Sleep Disorders http://www.hindawi.com The latest articles from Hindawi Publishing Corporation © 2016 , Hindawi Publishing Corporation . All rights reserved. Refreshing Sleep and Sleep Continuity Determine Perceived Sleep Quality Thu, 16 Jun 2016 11:49:49 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/sd/2016/7170610/ Sleep quality is a construct often measured, employed as an outcome criterion for therapeutic success, but never defined. In two studies we examined appraised good and poor sleep quality in three groups: a control group, individuals with obstructive sleep apnea, and those with insomnia disorder. In Study 1 we used qualitative methodology to examine good and poor sleep quality in 121 individuals. In Study 2 we examined sleep quality in 171 individuals who had not participated in Study 1 and evaluated correlates and predictors of sleep quality. Across all six samples and both qualitative and quantitative methodologies, the daytime experience of feeling refreshed (nonrefreshed) in the morning and the nighttime experience of good (impaired) sleep continuity characterized perceived good and poor sleep. Our results clarify sleep quality as a construct and identify refreshing sleep and sleep continuity as potential clinical and research outcome measures. Eva Libman, Catherine Fichten, Laura Creti, Kerry Conrod, Dieu-Ly Tran, Roland Grad, Mary Jorgensen, Rhonda Amsel, Dorrie Rizzo, Marc Baltzan, Alan Pavilanis, and Sally Bailes Copyright © 2016 Eva Libman et al. All rights reserved. Auricular Acupuncture and Cognitive Behavioural Therapy for Insomnia: A Randomised Controlled Study Sun, 08 May 2016 13:58:50 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/sd/2016/7057282/ Objective. The most effective nonpharmacological treatment for insomnia disorder is cognitive behavioural therapy-insomnia (CBT-i). However CBT-i may not suit everyone. Auricular acupuncture (AA) is a complementary treatment. Studies show that it may alleviate insomnia symptoms. The aim of this randomised controlled study was to compare treatment effects of AA with CBT-i and evaluate symptoms of insomnia severity, anxiety, and depression. Method. Fifty-nine participants, mean age 60.5 years (SD 9.4), with insomnia disorder were randomised to group treatment with AA or CBT-i. Self-report questionnaires, the Insomnia Severity Index (ISI), Dysfunctional Beliefs and Attitudes about Sleep scale (DBAS-16), Epworth Sleepiness Scale (ESS), and Hospital Anxiety and Depression scale (HAD), were collected at baseline, after treatment, and at 6-month follow-up. A series of linear mixed models were performed to examine treatment effect over time between and within the groups. Results. Significant between-group improvements were seen in favour of CBT-i in ISI after treatment and at the 6-month follow-up and in DBAS-16 after treatment. Both groups showed significant within-group postintervention improvements in ISI, and these changes were maintained six months later. The CBT-i group also showed a significant reduction in DBAS-16 after treatment and six months later. Conclusions. Compared to CBT-i, AA, as offered in this study, cannot be considered an effective stand-alone treatment for insomnia disorder. The trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01765959. L. Bergdahl, J.-E. Broman, A. H. Berman, K. Haglund, L. von Knorring, and A. Markström Copyright © 2016 L. Bergdahl et al. All rights reserved. Length of Individual Apnea Events Is Increased by Supine Position and Modulated by Severity of Obstructive Sleep Apnea Wed, 09 Mar 2016 13:30:05 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/sd/2016/9645347/ Positional obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is common among OSA patients. In severe OSA, the obstruction events are longer in supine compared to nonsupine positions. Corresponding scientific information on mild and moderate OSA is lacking. We studied whether individual obstruction and desaturation event severity is increased in supine position in all OSA severity categories and whether the severity of individual events is linked to OSA severity categories. Polygraphic recordings of 2026 patients were retrospectively analyzed. The individual apnea, and hypopnea durations and desaturation event depth, duration, and area of 526 included patients were compared between supine and nonsupine positions in different OSA severity categories. Apnea events were 6.3%, 12.5%, and 11.1% longer () in supine compared to nonsupine position in mild, moderate, and severe OSA categories, respectively. In moderate and severe OSA categories desaturation areas were 5.7% and 25.5% larger () in supine position. In both positions the individual event severity was elevated along increasing OSA severity category (). Supine position elevates apnea duration in all and desaturation area in moderate and severe OSA severity categories. This might be more hazardous for supine OSA patients and therefore, estimation of clinical severity of OSA should incorporate also information about individual event characteristics besides AHI. Timo Leppänen, Juha Töyräs, Anu Muraja-Murro, Salla Kupari, Pekka Tiihonen, Esa Mervaala, and Antti Kulkas Copyright © 2016 Timo Leppänen et al. All rights reserved. The Impact of Sleep Timing, Sleep Duration, and Sleep Quality on Depressive Symptoms and Suicidal Ideation amongst Japanese Freshmen: The EQUSITE Study Thu, 03 Mar 2016 08:00:38 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/sd/2016/8737654/ Aim. The aim of this study was to identify the impact of bedtime, wake time, sleep duration, sleep-onset latency, and sleep quality on depressive symptoms and suicidal ideation amongst Japanese freshmen. Methods. This cross-sectional data was derived from the baseline survey of the Enhancement of Q-University Students Intelligence (EQUSITE) study conducted from May to June, 2010. A total of 2,631 participants were recruited and completed the following self-reported questionnaires: the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI), the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale (CES-D), and the original Health Support Questionnaires developed by the EQUSITE study research team. Results. Of 1,992 participants eligible for analysis, 25.5% () reported depressive symptoms (CES-D total score ≥ 16), and 5.8% () reported suicidal ideation. The present study showed that late bedtime (later than 01:30), sleep-onset latency (≥30 minutes), and poor sleep quality showed a marginally significant association with depressive symptoms. Poor sleep quality was seen to predict suicidal ideation even after adjusting for depressive symptoms. Conclusion. The current study has important implications for the role of bedtime in the prevention of depressive symptoms. Improving sleep quality may prevent the development of depressive symptoms and reduce the likelihood of suicidal ideation. Atin Supartini, Takanori Honda, Nadzirah A. Basri, Yuka Haeuchi, Sanmei Chen, Atsushi Ichimiya, and Shuzo Kumagai Copyright © 2016 Atin Supartini et al. All rights reserved. Relationship of Routine Inadequate Sleep Duration and Periodontitis in a Nationally Representative Sample Wed, 20 Jan 2016 17:08:47 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/sd/2016/9158195/ Purpose. Previous research has indicated the public health impact of inadequate sleep duration on health, potentially through an immune-inflammation mechanism. This mechanism also has a role in periodontitis. The purpose of this study is to determine if there is an association of routine inadequate sleep and periodontitis. Methods. Data from merged National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey years 2009-10 and 2011-12 were the data source for the study. The key outcome was periodontitis (yes, no), and the key variable of interest was usual sleep on weekday or workday nights. Chi square and logistic regression procedures were conducted. The study included 3,740 participants who were of ages 30 years and above. Results. There were 52.7% of participants who had periodontitis. There were 35.7% who usually slept less than 7 hours on weekday or workday nights. In adjusted logistic regression the odds ratio for periodontal disease for participants who slept less than 7 hours on weekday or workday night was 1.00 [95% confidence interval: 0.83, 1.21; ]. Conclusions. The relationship of periodontitis and inadequate sleep duration in a nationally representative study of participants who were of ages 30 years and above failed to reach statistical significance in adjusted logistic regression analyses. R. Constance Wiener Copyright © 2016 R. Constance Wiener. All rights reserved. Poor Sleep in Multiple Sclerosis Correlates with Beck Depression Inventory Values, but Not with Polysomnographic Data Mon, 18 Jan 2016 16:22:07 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/sd/2016/8378423/ Objectives. Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI) values correlate with depression, but studies investigating the relationship between PSQI values and polysomnographic (PSG) data showed inconsistent findings. Methods. Sixty-five consecutive patients with multiple sclerosis (MS) were retrospectively classified as “good sleepers” (GS) (PSQI ≤ 5) and “poor sleepers” (PS) (PSQI > 5). The PSG data and the values of the Visual Analog Scale (VAS) of fatigue, Modified Fatigue Impact Scale (MFIS), Fatigue Severity Scale (FSS), Epworth Sleepiness Scale (ESS), and the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) were compared. Results. No significant differences were found either for PSG data or for ESS, MFIS, and FSS values; but PS showed significantly increased BDI and VAS values. Conclusions. Poor sleep is associated with increased depression and fatigue scale values. Christian Veauthier, Gunnar Gaede, Helena Radbruch, Klaus-Dieter Wernecke, and Friedemann Paul Copyright © 2016 Christian Veauthier et al. All rights reserved. Five-Minute Awake Snoring Test for Determining CPAP Pressures (Five-Minute CPAP Test): A Pilot Study Mon, 11 Jan 2016 08:07:59 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/sd/2016/7380874/ Objective. To develop a quick, simple, bedside test for determining continuous positive airway pressures (CPAP) for obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) patients. Study Design. Prospective case series at a tertiary medical center. Methods. The Five-Minute Awake Snoring Test for Determining CPAP (Five-Minute CPAP Test) was developed and tested. Patients wear a soft-gel nasal triangle mask while holding a tongue depressor with the wide section (1.75 cm) between the teeth. Fixed pressure nasal CPAP is applied while the patient simulates snoring at 4 centimeters of water pressure. The pressure is incrementally titrated up and then down to determine the lowest pressure at which the patient cannot snore (Quiet Pressure). Results. Overall, thirty-eight patients participated. All could simulate snoring. Correlation coefficients were statistically significant between Quiet Pressures and body mass index ( [strong positive relationship], ), apnea-hypopnea index ( [moderate positive relationship], ), lowest oxygen saturation ( [moderate negative relationship], ), and oxygen desaturation index ( [strong positive relationship], ). Conclusion. This pilot study introduces a new concept, which is the final product of over one year of exploration, development, and testing. Five-Minute CPAP Test is a quick, inexpensive, and safe bedside test based on supine awake simulated snoring with nasal CPAP. Macario Camacho, Chad M. Ruoff, Makoto Kawai, Rahul Modi, Jabri Arbee, Anahid Hekmat, Matthew Robertson, Soroush Zaghi, Victor Certal, Robson Capasso, and Clete A. Kushida Copyright © 2016 Macario Camacho et al. All rights reserved. Nasal Expiratory Positive Airway Pressure Devices (Provent) for OSA: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis Mon, 21 Dec 2015 12:58:31 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/sd/2015/734798/ Objective. To quantify the effectiveness of nasal expiratory positive airway pressure (nasal EPAP) devices or Provent as treatment for obstructive sleep apnea (OSA). Methods. PubMed