Sleep Disorders http://www.hindawi.com The latest articles from Hindawi Publishing Corporation © 2015 , Hindawi Publishing Corporation . All rights reserved. Physiological Sleep Propensity Might Be Unaffected by Significant Variations in Self-Reported Well-Being, Activity, and Mood Thu, 30 Jul 2015 13:21:03 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/sd/2015/532831/ Background and Objective. Depressive state is often associated with such physical symptoms as general weakness, fatigue, tiredness, slowness, reduced activity, low energy, and sleepiness. The involvement of the sleep-wake regulating mechanisms has been proposed as one of the plausible explanations of this association. Both physical depressive symptoms and increased physiological sleep propensity can result from disordered and insufficient sleep. In order to avoid the influence of disordered and insufficient sleep, daytime and nighttime sleepiness were tested in winter depression characterized by normal night sleep duration and architecture. Materials and Methods. A total sample consisted of 6 healthy controls and 9 patients suffered from depression in the previous winter season. Sleep latency was determined across 5 daytime and 4 nighttime 20-min attempts to nap in summer as well as in winter before and after a week of 2-hour evening treatment with bright light. Results and Conclusions. Patients self-reported abnormally lowered well-being, activity, and mood only in winter before the treatment. Physiological sleep propensity was neither abnormal nor linked to significant changes in well-being, activity, and mood following the treatment and change in season. It seems unlikely that the mechanisms regulating the sleep-wake cycle contributed to the development of the physical depressive symptoms. Arcady A. Putilov Copyright © 2015 Arcady A. Putilov. All rights reserved. Mathematical Equations to Predict Positive Airway Pressures for Obstructive Sleep Apnea: A Systematic Review Thu, 30 Jul 2015 09:49:21 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/sd/2015/293868/ Objective. To systematically review the international literature for mathematical equations used to predict effective pressures for positive airway pressure (PAP) devices. Methods. Google Scholar, PubMed, Scopus, Embase, Web of Science, CINAHL, and The Cochrane Library were searched through June 27, 2015. The PRISMA statement was followed. There was no language limitation. Results. 709 articles were screened, fifty were downloaded, and twenty-six studies presented equations that met the inclusion and exclusion criteria. In total, there were 4,436 patients in the development phases and 3,489 patients in the validation phases. Studies performed multiple linear regressions analyses as part of the equation(s) development and included the following variables: physical characteristics, polysomnography data, behavioral characteristics, and miscellaneous characteristics, which were all predictive to a variable extent. Of the published variables, body mass index (BMI) and mean oxygen saturation are the most heavily weighted, while BMI (eighteen studies), apnea-hypopnea index (seventeen studies), and neck circumference (eleven studies) were the variables most frequently used in the mathematical equations. Ten studies were from Asian countries and sixteen were from non-Asian countries. Conclusion. This systematic review identified twenty-six unique studies reporting mathematical equations which are summarized. Overall, BMI and mean oxygen saturation are the most heavily weighted. Macario Camacho, Muhammad Riaz, Armin Tahoori, Victor Certal, and Clete A. Kushida Copyright © 2015 Macario Camacho et al. All rights reserved. Computer-Assisted Diagnosis of the Sleep Apnea-Hypopnea Syndrome: A Review Tue, 21 Jul 2015 10:38:13 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/sd/2015/237878/ Automatic diagnosis of the Sleep Apnea-Hypopnea Syndrome (SAHS) has become an important area of research due to the growing interest in the field of sleep medicine and the costs associated with its manual diagnosis. The increment and heterogeneity of the different techniques, however, make it somewhat difficult to adequately follow the recent developments. A literature review within the area of computer-assisted diagnosis of SAHS has been performed comprising the last 15 years of research in the field. Screening approaches, methods for the detection and classification of respiratory events, comprehensive diagnostic systems, and an outline of current commercial approaches are reviewed. An overview of the different methods is presented together with validation analysis and critical discussion of the current state of the art. Diego Alvarez-Estevez and Vicente Moret-Bonillo Copyright © 2015 Diego Alvarez-Estevez and Vicente Moret-Bonillo. All rights reserved. Continuous Positive Airway Pressure Device Time to Procurement in a Disadvantaged Population Tue, 02 Jun 2015 11:31:45 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/sd/2015/747906/ Introduction. The management of obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) in patients who cannot afford a continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) device is challenging. In this study we compare time to CPAP procurement in three groups of patients diagnosed with OSA: uninsured subsidized by a humanitarian grant (Group 1), uninsured unsubsidized (Group 2), and those with Medicare or Medicaid (Group 3). We evaluate follow-up and adherence in Group 1. We hypothesize that additional factors, rather than just the ability to obtain CPAP, may uniquely affect follow-up and adherence in uninsured patients. Methods. 30 patients were in Groups 1 and 2, respectively. 