Table 2: Coagulation abnormalities noted in cases of pediatric DKA with stroke and in studies of DKA-associated coagulopathy in adults and children. Pretreatment abnormalities include those noted prior to resolution of biochemical abnormalities. Posttreatment abnormalities include those noted after resolution of biochemical abnormalities.

FactorParameterPre-treatment abnormalityPost-treatment abnormalityPediatric versus adult studyRelevant references

Plateletcountpediatric [5, 14, 20, 23, 33]
aggregation/
activity
pediatric, adult [5, 35, 39]

Thromboxane B2productionpediatric [14]

Prothrombin timepediatric [33]

Partial thromboplastin timelevelspediatric [33]

Tissue Factorlevelsadult [40]

vWFantigen levelpediatric [14, 41]
activitypediatric [41]

Factor VIII-vWF complexlevelspediatric [14]

Factor Vlevelspediatric [5]

Factor VIIlevelspediatric [5]

Factor VIIIlevelspediatric [5]

Homocysteinelevelspediatric [41]

Folatelevelspediatric [41]

Prothrombin fragment 1 + 2levelsadult [35]

Thrombin-antithrombin III complexlevelsadult [35]

Antithrombin IIIlevels and activitypediatric, adult [5, 20, 33, 35]

Protein Cactivitypediatric [41]
antigen levelpediatric [14, 18, 41]

Protein SFree protein levelpediatric [42]

Thrombomodulinlevelsadult [35]

tPAactivityadult [35, 40]
antigen leveladult [35, 40]

PAI-1activityadult [35, 40]
antigen leveladult [35, 40]

vWF: von Willebrand Factor; tPA: tissue plasminogen activator; PAI-1: plasminogen activator inhibitor-1.