and six other databases were searched through November 15, 2015, without language limitations. Results. Eighteen studies (920 patients) were included. Pre- and post-nasal EPAP means ± standard deviations (M ± SD) for apnea-hypopnea index (AHI) in 345 patients decreased from to events/hr (relative reduction = 53.2%). Random effects modeling mean difference (MD) was −14.78 events/hr [95% CI −19.12, −10.45], value < 0.00001. Oxygen desaturation index (ODI) in 247 patients decreased from to events/hr (relative reduction = 41.5%, value < 0.00001). Lowest oxygen saturation (LSAT) M ± SD improved in 146 patients from % to %, MD 3 oxygen saturation points [95% CI 0.57, 5.63]. Epworth Sleepiness Scale (ESS) M ± SD improved (359 patients) from to , MD −2.5 [95% CI −3.2, −1.8], value < 0.0001. Conclusion. Nasal EPAP (Provent) reduced AHI by 53.2%, ODI by 41.5% and improved LSAT by 3 oxygen saturation points. Generally, there were no clear characteristics (demographic factors, medical history, and/or physical exam finding) that predicted favorable response to these devices. However, limited evidence suggests that high nasal resistance could be associated with treatment failure. Additional studies are needed to identify demographic and polysomnographic characteristics that would predict therapeutic success with nasal EPAP (Provent). Muhammad Riaz, Victor Certal, Gaurav Nigam, Jose Abdullatif, Soroush Zaghi, Clete A. Kushida, and Macario Camacho Copyright © 2015 Muhammad Riaz et al. All rights reserved. Validation of Capturing Sleep Diary Data via a Wrist-Worn Device Tue, 15 Dec 2015 11:42:42 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/sd/2015/758937/ Paper sleep diaries are the gold standard for assessment of sleep continuity variables in clinical practice as well as research. Unfortunately, paper diaries can be filled out weekly instead of daily, lost, illegible or destroyed; and are considered out of date according to the newer technology savvy generations. In this study, we assessed the reliability and validity of using a wrist-worn electronic sleep diary. Design. A prospective design was used to compare capturing 14 days of sleep continuity data via paper to a wrist-worn electronic device that also captured actigraphy data. Results. Thirty-five healthy community dwelling adults with mean (sd) age of 36 (15), 80% Caucasians, and 74% females were enrolled. All sleep continuity variables via electronic and paper diary capture methods were significantly correlated with moderate, positive relationships. Assessment of validity revealed that electronic data capture had a significant relationship with objective measure of sleep continuity variables as measured by actigraphy. Paper diary variables were not significantly associated with objective measures. Conclusions. The use of a wrist-worn device to capture daily sleep diary data is as accurate as and for some variables more accurate than using paper diaries. Carla R. Jungquist, John J. Pender, Karen J. Klingman, and Jamie Mund Copyright © 2015 Carla R. Jungquist et al. All rights reserved. Residual Effects of Sleep Medications Are Commonly Reported and Associated with Impaired Patient-Reported Outcomes among Insomnia Patients in the United States Wed, 09 Dec 2015 12:12:00 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/sd/2015/607148/ Study Objective. To measure the association of symptoms attributed to residual effects of sleep medication (e.g., drowsiness, difficulty concentrating, and impaired memory) on self-reported functioning and satisfaction with these medications. Methods. Individuals using prescription medications for insomnia were invited to complete an Internet-based survey. Respondents were compared according to the presence of self-reported residual effects; relationships between severity of these effects and outcomes were modeled using regression. Measures included the Brief Insomnia Questionnaire, Work Productivity and Activity Impairment Questionnaire, and SATMED-Q. Subgroup analyses were conducted with patients aged ≥65 years. Approximately 80% reported experiencing ≥1 residual effect. The severity of residual effects was associated with increased residual effect-related work impairment, including absenteeism (RR = 1.46, ), presenteeism (RR = 1.12, ), overall work impairment (RR = 1.13, ), and nonwork activity impairment (RR = 1.11, ). More severe residual symptoms were also associated with increased difficulty in home management (Beta = .31, ), ability to work (Beta = .31, ), social relationships, (Beta = .32, ), close personal relationships (Beta = .30, ), and lower medication satisfaction (Beta = , ). Conclusions. Individuals using medications for insomnia commonly experience symptoms considered as residual effects, and these symptoms are associated with greater interference of sleep-related problems at work, at home, and with social relationships. Timothy Fitzgerald and Jeffrey Vietri Copyright © 2015 Timothy Fitzgerald and Jeffrey Vietri. All rights reserved. Sleep Habits of Elementary and Middle School Children in South Texas Thu, 03 Dec 2015 14:16:41 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/sd/2015/179103/ Background. Sleep difficulties, including insufficient sleep and inadequate sleep hygiene, have been prevalent among children. Sleep deprivation can lead to poor grades, sleepiness, and moodiness. We undertook this study to assess the prevalence of sleep abnormalities among elementary and middle school students in South Texas and how the groups compare with one another. Method. After approval from the appropriate school district for a sleep education program, a baseline survey was taken of elementary and middle school students, using the Children’s Sleep Habit Questionnaire-Sleep Self-Report Form, which assessed the domains of bedtime resistance, sleep onset delay, sleep anxiety, sleep duration, night awakening, and daytime sleepiness. Results. The survey was completed by 499 elementary and 1008 middle school children. Trouble sleeping was reported by 43% in elementary school, compared with 29% of middle school