghanshyam Panigrahi, Chhayakanta Panda, and Arjun Patra Copyright © 2016 Ghanshyam Panigrahi et al. All rights reserved. Anatomy of Inferior Mesenteric Artery in Fetuses Sun, 22 May 2016 07:35:57 +0000 Aim. To analyze Inferior Mesenteric Artery in fetuses through its site of origin, length, diameter, and variation of its branches. Method. 100 fetuses were collected from various hospitals in Warangal at Kakatiya Medical College in Andhra Pradesh, India, and were divided into two groups, group I (second-trimester fetuses) and group II (third-trimester fetuses), followed by dissection. Result. (1) Site of Origin. In group I fetuses, origin of Inferior Mesenteric Artery was at third lumbar vertebra in 33 out of 34 fetuses (97.2%). In one fetus it was at first lumbar vertebra, 2.8%. In all group II fetuses, origin of Inferior Mesenteric Artery was at third lumbar vertebra. (2) Length. In group I fetuses it ranged between 18 and 30 mm, average being 24 mm except in one fetus where it was 48 mm. In group II fetuses the length ranged from 30 to 34 mm, average being 32 mm. (3) Diameter. In group I fetuses it ranged from 0.5 to 1 mm, and in group II fetuses it ranged from 1 to 2 mm, average being 1.5 mm. (4) Branches. Out of 34 fetuses of group I, 4 fetuses showed variation. In one fetus left colic artery was arising from abdominal aorta, 2.9%. In 3 fetuses, Inferior Mesenteric Artery was giving a branch to left kidney, 8.8%. Out of 66 fetuses in group II, 64 had normal branching. In one fetus left renal artery was arising from Inferior Mesenteric Artery, 1.5%, and in another fetus one accessory renal artery was arising from Inferior Mesenteric Artery and entering the lower pole of left kidney. Conclusion. Formation, course, and branching pattern of an artery depend on development and origin of organs to attain the actual adult position. Ayesha Nuzhat Copyright © 2016 Ayesha Nuzhat. All rights reserved. Characterization of Nora Virus Structural Proteins via Western Blot Analysis Thu, 19 May 2016 08:57:36 +0000 Nora virus is a single stranded RNA picorna-like virus with four open reading frames (ORFs). The coding potentials of the ORFs are not fully characterized, but ORF3 and ORF4 are believed to encode the capsid proteins (VP3, VP4a, VP4b, and VP4c) comprising the virion. To determine the polypeptide composition of Nora virus virions, polypeptides from purified virus were compared to polypeptides detected in Nora virus infected Drosophila melanogaster. Nora virus was purified from infected flies and used to challenge mice for the production of antisera. ORF3, ORF4a, ORF4b, and ORF4c were individually cloned and expressed in E. coli; resultant recombinant proteins purified and were used to make monospecific antisera. Antisera were evaluated via Western blot against whole virus particles and Nora virus infected fly lysates. Viral purification yielded two particle types with densities of ~1.31 g/mL (empty particles) and ~1.33 g/mL (complete virions). Comparison of purified virus polypeptide composition to Nora virus infected D. melanogaster lysate showed the number of proteins in infected cell lysates is less than purified virus. Our results suggest the virion is composed of 6 polypeptides, VP3, VP4a, two forms of VP4b, and two forms of VP4c. This polypeptide composition is similar to other small RNA insect viruses. Brad L. Ericson, Darby J. Carlson, and Kimberly A. Carlson Copyright © 2016 Brad L. Ericson et al. All rights reserved. Construction of Gene Regulatory Networks Using Recurrent Neural Networks and Swarm Intelligence Thu, 19 May 2016 06:42:27 +0000 We have proposed a methodology for the reverse engineering of biologically plausible gene regulatory networks from temporal genetic expression data. We have used established information and the fundamental mathematical theory for this purpose. We have employed the Recurrent Neural Network formalism to extract the underlying dynamics present in the time series expression data accurately. We have introduced a new hybrid swarm intelligence framework for the accurate training of the model parameters. The proposed methodology has been first applied to a small artificial network, and the results obtained suggest that it can produce the best results available in the contemporary literature, to the best of our knowledge. Subsequently, we have implemented our proposed framework on experimental (in vivo) datasets. Finally, we have investigated two medium sized genetic networks (in silico) extracted from GeneNetWeaver, to understand how the proposed algorithm scales up with network size. Additionally, we have implemented our proposed algorithm