12 patients were in Group 3. Time of CPAP procurement from OSA diagnosis to CPAP initiation was assessed in all groups. CPAP adherence data was collected for Group 1 patients at 1, 3, 6, and 9 months. Results. There were no significant differences between groups in gender, age, body mass index, or apnea hypopnea index. The mean time to procurement in Group 1 was shorter compared to Group 2 but not significant. Compared to both Group 1 and Group 2, Group 3 patients had significantly shorter times to device procurement. Conclusion. Time to procurement of CPAP was significantly shorter in those with Medicaid/Medicare insurance compared to the uninsured. Lourdes M. DelRosso, Romy Hoque, and Andrew L. Chesson Jr. Copyright © 2015 Lourdes M. DelRosso et al. All rights reserved. Nitric Oxide Bioavailability in Obstructive Sleep Apnea: Interplay of Asymmetric Dimethylarginine and Free Radicals Wed, 06 May 2015 07:25:10 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/sd/2015/387801/ Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) occurs in 2% of middle-aged women and 4% of middle-aged men and is considered an independent risk factor for cerebrovascular and cardiovascular diseases. Nitric oxide (NO) is an important endothelium derived vasodilating substance that plays a critical role in maintaining vascular homeostasis. Low levels of NO are associated with impaired endothelial function. Asymmetric dimethylarginine (ADMA), an analogue of L-arginine, is a naturally occurring product of metabolism found in the human circulation. Elevated levels of ADMA inhibit NO synthesis while oxidative stress decreases its bioavailability, so impairing endothelial function and promoting atherosclerosis. Several clinical trials report increased oxidative stress and ADMA levels in patients with OSA. This review discusses the role of oxidative stress and increased ADMA levels in cardiovascular disease resulting from OSA. Mohammad Badran, Saeid Golbidi, Najib Ayas, and Ismail Laher Copyright © 2015 Mohammad Badran et al. All rights reserved. The Relationship between Sleep-Disordered Breathing and Hypertension in a Nationally Representative Sample Wed, 29 Apr 2015 13:46:23 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/sd/2015/769798/ Sleep-disordered breathing (SDB), characterized by abnormal respiratory patterns or inadequate quantity of ventilation, is common in adults. A positive association between SDB and hypertension has been established, in both cross-sectional and longitudinal studies. One void in the literature concerns the role of race/ethnicity in the association between SDB and hypertension. In this context, a cross-sectional study was performed on 6,783 participants in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2005–2008. Participants were ≥age 20 and free from cardiovascular disease. The outcome of interest was hypertension, defined as ≥140 mmHg systolic blood pressure (BP), and/or ≥90 mmHg diastolic BP or antihypertensive medication use. Self-reported SDB was positively associated with hypertension, independent of confounders such as depression, diabetes, cholesterol levels, and body mass index, among others. The association persisted in subgroup analyses by gender, with a stronger association among males than females, as well as by race/ethnicity, with non-Hispanic blacks displaying the strongest association. In the multivariable-adjusted model, compared to a sleep summary score of zero (referent), the OR (95% CI) of hypertension for non-Hispanic blacks was 1.34 (0.98–1.83) for a sleep summary score of 1, 1.44 (1.06–1.97) for a score of 2 and 3.72 (1.98–7.00) for a score of >3; p-trend < 0.0001. SDB was positively associated with hypertension in a large, nationally representative sample of US adults. Along with being prevalent, SDB is also treatable. Therefore, our results are important for minority race/ethnic groups who typically experience a higher baseline for negative health outcomes. Sarah Dee Geiger and Anoop Shankar Copyright © 2015 Sarah Dee Geiger and Anoop Shankar. All rights reserved. Daytime Sleepiness and Parkinson’s Disease: The Contribution of the Multiple Sleep Latency Test Thu, 10 Jul 2014 11:42:27 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/sd/2014/767181/ Background. Sleep disorders are major nonmotor manifestations of patients with Parkinson’s disease (PD), and excessive daytime sleepiness (EDS) is one of the most common symptoms. Objective. We reviewed a current literature concerning major factors that influence EDS in PD patients, using Multiple Sleep Latency Test (MSLT). Methods. A Medline search found 23 studies. Results. The presence of EDS was observed in 12.7% to 47% in patients without complaints of daytime sleepiness and 47% to 66.7% with complaints of daytime sleepiness. Despite being recognized by several authors, major factors that influence EDS, such as severity of motor symptoms, use of dopaminergic medications, and associated sleep disturbances, presented contradictory data. Conclusions. Available data suggest that the variability of the results may be related to the fact that it was conducted with a small sample size, not counting the neuropathological heterogeneity of the disease. Thus, before carrying out longitudinal studies with significant samples, careful analysis should be done by assigning a specific agent on the responsibility of EDS in PD patients. Marcelo Ataide, Clélia Maria Ribeiro Franco, and Otavio Gomes Lins Copyright © 2014 Marcelo Ataide et al. All rights reserved. Screening Sleep Disordered Breathing in Stroke Unit Tue, 27 May 2014 08:11:52 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/sd/2014/317615/ In acute stroke, OSA has been found to impair rehabilitation and increase mortality but the effect of central apnea is more unclear. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the feasibility of using limited ambulatory recording system (sleep mattress to evaluate nocturnal breathing and EOG-electrodes for sleep staging) in sleep disordered breathing (SDB) diagnostics in mild acute cerebral ischemia patients and to discover the prevalence of various SDB-patterns among these patients. 