- About this Journal ·
- Abstracting and Indexing ·
- Aims and Scope ·
- Annual Issues ·
- Article Processing Charges ·
- Articles in Press ·
- Author Guidelines ·
- Bibliographic Information ·
- Citations to this Journal ·
- Contact Information ·
- Editorial Board ·
- Editorial Workflow ·
- Free eTOC Alerts ·
- Publication Ethics ·
- Reviewers Acknowledgment ·
- Submit a Manuscript ·
- Subscription Information ·
- Table of Contents
Stroke Research and Treatment
Volume 2011 (2011), Article ID 304921, 7 pages
The Migraine-Ischemic Stroke Relation in Young Adults
1Dipartimento di Scienze Mediche e Chirurgiche, Clinica Neurologica, Università degli Studi di Brescia, Piazzale Spedali Civili, 1, 25100 Brescia, Italy
2Dipartimento di Scienze Biomediche e Biotecnologie, Università degli Studi di Brescia, 25100 Brescia, Italy
3Unità di Neurologia, Istituto Clinico Città di Brescia, 25123 Brescia, Italy
Received 19 September 2010; Accepted 22 November 2010
Academic Editor: Halvor Naess
Copyright © 2011 Alessandro Pezzini et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
- L. J. Stovner, J. A. Zwart, K. Hagen, G. M. Terwindt, and J. Pascual, “Epidemiology of headache in Europe,” European Journal of Neurology, vol. 13, no. 4, pp. 333–345, 2006.
- L. J. Launer, G. M. Terwindt, and M. D. Ferrari, “The prevalence and characteristics of migraine in a population-based cohort: the GEM study,” Neurology, vol. 53, no. 3, pp. 537–542, 1999.
- M. C. Kruit, M. A. van Buchem, P. A. M. Hofman et al., “Migraine as a risk factor for subclinical brain lesions,” Journal of the American Medical Association, vol. 291, no. 4, pp. 427–434, 2004.
- R. B. Lipton and S. D. Silberstein, “Why study the comorbidity of migraine?” Neurology, vol. 44, no. 10, supplement 7, pp. S4–S5, 1994.
- Collaborative Group of the Study of Stroke in Young Women, “Oral contraceptives and stroke in young women. Associated risk factors,” Journal of the American Medical Association, vol. 231, no. 7, pp. 718–722, 1975.
- M. Schürks, P. M. Rist, M. E. Bigal, J. E. Buring, R. B. Lipton, and T. Kurth, “Migraine and cardiovascular disease: systematic review and meta-analysis,” BMJ, vol. 339, no. 7728, p. 1015, 2009.
- L. R. MacClellan, W. Giles, J. Cole et al., “Probable migraine with visual aura and risk of ischemic stroke: the stroke prevention in young women study,” Stroke, vol. 38, no. 9, pp. 2438–2445, 2007.
- E. J. Mulder, C. Van Baal, D. Gaist et al., “Genetic and environmental influences on migraine: a twin study across six countries,” Twin Research, vol. 6, no. 5, pp. 422–431, 2003.
- D. R. Nyholt, N. G. Gillespie, A. C. Heath, K. R. Merikangas, D. L. Duffy, and N. G. Martin, “Latent class and genetic analysis does not support migraine with aura and migraine without aura as separate entities,” Genetic Epidemiology, vol. 26, no. 3, pp. 231–244, 2004.
- R. A. Lea, D. R. Nyholt, R. P. Curtain et al., “A genome-wide scan provides evidence for loci influencing a severe heritable form of common migraine,” Neurogenetics, vol. 6, no. 2, pp. 67–72, 2005.
- Headache Classification Subcommittee of the International Headache Society, “The international classification of headache disorders,” Cephalalgia, vol. 24, supplement 1, pp. 24–36, 2004.
- T. Kurth, M. A. Slomke, C. S. Kase et al., “Migraine, headache, and the risk of stroke in women: a prospective study,” Neurology, vol. 64, no. 6, pp. 1020–1026, 2005.
- P. E. Stang, A. P. Carson, K. M. Rose et al., “Headache, cerebrovascular symptoms, and stroke: the atherosclerosis risk in communities study,” Neurology, vol. 64, no. 9, pp. 1573–1577, 2005.
- L. S. Gudmundsson, A. I. Scher, T. Aspelund et al., “Migraine with aura and risk of cardiovascular and all cause mortality in men and women: prospective cohort study,” BMJ, vol. 341, p. c3966, 2010.
- A. Mosek, R. Marom, A. D. Korczyn, and N. Bornstein, “A history of migraine is not a risk factor to develop an ischemic stroke in the elderly,” Headache, vol. 41, no. 4, pp. 399–401, 2001.
- T. Kurth, “Migraine and ischaemic vascular events,” Cephalalgia, vol. 27, no. 8, pp. 967–975, 2007.
- K. R. Merikangas, B. T. Fenton, S. H. Cheng, M. J. Stolar, and N. Risch, “Association between migraine and stroke in a large-scale epidemiological study of the United States,” Archives of Neurology, vol. 54, no. 4, pp. 362–368, 1997.