with half the number of time points. The results indicate that a reduction of 50% in the number of time points does not have an effect on the accuracy of the proposed methodology significantly, with a maximum of just over 15% deterioration in the worst case. Abhinandan Khan, Sudip Mandal, Rajat Kumar Pal, and Goutam Saha Copyright © 2016 Abhinandan Khan et al. All rights reserved. Psychometric Properties of the Persian Version of the Short Beck Depression Inventory with Iranian Psychiatric Outpatients Tue, 17 May 2016 11:57:09 +0000 The short form of the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI-13) is useful for the screening and assessment of depression in clinical and research settings. The aim of the present study was to investigate the psychometric properties of the Persian (Farsi) version of BDI-13 in an Iranian clinical sample. The sample consisted of 52 Iranian psychiatric outpatients who received services at psychiatric and psychological clinics at the School of Behavioral Sciences & Mental Health-Tehran Institute of Psychiatry, Iran University of Medical Sciences (IUMS) in Tehran, Iran. The study examined the reliability, construct validity, and factor structure of the instrument. The instrument indicated good reliability with Cronbach’s alpha of .85 and strong construct validity based on moderate to strong positive correlations with other measures of mental health issues. Using a Principal Component Analysis and Varimax Rotation with Kaiser Normalization, three factors were identified and labeled Affective (F1), Somatic/Vegetative (F2), and Cognitive/Loss of Functioning (F3). The current factor structure suggests that depression is a multidimensional construct in an Iranian clinical sample. This study provides further evidence that the Persian version of the BDI-13 is a psychometrically sound instrument that can be used for clinical and research purposes in Iran. Mahboubeh Dadfar and Zornitsa Kalibatseva Copyright © 2016 Mahboubeh Dadfar and Zornitsa Kalibatseva. All rights reserved. Worries of Pregnant Women: Testing the Farsi Cambridge Worry Scale Tue, 17 May 2016 06:35:50 +0000 Pregnancy adds many sources of concerns to women’s daily life worries. Excessive worry can affect maternal physiological and psychological state that influences the pregnancy outcomes. The aim of this study was to validate the Cambridge Worry Scale (CWS) in a sample of Iranian pregnant women. After translation of the CWS, ten experts evaluated the items and added six items to the 17-item scale. In a descriptive cross-sectional study, 405 of pregnant women booked for prenatal care completed the Farsi CWS. We split the sample randomly. Exploratory factor analysis (EFA) was conducted on the first half of the sample to disclose the factorial structure of the 23-item scale. The results of the EFA on the Farsi CWS indicated four factors altogether explained 51.5% of variances. Confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) was done on the second half of the sample. The results of the CFA showed that the model fit our data (chi-square/df = 2.02, RMSEA = 0.071, SRMR = 0.071, CFI = 0.95, and NNFI = 0.94). Cronbach’s alpha coefficient for the Farsi CWS was 0.883. The Farsi CWS is a reliable and valid instrument for understanding common pregnancy worries in the third trimester of pregnancy in Iranian women. Forough Mortazavi and Arash Akaberi Copyright © 2016 Forough Mortazavi and Arash Akaberi. All rights reserved. The Success Rate of Pediatric In-Hospital Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation in Ahvaz Training Hospitals Mon, 16 May 2016 14:17:42 +0000 Research Objective. This study determined the outcome of cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) after in-hospital cardiac arrest and factors influencing it in two training hospitals in Ahvaz. Method. Patients hospitalized in the pediatric wards and exposed to CPR during hospital stay were included in the study (September 2013 to May 2014). The primary outcome of CPR was assumed to be the return of spontaneous circulation (ROSC) and the secondary outcome was assumed to be survival to discharge. The neurological outcome of survivors was assessed using the Pediatric Cerebral Performance Category (PCPC) method. Results. Of the 279 study participants, 138 patients (49.4%) showed ROSC, 81 patients (29%) survived for 24 hours after the CPR, and 33 patients (11.8%) survived to discharge. Of the surviving patients, 16 (48.5%) had favorable neurological outcome. The resuscitation during holidays resulted in fewer ROSC. Multivariate analysis showed that longer CPR duration, CPR by junior residents, growth