42 patients with mild ischemic stroke or transient ischemic attack were studied. OSA was found in 22 patients (52.4%). Central apnea was found in two patients (4.8%) and sustained partial obstruction in only one patient (2.4%). Sleep staging with EOG-electrodes only yielded a similar outcome as scoring with standard rules. OSA was found to be common even after mild stroke. Its early diagnosis and treatment would be favourable in order to improve recovery and reduce mortality. Our results suggest that OSA can be assessed by a limited recording setting with EOG-electrodes, sleep mattress, and pulse oximetry. Kirsi Väyrynen, Kati Kortelainen, Heikki Numminen, Katja Miettinen, Anna Keso, Mirja Tenhunen, Heini Huhtala, and Sari-Leena Himanen Copyright © 2014 Kirsi Väyrynen et al. All rights reserved. Prevalence of Sleep Disorders and Their Impacts on Occupational Performance: A Comparison between Shift Workers and Nonshift Workers Tue, 20 May 2014 06:46:17 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/sd/2014/870320/ The consequences of sleep deprivation and sleepiness have been noted as the most important health problem in our modern society among shift workers. The objective of this study was to investigate the prevalence of sleep disorders and their possible effects on work performance in two groups of Iranian shift workers and nonshift workers. This study was designed as a cross-sectional study. The data were collected by PSQI, Berlin questionnaire, Epworth Sleepiness Scale, Insomnia Severity Index, and RLS Questionnaire. Occupational impact of different sleep disorders was detected by Occupational Impact of Sleep Disorder questionnaire. These questionnaires were filled in by 210 shift workers and 204 nonshift workers. There was no significant difference in the age, BMI, marital status, and years of employment in the two groups. Shift workers scored significantly higher in the OISD. The prevalence of insomnia, poor sleep quality, and daytime sleepiness was significantly higher in shift workers. Correlations between OISD scores and insomnia, sleep quality, and daytime sleepiness were significant. We concluded that sleep disorders should receive more attention as a robust indicator of work limitation. Zohreh Yazdi, Khosro Sadeghniiat-Haghighi, Ziba Loukzadeh, Khadijeh Elmizadeh, and Mahnaz Abbasi Copyright © 2014 Zohreh Yazdi et al. All rights reserved. Insomnia in Sweden: A Population-Based Survey Mon, 12 May 2014 07:51:25 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/sd/2014/843126/ Aims. Estimate the prevalence of insomnia and examine effects of sex, age, health problems, sleep duration, need for treatment, and usage of sleep medication. Methods. A sample of 1,550 subjects aged 18–84 years was selected for a telephone interview. The interview was completed by 1,128 subjects (72.8%). Results. 24.6% reported insomnia symptoms. Insomnia disorder, that is, insomnia symptoms and daytime consequences, was reported by 10.5%. The prevalence was similar among all age groups, with the exception of women aged 40–49 years who demonstrated a significantly higher prevalence, 21.6%. Having at least one physical or psychiatric disorder was reported by 82.8% of subjects with insomnia disorder. Mean sleep duration for subjects with insomnia disorder was 5.77 hours on weeknights and 7.03 hours on days off/weekends. The corresponding figures for subjects without insomnia disorder were 7.04 hours and 7.86 hours, respectively. Among those with insomnia disorder 62.5% expressed a need for treatment, and 20.0% used prescribed sleep medication regularly. Conclusions. Insomnia disorder is highly prevalent in the population. There are significant associations between insomnia disorder and physical and psychiatric disorders. A majority of subjects with insomnia disorder expressed a need for treatment, indicating a public health problem. Lena Mallon, Jan-Erik Broman, Torbjörn Åkerstedt, and Jerker Hetta Copyright © 2014 Lena Mallon et al. All rights reserved. Restless Leg Syndrome in Diabetics Compared with Normal Controls Wed, 07 May 2014 06:18:52 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/sd/2014/871751/ Introduction. Restless leg syndrome (RLS) is a common sleep disorder which is characterized by urge to move the legs accompanied by disturbing and uncomfortable leg sensation during night and rest. This common condition affects 7–10% of general population and is frequently unrecognized, misdiagnosed, and poorly managed. Several clinical conditions like diabetes have been associated with secondary form of RLS. This study analyzed the frequency and possible risk factor for RLS development in diabetic patient. Material and Methods. This descriptive case-control study was done on 140 consecutive outpatient diabetics and age, sex, and body mass index matched control group. RLS was diagnosed by criteria of the International RLS Study Group. Results. Prevalence of RLS was 28.6% in diabetes and 7.1% in control group (). Sex difference was not significant and with rising duration of diabetes prevalence of RLS was not increased. Discussion. With regarding significant association between RLS and diabetes and its negative impact on quality of life/health outcome/sleep/daytime activity/cognitive function/ and mental state of diabetic patient/higher awareness of RLS among physicians and related health worker suggested. Mehdi Zobeiri and Azita Shokoohi Copyright © 2014 Mehdi Zobeiri and Azita Shokoohi. All rights reserved. Relationships between Obstructive Sleep Apnea Syndrome, Continuous Positive Airway Pressure Treatment, and Inflammatory Cytokines Tue, 06 May 2014 07:39:29 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/sd/2014/518920/ The cardiovascular complications that frequently accompany obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS) are thought to develop as a result of inflammatory stress associated with cytokines such as IL-6 and TNF-α. We conducted the current study to compare levels of these cytokines in OSAS patients and nonapneic controls . Furthermore, we investigated the impact of a three-month regime of continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) on serum levels of IL-6 and TNF-α only in the OSAS patients. There were no