Table 2: The normalized displacement of PMN-PT and PZT bending-types actuators.

Form of bending-type actuatorNormalized displacement of the actuatorElectric field

PMN-PT single-crystal actuators [37]38 μm/cm0.7 kV/cm
0.65PMN-0.35PT/0.9PMN-0.1PT bulk actuators [4]13 μm/cm5 kV/cm
0.65PMN-0.35PT/0.9PMN-0.1PT bulk actuators [56] a few μm/cm10 kV/cm
PZT bulk actuators [37]2.5 μm/cm0.7 kV/cm
0.65PMN-0.35PT/Pt thick-film actuators [32]55 μm/cm3.6 kV/cm
PZT thick-film actuators on alumina substrates [57]5 μm/cm50 kV/cm