children. Fifty percent of middle school children did not like sleeping, compared with 26% in elementary school. Bedtime resistance, sleep onset delay, and nighttime awakening were more common among elementary school students. Daytime sleepiness was more common among the middle school children when compared to elementary school children. Conclusions. Sleep abnormalities are present in elementary school children with changes in sleep habits into middle school. Salim Surani, Sean Hesselbacher, Saherish Surani, Sreevidya Sadasiva, Zoya Surani, Sara S. Surani, Amina Khimani, and Shyam Subramanian Copyright © 2015 Salim Surani et al. All rights reserved. EK Sign: A Wrinkling of Uvula and the Base of Uvula in Obstructive Sleep Apnea-Hypopnea Syndrome Sun, 29 Nov 2015 11:32:13 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/sd/2015/749068/ Introduction. Diagnosis of obstructive sleep apnea-hypopnea syndrome (OSAHS) is suspected in the presence of symptoms and/or pharyngeal alterations and skeletal abnormalities of maxilla and mandible. Our aim is to find a new clinical sign that leads to suspicion of OSAHS in snorers. Methods. We reviewed the clinical data of 69 snoring patients with or without OSAHS. We defined EK sign as the presence of horizontal wrinkling of uvula and the base of uvula and tried to correlate its presence with OSAHS. Results. EK sign was present in 25 of 69 patients. The positive predictive value of EK sign is 100%. The presence of EK sign significantly correlated with OSAHS (44% if AHI ≥ 5 and 0% if AHI < 5; p = 0.01) and severity of OSAHS (7% if AHI < 15 and 58% with AHI ≥ 15; p < 0.001). Conclusions. The EK sign is a strong predictor of OSAHS with a specificity of 100%. We recommend performing sleep tests in presence of EK sign in snorers even in the absence of other abnormalities or symptoms. Venkata Koka, Sandrine Baron, Darius Abedipour, Vincent Latournerie, and Pierre El Chater Copyright © 2015 Venkata Koka et al. All rights reserved. The Association between Psychological Distress and Self-Reported Sleep Duration in a Population-Based Sample of Women and Men Sun, 29 Nov 2015 10:59:25 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/sd/2015/172064/ Mental health and sleep are intricately linked. This study characterized associations of psychological distress with short (≤6 hours) and long (≥9 hours) sleep duration among adults aged ≥18 years. 2013 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System data (,859) from Colorado, Minnesota, Nevada, Tennessee, and Washington included the Kessler 6 (K6) scale, which has been psychometrically validated for measuring severe psychological distress (SPD); three specifications were evaluated. Overall, 4.0% of adults reported SPD, 33.9% reported short sleep, and 7.8% reported long sleep. After adjustment, adults with SPD had 1.58 (95% CI: 1.45, 1.72) and 1.39 (95% CI: 1.08, 1.79) times higher probability of reporting short and long sleep duration, respectively. Using an ordinal measure showed a dose-response association with prevalence ratios of 1.00, 1.16, 1.38, 1.67, and 2.11 for short sleep duration. Each additional point added to the K6 scale was associated with 1.08 (95% CI: 1.07, 1.10) and 1.02 (95% CI: 1.00, 1.03) times higher probability of reporting short and long sleep duration, respectively. Some results were statistically different by gender. Any psychological distress, not only SPD, was associated with a higher probability of short sleep duration but not long sleep duration. These findings highlight the need for interventions. Timothy J. Cunningham, Anne G. Wheaton, and Wayne H. Giles Copyright © 2015 Timothy J. Cunningham et al. All rights reserved. Periodic Breathing and Behavioral Awakenings at High Altitude Mon, 21 Sep 2015 13:01:17 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/sd/2015/279263/ Objectives. To study the relationship between nocturnal periodic breathing episodes and behavioral awakenings at high altitude. Methods. Observational study. It is 6-day ascent of 4 healthy subjects from Besisahar (760 meters) to Manang (3540 meters) in Nepal in March 2012. A recording pulse oximeter was worn by each subject to measure their oxygen saturation and the presence of periodic breathing continuously through the night. An actigraph was simultaneously worn in order to determine nocturnal behavioral awakenings. There were no interventions. Results. 187-hour sleep at high altitude was analyzed, and of this, 145 hours (78%) had at least one PB event. At high altitude, 10.5% (95% CI 6.5–14.6%) of total sleep time was spent in PB while 15 out of 50 awakenings (30%, 95% CI: 18–45%) occurring at high altitudes were associated with PB (). Conclusions. Our data reveals a higher than expected number of behavioral awakenings associated with PB compared to what would be expected by chance. This suggests that PB likely plays a role in behavioral awakenings at high altitude. Daniel J. Shogilev, John B. Tanner, Yuchiao Chang, and N. Stuart Harris Copyright © 2015 Daniel J. Shogilev et al. All rights reserved. Perceived Immune Status and Sleep: A Survey among Dutch Students Thu, 10 Sep 2015 09:22:08 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/sd/2015/721607/ Reduced immune functioning may have a negative impact on sleep and health, and vice versa. A survey among Dutch young adults (18–35 years old) was administered to collect information on perception of reduced immunity and its relationship to sleep disorders, sleep duration, and quality. Sleep disorders were assessed with the SLEEP-50 questionnaire subscales of sleep apnea, insomnia, circadian rhythm disorder, and daily functioning. Dutch young adults (N = 574) completed the survey. Among them, subjects (N = 209; 36.4%) reported perceived reduced immunity. Relative to those with a normal immune status, subjects reporting reduced immunity had significantly higher scores on sleep apnea (2.6 versus 3.6), insomnia (5.1 versus 6.8), and circadian rhythm disorder (2.1 versus 2.7). Subjects reporting reduced immunity also had significantly poorer daily functioning scores (5.4 versus 7.6, ). No differences were observed in total sleep time, but those reporting reduced immunity had significantly poorer ratings of sleep quality (6.8 versus 7.2, ). Our findings suggest that perceived reduced immunity is associated with sleep disturbances, impaired daily functioning, and a poorer sleep quality. Experimental studies including the assessment of immune biomarkers and objective measures of sleep (polysomnography) should confirm the current observations. Anouk A. M. T. Donners, Marilou D. P. Tromp, Johan Garssen, Thomas Roth, and Joris C. Verster Copyright © 2015 Anouk A. M. T. Donners et al. All rights reserved. Association of Sleep Quality and Waking Time with Prediabetes: The Qazvin Metabolic Diseases Study, Iran Mon, 17 Aug 2015 06:11:02 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/sd/2015/480742/ Aims. It is known that sleep has a major role in the regulation of endocrine functions and glucose metabolism. However, it is not clear whether the sleep pattern is affected at or prior to the onset of diabetes, among those with prediabetes. The purpose of this study was to determine the association of sleep patterns and prediabetes in Qazvin, Iran. Methods. A representative sample of residents of Qazvin was selected by multistage cluster random sampling method in 2011. Plasma glucose level and sleep quality were measured cross-sectionally as well as demographic characteristics. A logistic regression analysis was used to examine the association of sleep status and prediabetes. Results. Mean age was 39.3 ± 10.1 years. Of 958, 474 (49.47%) were female. Poor sleep quality was associated with 2.197-fold increased risk of prediabetes after adjustment for age, gender, body mass index, and metabolic syndrome. Conclusion. This study provides evidences that subjects with poor sleep quality are more likely to develop prediabetes than people with good sleep quality. Azam Ghorbani, Neda Esmailzadehha, Asghar Mohammadpoorasl, and Amir Ziaee Copyright © 2015 Azam Ghorbani et al. All rights reserved. Comparative Study between Sequential Automatic and Manual Home Respiratory Polygraphy Scoring Using a Three-Channel Device: Impact of the Manual Editing of Events to Identify Severe Obstructive Sleep Apnea Wed, 12 Aug 2015 08:17:35 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/sd/2015/314534/ Objective. According to current guidelines, autoscoring of respiratory events in respiratory polygraphy requires manual scoring. The aim of this study was to evaluate the agreement between automatic analysis and manual scoring to identify patients with suspected OSA. Methods. This retrospective study analyzed 791 records from respiratory polygraphy (RP) performed at home. The association grade between automatic scoring and manual scoring was evaluated using Kappa coefficient and the agreement using Bland and Altman test and intraclass correlation coefficient (CCI). To determine the accuracy in the identification of  eV/h, the ROC curve analysis was used. Results. The population analyzed consisted of 493 male (62.3%) and 298 female patients, with an average age of years and BMI of  kg/m2. There was no significant difference between automatic and manual apnea/hypopnea indexes (aAHI, mAHI): aAHI 17.25 (SD: 17.42) versus mAHI (p; NS). The agreement between mAHI and aAHI to was 94%, with a Kappa coefficient of 0.83 () and a CCI of 0.83. The AUC-ROC, sensitivity, and specificity were 0.99 (CI 95%: 0.98-0.99, ), 86% (CI 95%: 78.7–91.4), and 97% (CI 95%: 96–98.3), respectively. Conclusions. We observed good agreement between automatic scoring and sequential manual scoring to identify subjects with  eV/h. Glenda Ernst, Martín Bosio, Alejandro Salvado, Facundo Nogueira, Carlos Nigro, and Eduardo Borsini Copyright © 2015 Glenda Ernst et al. All rights reserved. Factors Associated with Successful Treatment by Radiofrequency Treatment of the Soft Palate in Obstructive Sleep Apnea as the First-Line Treatment Mon, 03 Aug 2015 13:50:18 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/sd/2015/690425/ Background. Radiofrequency ablation (RFA) is recommended as the second-line treatment for obstructive sleep apnea (OSA). This study aims to study the factors associated with successful treatment by RFA in OSA patients as the first-line treatment. Methods. All patients diagnosed as mild to moderate OSA were enrolled prospectively and treated with RFA. Three points of soft palate were ablated: midline, left, and right paramedian sites. Baseline characteristics and clinical factors including snoring score (SS), Epworth Sleepiness Scale (ESS), and apnea-hypopnea index (AHI), with minimal oxygen saturation, were recorded at baseline and three months after treatment. Results. During the study period, there were 51 patients who met the study criteria and received RFA treatment. At three months, the SS, ESS, and AHI were significantly lower than baseline values, while the minimal oxygenation was significantly increased from the baseline values. There were 16 patients (31.37%) who had an AHI of < 5 times/h. Only baseline AHI was significantly associated with an AHI of < 5 times/h at three months after RFA treatment. The adjusted odds ratio was 0.804 (95% CI: 0.699, 0.924). Conclusion. Transoral RFA treatment may be effective in mild to moderate OSA as the first-line treatment. Baseline AHI is associated with preferable outcome by RFA treatment. Nuntigar Sonsuwan, Kongsak Rujimethabhas, and Kittisak Sawanyawisuth Copyright © 2015 Nuntigar Sonsuwan et al. All rights reserved. Physiological Sleep Propensity Might Be Unaffected by Significant Variations in Self-Reported Well-Being, Activity, and Mood Thu, 30 Jul 2015 13:21:03 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/sd/2015/532831/ Background and Objective. Depressive state is often associated with such physical symptoms as general weakness, fatigue, tiredness, slowness, reduced activity, low energy, and sleepiness. The involvement of the sleep-wake regulating mechanisms has been proposed as one of the plausible explanations of this association. Both physical