significant differences in serum levels of either IL-6 () or TNF- α () or TNF-α () between OSAS patients and nonapneic controls. Serum IL-6 levels correlated significantly with neck circumference in OSAS patients (). In OSAS patients, reduced levels of TNF-α and IL-6 correlated with increases in mean SaO2 after CPAP treatment ( and , resp.). However, neither of cytokine levels was significantly impacted by CPAP therapy (both ). We have demonstrated that plasma cytokine levels are similar in both otherwise healthy subjects with OSAS and in nonapneic control, and we conclude that OSAS-related parameters and CPAP treatment do not play a significant role in altering cytokine levels. Filiz Ünüvar Doğan, Şebnem Yosunkaya, Hacer Kuzu Okur, and Ümmügülsüm Can Copyright © 2014 Filiz Ünüvar Doğan et al. All rights reserved. Sleep and Emotional and Behavioral Symptoms in Adolescents with Inflammatory Bowel Disease Sun, 04 May 2014 10:09:07 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/sd/2014/379450/ The current study assessed the associations between sleep and psychosocial symptoms in 157 Finnish adolescents with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). Sleep trouble was self-rated in Sleep Self-Report (SSR) and in Youth Self-Report (YSR). Psychosocial symptoms of the adolescents were assessed by the YSR and Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL). Patients reporting sleep trouble had significantly more psychosocial symptoms than their counterparts without sleep trouble. This was shown in the CBCL and YSR scales of total problems (), anxious/depressed mood (), and aggressive behavior (). Additionally, SSR sleep problem subscale scores indicating lower sleep quality (bedtime, sleep behavior) associated significantly with attention problems (). These results point out that sleep trouble should be recognized and treated in adolescents with IBD to possibly avoid the emerging of psychosocial symptoms. Teija Pirinen, Kaija-Leena Kolho, Merja Ashorn, and Eeva T. Aronen Copyright © 2014 Teija Pirinen et al. All rights reserved. Validation of the CPAP Habit Index-5: A Tool to Understand Adherence to CPAP Treatment in Patients with Obstructive Sleep Apnea Sun, 27 Apr 2014 06:51:46 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/sd/2014/929057/ Long-term adherence to continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) is low among patients with obstructive sleep apnea (OSA). The potential role of “habit” in sustaining adherence to CPAP use has not been studied. This study aimed to establish the relevance of habit to CPAP adherence, via validation of an adaptation of the Self-Report Habit Index (the CPAP Habit Index-5; CHI-5). Analyses focused on the homogeneity, reliability, and factor structure of the CHI-5 and, in line with theoretical predictions, its utility as a predictor of long-term CPAP adherence in middle-aged patients with OSA. A prospective longitudinal design was used. 117 patients with objectively verified OSA intended for CPAP treatment were recruited. Data was collected via clinical examinations, respiratory recordings, questionnaires, and CPAP devices at baseline, 2 weeks, 6 months, and 12 months. The CHI-5 showed satisfactory homogeneity interitem correlations (0.42–0.93), item-total correlations (0.58–0.91), and reliability (α = 0.92). CHI-5 data at 6 months showed a one-factor solution and predicted 63% of variance in total CPAP use hours after 12 months. Based on the satisfactory measurement properties and the high amount of CPAP use variance it explained, the CHI-5 can be seen as a useful tool in clinical practice. Anders Broström, Per Nilsen, Benjamin Gardner, Peter Johansson, Martin Ulander, Bengt Fridlund, and Kristofer Årestedt Copyright © 2014 Anders Broström et al. All rights reserved. The Effect of the Transition to Home Monitoring for the Diagnosis of OSAS on Test Availability, Waiting Time, Patients’ Satisfaction, and Outcome in a Large Health Provider System Thu, 24 Apr 2014 13:46:52 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/sd/2014/418246/ During 2009, the Haifa district of Clalit Health Services (CHS) has switched from in-lab polysomnography (PSG) to home studies for the diagnosis of obstructive sleep apnea (OSA). We assessed the effects of this change on accessibility, waiting time, satisfaction, costs, and CPAP purchase by the patients. Data regarding sleep studies, CPAP purchase, and waiting times were collected retrospectively from the computerized database of CHS. Patients’ satisfaction was assessed utilizing a telephone questionnaire introduced to a randomized small sample of 70 patients. Comparisons were made between 2007 and 2008 (in-lab PSGs) and 2010 and 2011 (when most studies were ambulatory). Of about 650000 insured individuals in the Haifa district of CHS, 1471 sleep studies were performed during 2007-2008 compared to 2794 tests during 2010-2011. The average waiting time was 9.9 weeks in 2007-2008 compared to 1.1 weeks in 2010-2011 (). 597 CPAPs were purchased in 2007-2008 compared to 831 in 2010-2011. The overall patients’ satisfaction was similar, but discomfort tended to be higher in the in-laboratory group (4.1 vs 2.7 in a scale of 0–10; ). Switching to ambulatory diagnosis improved the test accessibility and reduced the waiting times. Patients’ satisfaction remained similarly high. The total direct cost of OSA management was reduced. Ahmad Safadi, Tamar Etzioni, Dan Fliss, Giora Pillar, and Chen Shapira Copyright © 2014 Ahmad Safadi et al. All rights reserved. Secondhand Smoke Exposure, Restless Sleep, and Sleep Duration in Adolescents Mon, 07 Apr 2014 00:00:00 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/sd/2014/374732/ Purpose. To examine whether secondhand smoke (SHS) exposure is associated with restless sleep and/or nighttime sleep duration among adolescents. Methods. Data were analyzed from 1,592 adolescents who completed an internet-delivered survey as part of the British Columbia Adolescent Substance Use Survey cohort study. Ordinal logistic and linear