- E. Linetsky, R. R. Leker, and T. Ben-Hur, “Headache characteristics in patients after migrainous stroke,” Neurology, vol. 57, no. 1, pp. 130–132, 2001.
- A. Arboix, J. Massons, L. García-Eroles, M. Oliveres, M. Balcells, and C. Targa, “Migrainous cerebral infarction in the Sagrat Cor Hospital of Barcelona Stroke Registry,” Cephalalgia, vol. 23, no. 5, pp. 389–394, 2003.
- S. J. Kittner, B. J. Stern, M. Wozniak et al., “Cerebral infarction in young adults: the Baltimore-Washington Cooperative Young Stroke Study,” Neurology, vol. 50, no. 4, pp. 890–894, 1998.
- D. Sochurkova, T. Moreau, M. Lemesle, M. Menassa, M. Giroud, and R. Dumas, “Migraine history and migraine-induced stroke in the Dijon Stroke Registry,” Neuroepidemiology, vol. 18, no. 2, pp. 85–91, 1999.
- Y. Cao, K. M. A. Welch, S. Aurora, and E. M. Vikingstad, “Functional MRI-BOLD of visually triggered headache in patients with migraine,” Archives of Neurology, vol. 56, no. 5, pp. 548–554, 1999.
- F. M. Cutrer, A. G. Sorensen, R. M. Weisskoff et al., “Perfusion-weighted imaging defects during spontaneous migrainous aura,” Annals of Neurology, vol. 43, no. 1, pp. 25–31, 1998.
- H. Bolay, U. Reuter, A. K. Dunn, Z. Huang, D. A. Boas, and M. A. Moskowitz, “Intrinsic brain activity triggers trigeminal meningeal afferents in a migraine model,” Nature Medicine, vol. 8, no. 2, pp. 136–142, 2002.
- K. M. A. Welch and N. M. Ramadan, “Mitochondria, magnesium and migraine,” Journal of the Neurological Sciences, vol. 134, no. 1-2, pp. 9–14, 1995.
- G. P. Anzola, M. Magoni, M. Guindani, L. Rozzini, and G. D. Volta, “Potential source of cerebral embolism in migraine with aura: a transcranial Doppler study,” Neurology, vol. 52, no. 8, pp. 1622–1625, 1999.
- M. Del Sette, S. Angeli, M. Leandri et al., “Migraine with aura and right-to-left shunt on transcranial Doppler: a case-control study,” Cerebrovascular Diseases, vol. 8, no. 6, pp. 327–330, 1998.
- C. Lamy, C. Giannesini, M. Zuber et al., “Clinical and imaging findings in cryptogenic stroke patients with and without patent foramen ovale: the PFO-ASA study,” Stroke, vol. 33, no. 3, pp. 706–711, 2002.
- R. Sztajzel, D. Genoud, S. Roth, B. Mermillod, and J. Le Floch-Rohr, “Patent foramen ovale, a possible cause of symptomatic migraine: a study of 74 patients with acute ischemic stroke,” Cerebrovascular Diseases, vol. 13, no. 2, pp. 102–106, 2002.
- H. J. Gelmers, P. Henry, J. Lucas et al., “European multicenter trial of Nimodipine in the prophylaxis of common migraine (migraine without aura),” Headache, vol. 29, no. 10, pp. 633–638, 1989.
- H. J. Gelmers, P. Henry, J. Lucas et al., “European multicenter trial of Nimodipine in the prophylaxis of classic migraine (migraine with aura),” Headache, vol. 29, no. 10, pp. 639–642, 1989.
- H.-C. Diener, E. Hartung, J. Chrubasik et al., “A comparative study of oral acetylsalicyclic acid and metoprolol for the prophylactic treatment of migraine. A randomized, controlled, double-blind, parallel group phase III study,” Cephalalgia, vol. 21, no. 2, pp. 120–128, 2001.
- A. Dowson, M. J. Mullen, R. Peatfield et al., “Migraine Intervention with STARFlex Technology (MIST) trial: a prospective, multicenter, double-blind, sham-controlled trial to evaluate the effectiveness of patent foramen ovale closure with STARFlex septal repair implant to resolve refractory migraine headache,” Circulation, vol. 117, no. 11, pp. 1397–1404, 2008.
- S. J. Tepper, F. D. Sheftell, and M. E. Bigal, “The patent foramen ovale-migraine question,” Neurological Sciences, vol. 28, no. 2, pp. S118–S123, 2007.
- P. O. Bonetti, L. O. Lerman, and A. Lerman, “Endothelial dysfunction: a marker of atherosclerotic risk,” Arteriosclerosis, Thrombosis, and Vascular Biology, vol. 23, no. 2, pp. 168–175, 2003.
- J. D'Anglejan-Chatillon, V. Ribeiro, J. L. Mas, B. D. Youl, and M. G. Bousser, “Migraine: a risk factor for dissection of cervical arteries,” Headache, vol. 29, no. 9, pp. 560–561, 1989.