depressive symptoms and increased physiological sleep propensity can result from disordered and insufficient sleep. In order to avoid the influence of disordered and insufficient sleep, daytime and nighttime sleepiness were tested in winter depression characterized by normal night sleep duration and architecture. Materials and Methods. A total sample consisted of 6 healthy controls and 9 patients suffered from depression in the previous winter season. Sleep latency was determined across 5 daytime and 4 nighttime 20-min attempts to nap in summer as well as in winter before and after a week of 2-hour evening treatment with bright light. Results and Conclusions. Patients self-reported abnormally lowered well-being, activity, and mood only in winter before the treatment. Physiological sleep propensity was neither abnormal nor linked to significant changes in well-being, activity, and mood following the treatment and change in season. It seems unlikely that the mechanisms regulating the sleep-wake cycle contributed to the development of the physical depressive symptoms. Arcady A. Putilov Copyright © 2015 Arcady A. Putilov. All rights reserved. Mathematical Equations to Predict Positive Airway Pressures for Obstructive Sleep Apnea: A Systematic Review Thu, 30 Jul 2015 09:49:21 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/sd/2015/293868/ Objective. To systematically review the international literature for mathematical equations used to predict effective pressures for positive airway pressure (PAP) devices. Methods. Google Scholar, PubMed, Scopus, Embase, Web of Science, CINAHL, and The Cochrane Library were searched through June 27, 2015. The PRISMA statement was followed. There was no language limitation. Results. 709 articles were screened, fifty were downloaded, and twenty-six studies presented equations that met the inclusion and exclusion criteria. In total, there were 4,436 patients in the development phases and 3,489 patients in the validation phases. Studies performed multiple linear regressions analyses as part of the equation(s) development and included the following variables: physical characteristics, polysomnography data, behavioral characteristics, and miscellaneous characteristics, which were all predictive to a variable extent. Of the published variables, body mass index (BMI) and mean oxygen saturation are the most heavily weighted, while BMI (eighteen studies), apnea-hypopnea index (seventeen studies), and neck circumference (eleven studies) were the variables most frequently used in the mathematical equations. Ten studies were from Asian countries and sixteen were from non-Asian countries. Conclusion. This systematic review identified twenty-six unique studies reporting mathematical equations which are summarized. Overall, BMI and mean oxygen saturation are the most heavily weighted. Macario Camacho, Muhammad Riaz, Armin Tahoori, Victor Certal, and Clete A. Kushida Copyright © 2015 Macario Camacho et al. All rights reserved. Computer-Assisted Diagnosis of the Sleep Apnea-Hypopnea Syndrome: A Review Tue, 21 Jul 2015 10:38:13 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/sd/2015/237878/ Automatic diagnosis of the Sleep Apnea-Hypopnea Syndrome (SAHS) has become an important area of research due to the growing interest in the field of sleep medicine and the costs associated with its manual diagnosis. The increment and heterogeneity of the different techniques, however, make it somewhat difficult to adequately follow the recent developments. A literature review within the area of computer-assisted diagnosis of SAHS has been performed comprising the last 15 years of research in the field. Screening approaches, methods for the detection and classification of respiratory events, comprehensive diagnostic systems, and an outline of current commercial approaches are reviewed. An overview of the different methods is presented together with validation analysis and critical discussion of the current state of the art. Diego Alvarez-Estevez and Vicente Moret-Bonillo Copyright © 2015 Diego Alvarez-Estevez and Vicente Moret-Bonillo. All rights reserved. Continuous Positive Airway Pressure Device Time to Procurement in a Disadvantaged Population Tue, 02 Jun 2015 11:31:45 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/sd/2015/747906/ Introduction. The management of obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) in patients who cannot afford a continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) device is challenging. In this study we compare time to CPAP procurement in three groups of patients diagnosed with OSA: uninsured subsidized by a humanitarian grant (Group 1), uninsured unsubsidized (Group 2), and those with Medicare or Medicaid (Group 3). We evaluate follow-up and adherence in Group 1. We hypothesize that additional factors, rather than just the ability to obtain CPAP, may uniquely affect follow-up and adherence in uninsured patients. Methods. 30 patients were in Groups 1 and 2, respectively. 12 patients were in Group 3. Time of CPAP procurement from OSA diagnosis to CPAP initiation was assessed in all groups. CPAP adherence data was collected for Group 1 patients at 1, 3, 6, and 9 months. Results. There were no significant differences between groups in gender, age, body mass index, or apnea hypopnea index. The mean time to procurement in Group 1 was shorter compared to Group 2 but not significant. Compared to both Group 1 and Group 2, Group 3 patients had significantly shorter times to device procurement. Conclusion. Time to procurement of CPAP was significantly shorter in those with Medicaid/Medicare insurance compared to the uninsured. Lourdes M. DelRosso, Romy Hoque, and Andrew L. Chesson Jr. Copyright © 2015 Lourdes M. DelRosso et al. All rights reserved. Nitric Oxide Bioavailability in Obstructive Sleep Apnea: Interplay of Asymmetric Dimethylarginine and Free Radicals Wed, 06 May 2015 07:25:10 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/sd/2015/387801/ Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) occurs in 2% of middle-aged women and 