regression models were used to examine associations between frequency of SHS exposure in the past month and frequency of restless sleep and nighttime sleep duration, respectively. Results. SHS exposure was significantly positively associated with restless sleep and significantly negatively associated with sleep duration. In fully adjusted models, compared with students who reported never being exposed to SHS in the past month, students who reported a low, medium, or high frequency of SHS exposure were 1.53, 1.76, and 2.51 times as likely, respectively, to report more frequent restless sleep (, 95% CI 1.08–2.16; , 95% CI 1.22–2.53; , 95% CI 1.59–3.98). With regard to sleep duration, as frequency of SHS exposure increased by one category, nighttime sleep duration during the week and weekend decreased by 4 minutes (, 95% ) and 6 minutes (, 95% ), respectively. Conclusions. This study suggests that frequency of SHS exposure has a significant dose-response relationship with restless sleep and sleep duration in adolescents. Jennifer Schwartz, Joan L. Bottorff, and Chris G. Richardson Copyright © 2014 Jennifer Schwartz et al. All rights reserved. Manual Characterization of Sleep Spindle Index in Patients with Narcolepsy and Idiopathic Hypersomnia Tue, 01 Apr 2014 08:51:19 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/sd/2014/271802/ This is a retrospective review of PSG data from 8 narcolepsy patients and 8 idiopathic hypersomnia (IH) patients, evaluating electrophysiologic differences between these two central hypersomnias. Spindles were identified according to the AASM Manual for the Scoring of Sleep and Associated Events; and counted per epoch in the first 50 epochs of N2 sleep and the last 50 epochs of N2 sleep in each patient’s PSG. Spindle count data (mean ± standard deviation) per 30 second-epoch (spindle index) in the 8 narcolepsy patients was as follows: 0.37 ± 0.73 for the first 50 epochs of N2; 0.65 ± 1.09 for the last 50 epochs of N2; and 0.51 ± 0.93 for all 100 epochs of N2. Spindle index data in the 8 IH patients was as follows: 2.31 ± 2.23 for the first 50 epochs of N2; 2.84 ± 2.43 for the last 50 epochs of N2; and 2.57 ± 2.35 for all 100 epochs of N2. Intergroup differences in spindle count in the first 50 N2 epochs, the last 50 N2 epochs, and all 100 epochs of scored N2 were significant () as were the intragroup differences between the first 50 N2 epochs and the last 50 N2 epochs. Lourdes M. DelRosso, Andrew L. Chesson, and Romy Hoque Copyright © 2014 Lourdes M. DelRosso et al. All rights reserved. Healthcare Providers’ Knowledge of Disordered Sleep, Sleep Assessment Tools, and Nonpharmacological Sleep Interventions for Persons Living with Dementia: A National Survey Mon, 17 Mar 2014 12:10:53 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/sd/2014/286274/ A large proportion of persons with dementia will also experience disordered sleep. Disordered sleep in dementia is a common reason for institutionalization and affects cognition, fall risk, agitation, self-care ability, and overall health and quality of life. This report presents findings of a survey of healthcare providers’ awareness of sleep issues, assessment practices, and nonpharmacological sleep interventions for persons with dementia. There were 1846 participants, with the majority being from nursing and rehabilitation. One-third worked in long-term care settings and one-third in acute care. Few reported working in the community. Findings revealed that participants understated the incidence of sleep deficiencies in persons with dementia and generally lacked awareness of the relationship between disordered sleep and dementia. Their knowledge of sleep assessment tools was limited to caregiver reports, self-reports, and sleep diaries, with few using standardized tools or other assessment methods. The relationship between disordered sleep and comorbid conditions was not well understood. The three most common nonpharmacological sleep interventions participants identified using were a regular bedtime routine, increased daytime activity, and restricted caffeine. Awareness of other evidence-based interventions was low. These findings will guide evidence-informed research to develop and test more targeted and contextualized sleep and dementia knowledge translation strategies. Cary A. Brown, Patricia Wielandt, Donna Wilson, Allyson Jones, and Katelyn Crick Copyright © 2014 Cary A. Brown et al. All rights reserved. The Negative Effect of Carpal Tunnel Syndrome on Sleep Quality Mon, 17 Feb 2014 14:04:29 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/sd/2014/962746/ Objective. Sleep disturbances are common in patients with carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS). This study investigates the impact of CTS on sleep quality and clarifies the magnitude of this relationship. Methods. This is a prospective investigation of patients with CTS. Patients responded to the Levine-Katz Carpal Tunnel and the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI) questionnaires to assess symptom severity and quality, respectively. Descriptive and bivariate analyses summarized the findings and assessed the correlations between CTS severity and sleep quality parameters. Results. 