deficiency, and prearrest vasoactive drug infusion were associated with decreased survival to discharge (). Infants and patients with respiratory disease had higher survival rates. Conclusion. The rate of successful CPR in our study was lower than rates reported by developed countries. However, factors influencing the outcome of CPR were similar. These results reflect the necessity of paying more attention to pediatric CPR training, postresuscitation conditions, and expansion of intensive care facilities. Shideh Assar, Mohsen Husseinzadeh, Abdul Hussein Nikravesh, and Hannaneh Davoodzadeh Copyright © 2016 Shideh Assar et al. All rights reserved. Origin of Serum Affects Quality of Engineered Tissues Produced by the Self-Assembly Approach Mon, 16 May 2016 13:31:38 +0000 Despite the emergence of serum-free media for cell culture, the use of serum to supplement the culture media is still essential in order to produce engineered urologic tissues using the self-assembly approach, not only for the stromal compartment but also for the uroepithelium. Effects of sera on thickness of these two compartments were measured and quality of the epithelial differentiation was evaluated. For bladder mucosa substitute reconstruction, the use of postnatal sera failed to produce an adequate uroepithelium whereas the fetal sera supplementation did. Postnatal sera also provided thinner stromal compartments than the one obtained using fetal sera, no matter if the fibroblasts from healthy or psoriatic donors were used to reconstruct human skin substitutes. Stéphane Chabaud, Melissa Simard, Isabelle Gendreau, Roxane Pouliot, and Stéphane Bolduc Copyright © 2016 Stéphane Chabaud et al. All rights reserved. Patterns and Predictors of Premenstrual Symptoms among Females Working in a Psychiatry Hospital Mon, 16 May 2016 10:56:23 +0000 Introduction. Premenstrual syndrome presents with vague psychological, somatic, or biological symptoms. It may be seen more commonly in a specific profile of patients. We try to evaluate the patterns and predictors of premenstrual symptoms among females working in a tertiary care psychiatry hospital. Methodology. We recruited working females at a tertiary care psychiatry hospital in India, through purposive sampling, and assessed them cross-sectionally. Premenstrual Symptom Checklist was used to assess the frequency and distribution of premenstrual symptoms, which were correlated with various sociodemographic variables to evaluate the predictors for premenstrual symptoms. Results. 150 working females were included, belonging to different sociodemographic profile. Somatic symptoms (backache, joint and muscles pain, and fatiguability) were most commonly reported followed by psychological (irritability and losing temper easily) and biological symptoms (increased micturition). Premenstrual symptoms were seen more commonly in women with higher educational status and nursing profession and residing in nuclear families (), while age and marital status did not correlate significantly. Discussion. Premenstrual symptoms are common and distressing, especially for working females. Somatic symptoms such as backache and joint pains predominate over psychobiological symptoms. Women with higher educational status and professions like nursing belonging to nuclear families are more prone to these symptoms. Attention needs to be given to premenstrual symptoms in such population of working females. Sunita Kumari and Ankur Sachdeva Copyright © 2016 Sunita Kumari and Ankur Sachdeva. All rights reserved. Effectiveness of Strengthening Exercises for the Elderly with Low Back Pain to Improve Symptoms and Functions: A Systematic Review Mon, 16 May 2016 08:00:24 +0000 Objective. To determine the effect of strengthening exercises for older people with low back pain (LBP). Methods. This study is a systematic review of experimental study which evaluated the evidence regarding exercises for older people with LBP by using EBSCO Academic Search Premier, EBSCO EconLit, Science Direct, PUBMED, and PEDro from 2006 to 2016. Search strategy for each database was conducted by using keywords such as “low back pain”, “older people”, and “strengthening exercise”. Boolean operators were used to combine keywords and manual exclusion was conducted to verify studies which met the inclusion criteria. The articles reviewed were evaluated and critically appraised by using PEDro scale and SPSS version 20 was used to analyze the data. Results. Three articles were found regarding strengthening exercise for older people with LBP whereas one study was conducted on multicomponent exercise. The mean, standard deviation, and variance