4% of middle-aged men and is considered an independent risk factor for cerebrovascular and cardiovascular diseases. Nitric oxide (NO) is an important endothelium derived vasodilating substance that plays a critical role in maintaining vascular homeostasis. Low levels of NO are associated with impaired endothelial function. Asymmetric dimethylarginine (ADMA), an analogue of L-arginine, is a naturally occurring product of metabolism found in the human circulation. Elevated levels of ADMA inhibit NO synthesis while oxidative stress decreases its bioavailability, so impairing endothelial function and promoting atherosclerosis. Several clinical trials report increased oxidative stress and ADMA levels in patients with OSA. This review discusses the role of oxidative stress and increased ADMA levels in cardiovascular disease resulting from OSA. Mohammad Badran, Saeid Golbidi, Najib Ayas, and Ismail Laher Copyright © 2015 Mohammad Badran et al. All rights reserved. The Relationship between Sleep-Disordered Breathing and Hypertension in a Nationally Representative Sample Wed, 29 Apr 2015 13:46:23 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/sd/2015/769798/ Sleep-disordered breathing (SDB), characterized by abnormal respiratory patterns or inadequate quantity of ventilation, is common in adults. A positive association between SDB and hypertension has been established, in both cross-sectional and longitudinal studies. One void in the literature concerns the role of race/ethnicity in the association between SDB and hypertension. In this context, a cross-sectional study was performed on 6,783 participants in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2005–2008. Participants were ≥age 20 and free from cardiovascular disease. The outcome of interest was hypertension, defined as ≥140 mmHg systolic blood pressure (BP), and/or ≥90 mmHg diastolic BP or antihypertensive medication use. Self-reported SDB was positively associated with hypertension, independent of confounders such as depression, diabetes, cholesterol levels, and body mass index, among others. The association persisted in subgroup analyses by gender, with a stronger association among males than females, as well as by race/ethnicity, with non-Hispanic blacks displaying the strongest association. In the multivariable-adjusted model, compared to a sleep summary score of zero (referent), the OR (95% CI) of hypertension for non-Hispanic blacks was 1.34 (0.98–1.83) for a sleep summary score of 1, 1.44 (1.06–1.97) for a score of 2 and 3.72 (1.98–7.00) for a score of >3; p-trend < 0.0001. SDB was positively associated with hypertension in a large, nationally representative sample of US adults. Along with being prevalent, SDB is also treatable. Therefore, our results are important for minority race/ethnic groups who typically experience a higher baseline for negative health outcomes. Sarah Dee Geiger and Anoop Shankar Copyright © 2015 Sarah Dee Geiger and Anoop Shankar. All rights reserved. Daytime Sleepiness and Parkinson’s Disease: The Contribution of the Multiple Sleep Latency Test Thu, 10 Jul 2014 11:42:27 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/sd/2014/767181/ Background. Sleep disorders are major nonmotor manifestations of patients with Parkinson’s disease (PD), and excessive daytime sleepiness (EDS) is one of the most common symptoms. Objective. We reviewed a current literature concerning major factors that influence EDS in PD patients, using Multiple Sleep Latency Test (MSLT). Methods. A Medline search found 23 studies. Results. The presence of EDS was observed in 12.7% to 47% in patients without complaints of daytime sleepiness and 47% to 66.7% with complaints of daytime sleepiness. Despite being recognized by several authors, major factors that influence EDS, such as severity of motor symptoms, use of dopaminergic medications, and associated sleep disturbances, presented contradictory data. Conclusions. Available data suggest that the variability of the results may be related to the fact that it was conducted with a small sample size, not counting the neuropathological heterogeneity of the disease. Thus, before carrying out longitudinal studies with significant samples, careful analysis should be done by assigning a specific agent on the responsibility of EDS in PD patients. Marcelo Ataide, Clélia Maria Ribeiro Franco, and Otavio Gomes Lins Copyright © 2014 Marcelo Ataide et al. All rights reserved. Screening Sleep Disordered Breathing in Stroke Unit Tue, 27 May 2014 08:11:52 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/sd/2014/317615/ In acute stroke, OSA has been found to impair rehabilitation and increase mortality but the effect of central apnea is more unclear. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the feasibility of using limited ambulatory recording system (sleep mattress to evaluate nocturnal breathing and EOG-electrodes for sleep staging) in sleep disordered breathing (SDB) diagnostics in mild acute cerebral ischemia patients and to discover the prevalence of various SDB-patterns among these patients. 42 patients with mild ischemic stroke or transient ischemic attack were studied. OSA was found in 22 patients (52.4%). Central apnea was found in two patients (4.8%) and sustained partial obstruction in only one patient (2.4%). Sleep staging with EOG-electrodes only yielded a similar outcome as scoring with standard rules. OSA was found to be common even after mild stroke. Its early diagnosis and treatment would be favourable in order to improve recovery and reduce mortality. Our results suggest that OSA can be assessed by a limited recording setting with EOG-electrodes, sleep mattress, and pulse oximetry. Kirsi Väyrynen, Kati Kortelainen, Heikki Numminen, Katja Miettinen, Anna Keso, Mirja Tenhunen, Heini Huhtala, and Sari-Leena Himanen Copyright © 2014 Kirsi Väyrynen et al. All rights reserved. Prevalence of Sleep Disorders and Their Impacts on Occupational Performance: A Comparison between Shift Workers and Nonshift Workers Tue, 20 May 2014 06:46:17 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/sd/2014/870320/ The consequences of sleep deprivation and sleepiness have been noted as the most important health problem in our modern society among shift workers. The objective of this study was to investigate the prevalence of sleep disorders and their possible effects on work performance in two groups of Iranian shift workers and nonshift workers. This study was designed as a cross-sectional study. The data were collected by PSQI, Berlin questionnaire, Epworth Sleepiness Scale, Insomnia Severity Index, and RLS Questionnaire. Occupational impact of different sleep disorders was detected by Occupational Impact of Sleep Disorder questionnaire. These questionnaires were filled in by 210 shift workers and 204 nonshift workers. There was no significant difference in the age, BMI, marital status, and years of employment in the two groups. Shift workers scored significantly higher in the OISD. The prevalence of insomnia, poor sleep quality, and daytime sleepiness was significantly higher in shift workers. Correlations between OISD scores and insomnia, sleep quality, and daytime sleepiness were significant. We concluded that sleep disorders should receive more attention as a robust indicator of work limitation. Zohreh Yazdi, Khosro Sadeghniiat-Haghighi, Ziba Loukzadeh, Khadijeh Elmizadeh, and Mahnaz Abbasi Copyright © 2014 Zohreh Yazdi et al. All rights reserved. Insomnia in Sweden: A Population-Based Survey Mon, 12 May 2014 07:51:25 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/sd/2014/843126/ Aims. Estimate the prevalence of insomnia and examine effects of sex, age, health problems, sleep duration, need for treatment, and usage of sleep medication. Methods. A sample of 1,550 subjects aged 18–84 years was selected for a telephone interview. The interview was completed by 1,128 subjects (72.8%). Results. 24.6% reported insomnia symptoms. Insomnia disorder, that is, insomnia symptoms and daytime consequences, was reported by 10.5%. The prevalence was similar among all age groups, with the exception of women aged 40–49 years who demonstrated a significantly higher prevalence, 21.6%. Having at least one physical or psychiatric disorder was reported by 82.8% of subjects with insomnia disorder. Mean sleep duration for subjects with insomnia disorder was 5.77 hours on weeknights and 7.03 hours on days off/weekends. The corresponding figures for subjects without insomnia disorder were 7.04 hours and 7.86 hours, respectively. Among those with insomnia disorder 62.5% expressed a need for treatment, and 20.0% used prescribed sleep medication regularly. Conclusions. Insomnia disorder is highly prevalent in the population. There are significant associations between insomnia disorder and physical and psychiatric disorders. A majority of subjects with insomnia disorder expressed a need for treatment, indicating a public health problem. Lena Mallon, Jan-Erik Broman, Torbjörn Åkerstedt, and Jerker Hetta Copyright © 2014 Lena Mallon et al. All rights reserved. Restless Leg Syndrome in Diabetics Compared with Normal Controls Wed, 07 May 2014 06:18:52 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/sd/2014/871751/ Introduction. Restless leg syndrome (RLS) is a common sleep disorder which is characterized by urge to move the legs accompanied by disturbing and uncomfortable leg sensation during night and rest. This common condition affects 7–10% of general population and is frequently unrecognized, misdiagnosed, and poorly managed. Several clinical conditions like diabetes have been associated with secondary form of RLS. This study analyzed the frequency and possible risk factor for RLS development in diabetic patient. Material and Methods. This descriptive case-control study was done on 140 consecutive outpatient diabetics and age, sex, and body mass index matched control group. RLS was diagnosed by criteria of the International RLS Study Group. Results. Prevalence of RLS was 28.6% in diabetes and 7.1% in control group (). Sex difference was not significant and with rising duration of diabetes prevalence of RLS was not increased. Discussion. With regarding significant association between RLS and diabetes and its negative impact on quality of life/health outcome/sleep/daytime activity/cognitive function/ and mental state of diabetic patient/higher awareness of RLS among physicians and related health worker suggested. Mehdi Zobeiri and Azita Shokoohi Copyright © 2014 Mehdi Zobeiri and Azita Shokoohi. All rights reserved. Relationships between Obstructive Sleep Apnea Syndrome, Continuous Positive Airway Pressure Treatment, and Inflammatory Cytokines Tue, 06 May 2014 07:39:29 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/sd/2014/518920/ The cardiovascular complications that frequently accompany obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS) are thought to develop as a result of inflammatory stress associated with cytokines such as IL-6 and TNF-α. We conducted the current study to compare levels of these cytokines in OSAS patients and nonapneic controls . Furthermore, we investigated the impact of a three-month regime of continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) on serum levels of IL-6 and TNF-α only in the OSAS patients. There were no significant differences in serum levels of either IL-6 () or TNF- α () or TNF-α () between OSAS patients and nonapneic controls. Serum IL-6 levels correlated significantly with neck circumference in OSAS patients (). In OSAS patients, reduced levels of TNF-α and IL-6 correlated with increases in mean SaO2 after CPAP treatment ( and , resp.). However, neither of cytokine levels was significantly impacted by CPAP therapy (both ). We have demonstrated that plasma cytokine levels are similar in both otherwise healthy subjects with OSAS and in nonapneic control, and we conclude that OSAS-related parameters and CPAP treatment do not play a significant role in altering cytokine levels. Filiz Ünüvar Doğan, Şebnem Yosunkaya, Hacer Kuzu Okur, and Ümmügülsüm Can Copyright © 2014 Filiz Ünüvar Doğan et al. 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