66 patients (53F, 13M) were enrolled. Patients reported a sleep latency of 30.0 () minutes, with a total sleep time of 5.5 () hours nightly. Global PSQI score was 9.0 (); 80% of patients demonstrated a significant reduction in sleep quality (global PSQI score ). Increased CTS symptom and functional severity both resulted in a significant reduction in quality and time asleep. Both significantly correlated with subjective sleep latency, sleep disturbance, use of sleep promoting medications, daytime dysfunction, and overall global PSQI score. Conclusions. The findings confirm the correlation of sleep disturbances to CTS, that is, significant reduction of sleep duration and a correlation to sleep quality. Patients sleep 2.5 hours less than recommended and are at risk for comorbid conditions. Ashish Patel, Maya Deza Culbertson, Archit Patel, Jenifer Hashem, Jinny Jacob, David Edelstein, and Jack Choueka Copyright © 2014 Ashish Patel et al. All rights reserved. Complex Sleep Apnea Syndrome Sun, 16 Feb 2014 13:54:57 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/sd/2014/798487/ Complex sleep apnea is the term used to describe a form of sleep disordered breathing in which repeated central apneas (>5/hour) persist or emerge when obstructive events are extinguished with positive airway pressure (PAP) and for which there is not a clear cause for the central apneas such as narcotics or systolic heart failure. The driving forces in the pathophysiology are felt to be ventilator instability associated oscillation in PaCO2 arterial partial pressure of Carbon Dioxide, continuous cositive airway pressure (CPAP) related increased CO2 carbon dioxide elimination, and activation of airway and pulmonary stretch receptors triggering these central apneas. The prevalence ranges from 0.56% to 18% with no clear predictive characteristics as compared to simple obstructive sleep apnea. Prognosis is similar to obstructive sleep apnea. The central apnea component in most patients on followup using CPAP therap, has resolved. For those with continued central apneas on simple CPAP therapy, other treatment options include bilevel PAP, adaptive servoventilation, permissive flow limitation and/or drugs. Muhammad Talha Khan and Rose Amy Franco Copyright © 2014 Muhammad Talha Khan and Rose Amy Franco. All rights reserved. The Relationship between Nocturnal Hypoxemia and Left Ventricular Ejection Fraction in Congestive Heart Failure Patients Thu, 13 Feb 2014 12:59:18 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/sd/2014/978358/ Congestive heart failure (CHF) is a major cause of mortality and morbidity. Among patients with heart failure, sleep disordered breathing (SDB) is a common problem. Current evidence suggests that SDB, particularly central SDB, is more prevalent in patients with CHF than in the general population, but it is underdiagnosed as SDB symptoms that are less prevalent in CHF. The main aims of this study were to determine the relationship between nocturnal hypoxemia and left ventricular ejection fraction in patients with chronic heart failure. By means of echocardiography, 108 patients with left ventricular ejection fraction ≤45% were divided into mild, moderate, and severe CHF. Hypoxemia was recorded overnight in the hospital and was measured by portable pulse oximetry. In the 108 patients with CHF, 44 (40.7%) were severe, 17 (15.7%) moderate, and 47 (43.6%) mild CHF. 95 (88%) of patients with CHF had abnormal patterns of nocturnal hypoxemia suggestive of Cheyne-Stokes respiration. Ejection fraction correlated negatively with dip frequency. There was no correlation between nocturnal hypoxemia with BMI and snoring. This study confirms strong associations between sleep apnea and heart disease in patients with CHF. Overnight oximetry is a useful screening test for Cheyne-Stokes respiration in patients with known heart failure. Mohammad Mirzaaghazadeh, Mehrzad Bahtouee, Fariba Mehdiniya, Nasrollah Maleki, and Zahra Tavosi Copyright © 2014 Mohammad Mirzaaghazadeh et al. All rights reserved. Effects of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease and Obstructive Sleep Apnea on Cognitive Functions: Evidence for a Common Nature Thu, 06 Feb 2014 07:32:00 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/sd/2014/768210/ Patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS) show similar neurocognitive impairments. Effects are more apparent in severe cases, whereas in moderate and mild cases the effects are equivocal. The exact mechanism that causes cognitive dysfunctions in both diseases is still unknown and only suggestions have been made for each disease separately. The primary objective of this review is to present COPD and OSAS impact on cognitive functions. Secondly, it aims to examine the potential mechanisms by which COPD and OSAS can be linked and provide evidence for a common nature that affects cognitive functions in both diseases. Patients with COPD and OSAS compared to normal distribution show significant deficits in the cognitive abilities of attention, psychomotor speed, memory and learning, visuospatial and constructional abilities, executive skills, and language. The severity of these deficits in OSAS seems to correlate with the physiological events such as sleep defragmentation, apnea/hypopnea index, and hypoxemia, whereas cognitive impairments in COPD are associated with hypoventilation, hypoxemia, and hypercapnia. These factors as well as vascocerebral diseases and changes in systemic hemodynamic seem to act in an intermingling and synergistic way on the cause of cognitive dysfunctions in both diseases. However, low blood oxygen pressure seems to be the dominant factor that contributes to the presence of cognitive deficits in both COPD and OSAS. Georgia Andreou, Filippos Vlachos, and Konstantinos Makanikas Copyright © 2014 Georgia Andreou et al. All rights reserved. Fast-Acting Sublingual Zolpidem for Middle-of-the-Night Wakefulness Wed, 05 Feb 2014 13:03:15 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/sd/2014/527109/ Sleep disorders (somnipathies) are conditions characterized by disruptions of sleep quality or of sleep pattern. They can involve difficulty falling asleep (prolonged sleep onset latency), difficulty staying asleep (disturbance of sleep maintenance), sleep of poor quality (unrefreshing), or combinations of these and can lead to poor health and quality of life problems. A subtype of sleep-maintenance insomnia is middle-of-the-night wakefulness, a relatively common occurrence. Zolpidem, a nonbenzodiazepine benzodiazepine receptor agonist, allosterically modulates an ion channel and increases the influx of Cl−, thereby dampening the effect of excitatory (sleep disrupting) input. Recently, product label changes to some zolpidem containing products have been implemented by the FDA in order to reduce the risk associated