of the PEDro score of all the studies were 5.67, 2.33, and 1.528, respectively. Overall, the qualities of all studies reviewed were fair. Two articles showed significant results when compared to control group (). Conclusions. Strengthening exercise is a beneficial treatment for older people with LBP in reducing pain intensity, disability, and improved functional performances. Nor Azizah Ishak, Zarina Zahari, and Maria Justine Copyright © 2016 Nor Azizah Ishak et al. All rights reserved. In Vitro and In Vivo Evaluation of Niosomal Formulation for Controlled Delivery of Clarithromycin Mon, 16 May 2016 07:02:27 +0000 The present study was focused on formulating and evaluating clarithromycin (CLR) containing niosomal formulation for in vitro and in vivo pharmacokinetic behavior. Niosomal formulations (empty and drug loaded) were prepared by using different ratio of surfactant (various Span grades 20, 40, 60, and 80) and cholesterol by thin film hydration method and were evaluated for in vitro characteristics, stability studies, and in vivo study. Dicetyl phosphate (DCP) was added to the niosomal formulation. Various pharmacokinetic parameters were determined from plasma of male SD rats. Span 60 containing niosomal formulation NC2 (cholesterol to surfactant ratio 1 : 1) displayed highest entrapment efficiency with desired particle size of 4.67 μm. TEM analyses showed that niosomal formulation was spherical in shape. Niosomes containing Span 60 displayed higher percentage of drug release after 24 h as compared to other formulations. NC2 formulation was found to be stable at the end of the study on storage condition. Various pharmacokinetic parameters, namely, AUC, AUMC, and MRT of niosomal formulation, were found to be 1.5-fold, 4-fold, and 3-fold plain drug, respectively. The present study suggested that niosomal formulations provide sustained and prolonged delivery of drug with enhance bioavailability. Gyati Shilakari Asthana, Parveen Kumar Sharma, and Abhay Asthana Copyright © 2016 Gyati Shilakari Asthana et al. All rights reserved. Optimization of Thermoreversible In Situ Nasal Gel of Timolol Maleate Mon, 16 May 2016 06:38:26 +0000 Nasal route had shown better systemic bioavailability due to its large surface area, porous endothelial membrane, high total blood flow, and avoidance of first-pass metabolism. Timolol maleate is a beta blocker used primarily in the treatment of hypertension. Drug undergoes extensive hepatic first-pass metabolism (80%). The drug has half-life of 4 hrs. Oral bioavailability of timolol maleate is 61%. The aim of the present study was to optimize controlled release in situ nasal delivery for timolol maleate. HPMC and Poloxamer 407 were selected as polymer in formulation of thermoreversible in situ nasal gel. Optimization was carried out using 32 factorial design. It was observed that formulations f1 and f4 revealed the highest % drug release, that is, 93.57% and 91.66%, respectively. Factorial design study indicated that the drug release and viscosity were most significant dependent factors. Ex vivo diffusion study through nasal mucosa indicated 67.26 ± 2.10% and 61.07 ± 2.49% drug release for f1 and f4 formulations. f1 was the optimized batch. This batch thus can act as a potential nasal delivery with enhanced bioavailability for the drug. Swati Jagdale, Nirupama Shewale, and Bhanudas S. Kuchekar Copyright © 2016 Swati Jagdale et al. All rights reserved. KCl-Dependent Release of Mitochondrial Membrane-Bound Arginase Appears to Be a Novel Variant of Arginase-II Mon, 16 May 2016 06:06:59 +0000 Arginase regulates arginine metabolism, ornithine-urea cycle, and immunological surveillance. Arginase-I is predominant in cytosol, and arginase-II is localised in the mitochondria. A mitochondrial membrane-bound arginase has also been proposed to be adsorbed with outer membrane of mitochondria which gets released by 150 mM potassium chloride (KCl). It is presumed that inclusion of 150 mM KCl in the homogenization medium would not only facilitate release of arginase bound with outer membrane of mitochondria but also affect functional anatomy of mitochondria, mitochondrial enzymes, and proteins. Therefore, it has been intended to characterize KCl-dependent release of mitochondrial membrane-bound arginase from liver of mice. Results provide advancement in the area of arginase biology and suggest that fraction of mitochondrial membrane-bound arginase contains mitochondrial arginase-II and a variant of arginase-II. Mishra Suman and Mishra Rajnikant Copyright © 2016 Mishra Suman and Mishra Rajnikant. All rights reserved. Prevalence of Peripheral Arterial Disease among Adult Patients Attending Outpatient Clinic at a General Hospital in South Angola Sun, 15 May 2016 09:09:59 +0000 Background. Peripheral arterial disease (PAD) is a common manifestation of atherosclerosis, whose prevalence is increasing worldwide, and is associated with all-cause mortality. However, no study has assessed this disease in Huambo. The aim of this study was to evaluate the prevalence of PAD in patients attending an outpatient clinic at a general hospital in Huambo, South Angola. Methods. A cross-sectional study, including 115 patients aged 40 years and older attending an outpatient service. The evaluation included a basic questionnaire for lifestyle and medical history and ankle-brachial index (ABI) measurement using hand-held Doppler. PAD was defined as an ABI ≤0.9 in either lower limb. Results. Of 115 patients, 62.60% were women with a median age of 52.5 (range of 40 to 91) years. The prevalence of PAD was 42.6% (95% confidence intervals [CI]: 95%: 33.91–52.17%). Among patients with PAD, 95.92% had mild disease and 4.08% moderate to severe disease. The main risk factor for PAD was age (≥60 years) (, ). The prevalence was slightly higher in men and hypertensive subjects, but without statistical significance with ORs of 1.5 (95% CI: 0.69–3.21) and 1.42 (95% CI: 0.64–3.17), respectively. Hypertension was also high in the group (66.95%). Conclusion. The prevalence of PAD was 42.6%, higher in those aged 60 years and older. More studies, with representative samples, are necessary to clarify PAD prevalence and associated risk factors. Feliciano Chanana Paquissi, Arminda Bimbi Paquissi Cuvinje, and Almeida Bailundo Cuvinje Copyright © 2016 Feliciano Chanana Paquissi et al. All rights reserved. Oral Health Status and Treatment Needs among Pregnant Women of Raichur District, India: A Population Based Cross-Sectional Study Thu, 12 May 2016 17:31:40 +0000 Background and Objectives. Pregnancy can be a risk factor for dental diseases as oral tissues are liable to changes due to hormonal variations. The aim of the study was to assess the oral health status and treatment needs among pregnant women of Raichur district, Karnataka, India. Methods. Cross-sectional data was collected from 300 primigravidae from all the 5 taluks of Raichur district visiting the respective community health centre at taluk headquarters. A specially designed questionnaire was used to assess the demographic variables and oral hygiene practices. A clinical examination was done according to WHO (World Health Organization) criteria 1997 and recorded using WHO Oral Health Assessment Form. Results. The mean age of the pregnant women in the study was 21.8 (2.12) years. The prevalence of caries and periodontal diseases was 62.7% and 95%, respectively. The mean DT, MT, FT, and DMFT were 2.06 (2.5), 0.03 (0.17), 0.04 (0.27), and 2.13 (2.54), respectively. The mean OHI-S was 2.87 (1.27). Chi-square test showed that CPI scores increased with the trimester of pregnancy. Conclusion. The present study demonstrates poor oral hygiene and high prevalence of periodontal diseases, as well as a large proportion of unmet dental treatment needs among pregnant women of Raichur district, India. Ritu Gupta and Arun Kumar Acharya Copyright © 2016 Ritu Gupta and Arun Kumar Acharya. All rights reserved. Is Sexual Size Dimorphism Inherent in the Scallop Patinopecten yessoensis? Thu, 12 May 2016 17:28:42 +0000 Studies on sexual size dimorphism in Pectinidae are limited. This work deals with the mobile long-lived scallop Patinopecten yessoensis, a common (fished and cultured) species in the subtidal benthos of the Sea of Japan. A previously developed method of age determination in P. yessoensis allowed me to compare the parameters of same aged males and females in scallop populations. The shell growth rates and sizes of both sexes were similar; therefore, it was only possible to visually identify the sex of live specimens during the breeding period (May-June). Statistical analyses showed female-biased dimorphism in the gonad weight for age groups that are >4 years old. Gonad weight (in the prespawning period) increased with age, until a threshold age was attained, which varied between populations; and then gonad weight remained virtually unchanged. The fecundity advantage hypothesis for P. yessoensis with group mating and external fertilization is at least partly realized by physiological mechanisms, which cause older females to have larger gonads than those of same aged males in the population in order to produce a larger brood. Gregarious settlement of this bivalve contributes to the reproductive success of the population so that the energetically costly ovaries may all be fertilized. Alla V. Silina Copyright © 2016 Alla V. Silina. All rights reserved. Antinociceptive Effect of Tephrosia sinapou Extract in the Acetic Acid, Phenyl-p-benzoquinone, Formalin, and Complete Freund’s Adjuvant Models of Overt Pain-Like Behavior in Mice Thu, 12 May 2016 13:47:11 +0000 Tephrosia toxicaria, which is currently known as Tephrosia sinapou (Buc’hoz) A. Chev. (Fabaceae), is a source of compounds such as flavonoids. T. sinapou has been used in Amazonian countries traditional medicine to alleviate pain and inflammation. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the analgesic effects of T. sinapou ethyl acetate extract in overt pain-like behavior models in mice by using writhing response and flinching/licking tests. We demonstrated in this study that T. sinapou extract inhibited, in a dose (1–100 mg/kg) dependent manner, acetic acid- and phenyl-p-benzoquinone- (PBQ-) induced writhing response. Furthermore, it was active via intraperitoneal, subcutaneous, and peroral routes of administration. T. sinapou extract also inhibited formalin- and complete Freund’s adjuvant- (CFA-) induced flinching/licking at 100 mg/kg dose. In conclusion, these findings demonstrate that T. sinapou ethyl acetate extract reduces inflammatory pain in the acetic acid, PBQ, formalin, and CFA models of overt pain-like behavior. Therefore, the potential of analgesic activity of T. sinapou indicates that it deserves further investigation. Renata M. Martinez, Ana C. Zarpelon, Talita P. Domiciano, Sandra R. Georgetti, Marcela M. Baracat, Isabel C. Moreira, Cesar C. Andrei, Waldiceu A. Verri Jr., and Rubia Casagrande Copyright © 2016 Renata M. Martinez et al. All rights reserved. Comparing the Knotless Tension Band and the Traditional Stainless Steel Wire Tension Band Fixation for Medial Malleolus Fractures: A Retrospective Clinical Study Thu, 12 May 2016 13:46:22 +0000 The traditional stainless steel wire tension band (WTB) has been popularized for small avulsion fractures at the medial malleolus. Despite the tension band principle creating a stable construct, complications continue to arise utilizing the traditional stainless steel WTB with patients experiencing hardware irritation at the tension band site and subsequent hardware removal. Coupled with hardware irritation is fatigue failure with the wire. The goal of this investigation was to retrospectively compare this traditional wire technique to an innovative knotless tension band (KTB) technique in order to decrease costly complications. A total of 107 patients were reviewed with a minimum follow-up of 1 year. Outcome measures include descriptive data, fracture classification, results through economic costs, and fixation results (including hardware status, healing status, pain status, and time to healing). The KTB group had a 13% lower true cost as compared to the WTB group while the fixation results were equivocal for the measured outcomes. Our results demonstrate that the innovative KTB is comparable to the traditional WTB while offering a lower true cost, an irritation free reduction all without the frustration of returning to the operating room for additional hardware removal, which averages approximately to $8,288. Michael W. Downey, Kyle Duncan, Victor Kosmopoulos, Travis A. Motley, Brian B. Carpenter, Fadeke Ogunyankin, and Alan Garrett Copyright © 2016 Michael W. Downey et al. All rights reserved. Is the ASA Score in Geriatric Hip Fractures a Predictive Factor for Complications and Readmission? Thu, 12 May 2016 07:01:09 +0000 Hip fractures are the second cause of hospitalization in geriatric patients. The American Society of Anesthesiologists (ASA) classification scheme is a scoring system for the evaluation of the patients’ health and comorbidities before an operative procedure. The purpose of this study was to determine whether the ASA score is a predictive factor for perioperative and postoperative complications and a cause of readmission of geriatric patients with hip fractures. The study included 198 elderly patients. The mean values of hospitalization were days for the patients with ASA II, days for the patients with ASA III, and days for the patients with ASA IV. The patients with ASA II exhibited minor complications, while patients with ASA III presented cutaneous ulcer and respiratory dysfunction. Five patients with ASA IV had pulmonary embolism, two patients had myocardial infarction, and three patients died. The ASA score seems to have direct correlation with multiple factors, such as the hospitalization days, the severity of the complications, and the total hospitalization costs. The