with their morning after residual side effects. A new formulation of zolpidem tartrate (Intermezzo) sublingual tablet, an approved product indicated exclusively for the treatment of middle-of-the-night wakefulness and difficulty returning to sleep, did not have its label changed. We present a short summary of its basic science and clinical attributes in light of the recent regulatory changes for zolpidem products. Joseph V. Pergolizzi Jr., Robert Taylor Jr., Robert B. Raffa, Srinivas Nalamachu, and Maninder Chopra Copyright © 2014 Joseph V. Pergolizzi Jr. et al. All rights reserved. Determinants of CPAP Adherence in Hispanics with Obstructive Sleep Apnea Wed, 05 Feb 2014 09:27:00 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/sd/2014/878213/ Purpose. We hypothesized that socioeconomic factors and a language barrier would impact adherence with continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) among Hispanics with obstructive sleep apnea (OSA). Methods. Patients with OSA who were prescribed CPAP for at least 1 year and completed a questionnaire evaluating demographic data, socioeconomic status, and CPAP knowledge and adherence participated in the study. Results. Seventy-nine patients (26 males;  yrs; body mass index  kg/m2) with apnea-hypopnea index (AHI) events/hr completed the study. Included were 25 Hispanics, 39 African Americans, and 15 Caucasians, with no difference in age, AHI, CPAP use, or BMI between the groups. While there was a difference in educational level (), income level (), and employment status () between the groups, these did not influence CPAP adherence. Instead, overall improvement in quality of life and health status and perceived benefit from CPAP influenced adherence, both for the group as a whole (, , and , resp.), as well as in Hispanics (, , , resp.). Conclusion. In Hispanic patients with OSA, perceived benefit with therapy, rather than socioeconomic status or a language barrier, appears to be the most important factor in determining CPAP adherence. Montserrat Diaz-Abad, Wissam Chatila, Matthew R. Lammi, Irene Swift, Gilbert E. D’Alonzo, and Samuel L. Krachman Copyright © 2014 Montserrat Diaz-Abad et al. All rights reserved. Daytime Sleepiness: Associations with Alcohol Use and Sleep Duration in Americans Wed, 29 Jan 2014 00:00:00 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/sd/2014/959152/ The aim of the current analysis was to investigate the relationship of daytime sleepiness with alcohol consumption and sleep duration using a population sample of adult Americans. Data was analyzed from adult respondents of the National Health and Nutritional Examination Survey (NHANES) 2007-2008 () using self-reported variables for sleepiness, sleep duration, and alcohol consumption (quantity and frequency of alcohol use). A heavy drinking episode was defined as the consumption of ≥5 standard alcoholic beverages in a day. Logistic regression models adjusted for sociodemographic variables and insomnia covariates were used to evaluate the relationship between daytime sleepiness and an interaction of alcohol consumption variables with sleep duration. The results showed that daytime sleepiness was reported by 15.07% of the subjects. In univariate analyses adjusted for covariates, an increased probability of daytime sleepiness was predicted by decreased log drinks per day [OR = 0.74 (95% CI, 0.58–0.95)], a decreased log drinking frequency [0.90 (95% CI, 0.83–0.98)], and lower sleep duration [OR = 0.75 (95% CI, 0.67–0.84)]. An interaction between decreased sleep duration and an increased log heavy drinking frequency predicted increased daytime sleepiness (). Thus, the effect of sleep duration should be considered when evaluating the relationship between daytime sleepiness and heavy drinking. Subhajit Chakravorty, Nicholas Jackson, Ninad Chaudhary, Philip J. Kozak, Michael L. Perlis, Holly R. Shue, and Michael A. Grandner Copyright © 2014 Subhajit Chakravorty et al. All rights reserved. Association between Information and Communication Technology Usage and the Quality of Sleep among School-Aged Children during a School Week Tue, 28 Jan 2014 09:32:05 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/sd/2014/315808/ Objective. To determine the association between intensity of information and communication technology (ICT) usage and quality of sleep in school-aged children during a school week. Methods. In all 61 subjects, 10–14 years of age, a quasiexperimental laboratory study where criterions for inclusion were absence of prior medical condition and duration of ICT use. A portable device (Holter monitor) was used to measure heart rate variability (HRV) over a 24-hour period, while activity diary was used to record in 15-minute intervals ICT use and sleep and wake up time. Low and high ICT user groups were formed according to their intensity of ICT use. Statistical analysis was done with two independent samples tests and factorial ANCOVA. Results. The higher ICT users showed a lower sleep time standard deviation of normal to normal interval (SDNN) measures in comparison to the low ICT users. Conclusion. The intensive ICT use was associated with poorer quality of sleep indicated by physiological measures among children and adolescents. Knowing the crucial role of healthy sleep in this age, the results are reason for concern. Sandra Ononogbu, Marjut Wallenius, Raija-Leena Punamäki, Lea Saarni, Harri Lindholm, and Clas-Håkan Nygård Copyright © 2014 Sandra Ononogbu et al. All rights reserved. Daytime Sleepiness in Parkinson's Disease: Perception, Influence of Drugs, and Mood Disorder Wed, 22 Jan 2014 09:17:36 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/sd/2014/939713/ Parkinson's disease (PD) is associated with sleep complaints as excessive daytime sleepiness (EDS) and several factors have been implicated in the genesis of these complaints. Objective. To correlate the subjective perception of EDS with variables as the severity of the motor symptoms, medications, and the presence of depressive symptoms. Materials and Methods. A cross-sectional study, using specific scales as Epworth sleepiness scale (ESS), Beck depression inventory (iBeck) and Hoehn and Yahr (HY), in 42 patients with PD. Results. The patients had a mean age of years and mean disease duration of years. The mean ESS was and 28.6% of patients reached a score of abnormally high value (). There was no association with gender, disease duration, and dopamine agonists. Patients with EDS used larger amounts of levodopa ( versus  mg, ), but those who had an iBeck reached lower values of ESS than the others ( versus , ). Conclusions. EDS was common in PD patients, being related to levodopa intake. Presence of depressed mood may influence the final results of self-assessment scales for sleep disorders. M. Ataide, C. M. R. Franco, and O. G. Lins Copyright © 2014 M. Ataide et al. All rights reserved. Sleep Quality and Quality of Life in COPD Patients with and without Suspected Obstructive Sleep Apnea Wed, 22 Jan 2014 09:05:39 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/sd/2014/508372/ Present study was designed to obtain association between sleep apnea with sleep quality and quality of life in COPD patients. This cross-sectional descriptive study was conducted on 139 patients with COPD in a chest clinic of a university hospital. All patients were evaluated by pulmonary function test for determination of severity of their disease. Also, Berlin questionnaire, Epworth sleepiness scale, Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index, and St. George Respiratory questionnaires (SGRQ) were employed for assessment of patients. Analysis of data showed that quality of sleep was significantly correlated with quality of life (). About half of the patients were at high risk for sleep apnea. The patients were divided into two groups according to the result of Berlin questionnaire. Significant differences were found between the groups for total score and each of three subscores of SGRQ suggesting worse quality of life in overlap syndrome (). Also, patients with overlap syndrome had worse quality of sleep compared to patients without it ( versus ; ). Stepwise multiple regression analysis showed that severity of COPD, coexisting obstructive sleep apnea, and sleep quality accounted for the SGRQ significantly ( (coefficient of determination) = 0.08, 0.21, and 0.18, resp.). It is recommended that patient with COPD be evaluated for sleep apnea and sleep disorders during routine examinations and followups. Mohammad Ali Zohal, Zohreh Yazdi, Amir Mohammad Kazemifar, Parisa Mahjoob, and Masomeh Ziaeeha Copyright © 2014 Mohammad Ali Zohal et al. All rights reserved. Association between Sleep Disturbances and Leisure Activities in the Elderly: A Comparison between Men and Women Sun, 19 Jan 2014 00:00:00 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/sd/2014/595208/ It has been suggested that physical or social activity is associated with fewer sleep disturbances among elderly people. Women report more sleep disturbances than men, which could indicate a variation in activity patterns between the genders. The aim of this study was to investigate associations between sleep disturbances and leisure activities in men and women () aged ≥60 years in a Swedish population. Sleep disturbances were measured using eight dichotomous questions and seventeen variables, covering a wide range of leisure activities. Few leisure activities were found to be associated with sleep disturbances and their importance decreased when the models were adjusted for confounders and gender interactions. After clustering the leisure activities and investigating individual activities, sociointellectual activities were shown to be significant for sleep. However, following adjustment for confounders and gender interactions, home maintenance was the only activity significant for sleep. Being a female increased the effect of home maintenance. Besides those leisure activities, poor/fair self-rated health (OR 7.50, CI: 4.27–11.81) and being female (OR 4.86, CI: 2.75–8.61) were found to have the highest association with poor sleep. Leisure activities pursued by elderly people should focus on activities of a sociointellectual nature, especially among women, to promote sleep. Amanda Hellström, Patrik Hellström, Ania Willman, and Cecilia Fagerström Copyright © 2014 Amanda Hellström et al. All rights reserved. Screening for Sleep Apnoea in Mild Cognitive Impairment: The Utility of the Multivariable Apnoea Prediction Index Thu, 16 Jan 2014 08:13:05 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/sd/2014/945287/ Purpose. Mild cognitive impairment (MCI) is considered an “at risk” state for dementia and efforts are needed to target modifiable risk factors, of which Obstructive sleep apnoea (OSA) is one. This study aims to evaluate the predictive utility of the multivariate apnoea prediction index (MAPI), a patient self-report survey, to assess OSA in MCI. Methods. Thirty-seven participants with MCI and 37 age-matched controls completed the MAPI and underwent polysomnography (PSG). Correlations were used to compare the MAPI and PSG measures including oxygen desaturation index and apnoea-hypopnoea index (AHI). Receiver-operating characteristics (ROC) curve analyses were performed using various cut-off scores for apnoea severity. Results. In controls, there was a significant moderate correlation between higher MAPI scores and more severe apnoea (AHI: , ). However, this relationship was not significant in the MCI sample. ROC curve analysis indicated much lower area under the curve (AUC) in the MCI sample compared to the controls across all AHI severity cut-off scores. Conclusions. In older people, the MAPI moderately correlates with AHI severity but only in those who are cognitively intact. Development of further screening tools is required in order to accurately screen for OSA in MCI. Georgina Wilson, Zoe Terpening, Keith Wong, Ron Grunstein, Louisa Norrie, Simon J. G. Lewis, and Sharon L. Naismith Copyright © 2014 Georgina Wilson et al. All rights reserved.