treatment of geriatrics hip fractures in patients with a high ASA score requires a multidisciplinary approach and a special assessment in order to decrease postoperative morbidity and mortality and offer optimal functionality. G. Kastanis, A. Topalidou, K. Alpantaki, M. Rosiadis, and K. Balalis Copyright © 2016 G. Kastanis et al. All rights reserved. Influence of the Culture Medium in Dose-Response Effect of the Chlorhexidine on Streptococcus mutans Biofilms Wed, 11 May 2016 13:56:27 +0000 The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of culture medium on dose-response effect of chlorhexidine (CHX) on Streptococcus mutans UA159 biofilm and validate the use of the cation-adjusted-Müller-Hinton broth (MH) for the evaluation of antibacterial activity. Ultrafiltered Tryptone-Yeast Extract Broth (UTYEB) was compared against MH and MH with blood supplementation (MHS). For each medium, six groups () were assessed: two negative control groups (baseline 48 and 120 h) and four experimental groups (0.0001, 0.001, 0.012, and 0.12% CHX). S. mutans biofilm grew on glass slides of each media containing 1% sucrose. After 48 h of growth, biofilms of baseline 48 h were collected and the other groups were treated for 1 min, twice a day, for 3 days, with their respective treatments. The media were changed daily and pH was measured. After 120 h, biofilms were collected and dry weight and viable microorganisms were determined. Results showed CHX dose-response effect being observed in all media for all the variables. However, MH and MHS showed higher sensitivity than UTYEB (). We can conclude that the culture medium does influence dose-response effect of CHX on Streptococcus mutans biofilm and that MH can be used for antibacterial activity. Vanessa Salvadego de Queiroz, Renzo Alberto Ccahuana-Vásquez, Alcides Fabiano Tedesco, Luzia Lyra, Jaime Aparecido Cury, and Angélica Zaninelli Schreiber Copyright © 2016 Vanessa Salvadego de Queiroz et al. All rights reserved. Intraoperative Neurophysiological Monitoring for Endoscopic Endonasal Approaches to the Skull Base: A Technical Guide Wed, 11 May 2016 12:04:58 +0000 Intraoperative neurophysiological monitoring during endoscopic, endonasal approaches to the skull base is both feasible and safe. Numerous reports have recently emerged from the literature evaluating the efficacy of different neuromonitoring tests during endonasal procedures, making them relatively well-studied. The authors report on a comprehensive, multimodality approach to monitoring the functional integrity of at risk nervous system structures, including the cerebral cortex, brainstem, cranial nerves, corticospinal tract, corticobulbar tract, and the thalamocortical somatosensory system during endonasal surgery of the skull base. The modalities employed include electroencephalography, somatosensory evoked potentials, free-running and electrically triggered electromyography, transcranial electric motor evoked potentials, and auditory evoked potentials. Methodological considerations as well as benefits and limitations are discussed. The authors argue that, while individual modalities have their limitations, multimodality neuromonitoring provides a real-time, comprehensive assessment of nervous system function and allows for safer, more aggressive management of skull base tumors via the endonasal route. Harminder Singh, Richard W. Vogel, Robert M. Lober, Adam T. Doan, Craig I. Matsumoto, Tyler J. Kenning, and James J. Evans Copyright © 2016 Harminder Singh et al. All rights reserved. Epigenetics: The New Frontier in the Landscape of Asthma Wed, 11 May 2016 11:12:36 +0000 Over the years, on a global scale, asthma has continued to remain one of the leading causes of morbidity, irrespective of age, sex, or social bearings. This is despite the prevalence of varied therapeutic options to counter the pathogenesis of asthma. Asthma, as a disease per se, is a very complex one. Scientists all over the world have been trying to obtain a lucid understanding of the machinations behind asthma. This has led to many theories and conjectures. However, none of the scientific disciplines have been able to provide the missing links in the chain of asthma pathogenesis. This was until epigenetics stepped into the picture. Though epigenetic research in asthma is in its nascent stages, it has led to very exciting results, especially with regard to explaining the massive influence of environment on development of asthma and its varied phenotypes. However, there remains a lot of work to be done, especially with regard to understanding how the interactions between immune system, epigenome, and environment lead to asthma. But introduction of epigenetics has infused a fresh lease of life in research into asthma and the mood among the scientific community is that of cautious optimism. Bharti Chogtu, Dipanjan Bhattacharjee, and Rahul Magazine Copyright © 2016 Bharti Chogtu et al. All rights reserved. Prosthetics and Techniques in Repair of Animal’s Abdominal Wall Wed, 11 May 2016 09:24:20 +0000 The management of abdominal wall repair continues to present a challenging problem, especially in the repair of major defects. Many abdominal wall defects can be repaired by primary closure; however, if the defect is large and there is a tension on the closure of the wound, the use of prosthetic materials becomes indispensable. Many studies have been performed with various materials and implant techniques, without the comparison of their degrees of success, based on sound meta-analysis and/or inclusive epidemiologic studies. This review covered the effectiveness of recent advances in prosthetic materials and implant procedures used in repair of abdominal wall, based on biomechanical properties and economic aspects of reconstructed large abdominal wall defects and hernias in animals. The presented results in this review helped to reach treatment algorithms that could maximize outcomes and minimize morbidity. Gamal Karrouf, Adel Zaghloul, Mohamed Abou-Alsaud, Elie Barbour, and Khaled Abouelnasr Copyright © 2016 Gamal Karrouf et al. All rights reserved. Comparison of Plasma Neurosteroid and Prolactin Levels in Patients with Schizophrenia and Healthy Individuals Tue, 10 May 2016 12:06:42 +0000 Background. The present study aimed to compare plasma levels of cortisol, testosterone, dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA), and prolactin in patients with schizophrenia and healthy individuals. Method. A total of 100 patients with schizophrenia disorder (69 men and 31 women) and 190 healthy individuals (94 men and 96 women) participated in this cross-sectional study. They were tested for hormone levels and completed demographic questionnaires. Data were analyzed using multivariate analysis of variance (MANOVA) and one-way analysis of variance. Results. Serum testosterone level was significantly higher in men with schizophrenia than in healthy men. Women with schizophrenia had a significantly higher level of testosterone and lower level of prolactin compared to healthy women. There were no significant differences in hormone levels across various subtypes of schizophrenia. No significant differences also were observed in hormones levels in patients with first-episode schizophrenia disorder compared to those in patients with recurrent episodes. Conclusion. This study indicated that abnormal testosterone and prolactin levels might be associated with pathophysiology of schizophrenia disorder. Forough Riahi, Maryam Izadi-mazidi, Ali Ghaffari, Elham Yousefi, and Shahram Khademvatan Copyright © 2016 Forough Riahi et al. All rights reserved. Sampling and Analytical Method for Alpha-Dicarbonyl Flavoring Compounds via Derivatization with o-Phenylenediamine and Analysis Using GC-NPD Tue, 10 May 2016 09:54:21 +0000 A novel methodology is described for the sampling and analysis of diacetyl, 2,3-pentanedione, 2,3-hexanedione, and 2,3-heptanedione. These analytes were collected on o-phenylenediamine-treated silica gel tubes and quantitatively recovered as the corresponding quinoxaline derivatives. After derivatization, the sorbent was desorbed in 3 mL of ethanol solvent and analyzed using gas chromatography/nitrogen-phosphorous detection (GC/NPD). The limits of detection (LOD) achieved for each analyte were determined to be in the range of 5–10 nanograms/sample. Evaluation of the on-tube derivatization procedure indicated that it is unaffected by humidities ranging from 20% to 80% and that the derivatization procedure was quantitative for analyte concentrations ranging from 0.1 μg to approximately 500 μg per sample. Storage stability studies indicated that the derivatives were stable for 30 days when stored at both ambient and refrigerated temperatures. Additional studies showed that the quinoxaline derivatives were quantitatively recovered when sampling up to a total volume of 72 L at a sampling rate of 50 cc/min. This method will be important to evaluate and monitor worker exposures in the food and flavoring industry. Samples can be collected over an 8-hour shift with up to 288 L total volume collected regardless of time, sampling rate, and/or the effects of humidity. Stephanie M. Pendergrass and Jeffrey A. Cooper Copyright © 2016 Stephanie M. Pendergrass and Jeffrey A. Cooper. All rights reserved.