- C. Tzourio, L. Benslamia, B. Guillon et al., “Migraine and the risk of cervical artery dissection: a case-control study,” Neurology, vol. 59, no. 3, pp. 435–437, 2002.
- A. Pezzini, F. Granella, M. Grassi et al., “History of migraine and the risk of spontaneous cervical artery dissection,” Cephalalgia, vol. 25, no. 8, pp. 575–580, 2005.
- V. Artto, T. M. Metso, A. J. Metso et al., “Migraine with aura is a risk factor for cervical artery dissection: a case-control study,” Cerebrovascular Diseases, vol. 30, no. 1, pp. 36–40, 2010.
- C. Tzourio, M. El Amrani, L. Robert, and A. Alpérovitch, “Serum elastase activity is elevated in migraine,” Annals of Neurology, vol. 47, no. 5, pp. 648–651, 2000.
- B. Guillon, C. Tzourio, V. Biousse, V. Adraï, M. G. Bousser, and P. J. Touboul, “Arterial wall properties in carotid artery dissection: an ultrasound study,” Neurology, vol. 55, no. 5, pp. 663–666, 2000.
- C. Lucas, J. L. Lecroart, C. Gautier et al., “Impairment of endothelial function in patients with spontaneous cervical artery dissection: evidence for a general arterial wall disease,” Cerebrovascular Diseases, vol. 17, no. 2-3, pp. 170–174, 2004.
- J. de Hoon, J. M. Willigers, J. Troost, H. A. Struijker-Boudier, and L. M. Van Bortel, “Cranial and peripheral interictal vascular changes in migraine patients,” Cephalalgia, vol. 23, no. 2, pp. 96–104, 2003.
- F. H. Vanmolkot, L. M. van Bortel, and J. N. de Hoon, “Altered arterial function in migraine of recent onset,” Neurology, vol. 68, no. 19, pp. 1563–1570, 2007.
- C. Grond-Ginsbach, B. Klima, R. Weber et al., “Exclusion mapping of the genetic predisposition for cervical artery dissections by linkage analysis,” Annals of Neurology, vol. 52, no. 3, pp. 359–364, 2002.
- I. Hausser, U. Müller, S. Engelter et al., “Different types of connective tissue alterations associated with cervical artery dissections,” Acta Neuropathologica, vol. 107, no. 6, pp. 509–514, 2004.
- M. Kloss, T. Wiest, S. Hyrenbach et al., “MTHFR 677TT genotype increases the risk for cervical artery dissections,” Journal of Neurology, Neurosurgery and Psychiatry, vol. 77, no. 8, pp. 951–952, 2006.
- A. Pezzini, E. Del Zotto, S. Archetti et al., “Plasma homocysteine concentration, C677T MTHFR genotype, and 844ins68bp CBS genotype in young adults with spontaneous cervical artery dissection and atherothrombotic stroke,” Stroke, vol. 33, no. 3, pp. 664–669, 2002.
- A. I. Scher, G. M. Terwindt, W. M. M. Verschuren et al., “Migraine and MTHFR C677T genotype in a population-based sample,” Annals of Neurology, vol. 59, no. 2, pp. 372–375, 2006.
- A. I. Scher, G. M. Terwindt, H. S. J. Picavet, W. M. M. Verschuren, M. D. Ferrari, and L. J. Launer, “Cardiovascular risk factors and migraine: the GEM population-based study,” Neurology, vol. 64, no. 4, pp. 614–620, 2005.
- M. E. Bigal, T. Kurth, N. Santanello et al., “Migraine and cardiovascular disease: a population-based study,” Neurology, vol. 74, no. 8, pp. 628–635, 2010.
- J. Schwaiger, S. Kiechl, H. Stockner et al., “Burden of atherosclerosis and risk of venous thromboembolism in patients with migraine,” Neurology, vol. 71, no. 12, pp. 937–948, 2008.
- G. C. Hall, M. M. Brown, J. Mo, and K. D. MacRae, “Triptans in migraine: the risks of stroke, cardiovascular disease, and death in practice,” Neurology, vol. 62, no. 4, pp. 563–568, 2004.
- P. Velentgas, J. A. Cole, J. Mo, C. R. Sikes, and A. M. Walker, “Severe vascular events in migraine patients,” Headache, vol. 44, no. 7, pp. 642–651, 2004.
- E. A. Wammes-Van Der Heijden, H. Rahimtoola, H. G. M. Leufkens, C. C. Tijssen, and A. C. G. Egberts, “Risk of ischemic complications related to the intensity of triptan and ergotamine use,” Neurology, vol. 67, no. 7, pp. 1128–1134, 2006.
- E. Rubino, M. Ferrero, I. Rainero, E. Binello, G. Vaula, and L. Pinessi, “Association of the C677T polymorphism in the MTHFR gene with migraine: a meta-analysis,” Cephalalgia, vol. 29, no. 8, pp. 818–825, 2009.
- J. P. Casas, L. E. Bautista, L. Smeeth, P. Sharma, and A. D. Hingorani, “Homocysteine and stroke: evidence on a causal link from mendelian randomisation,” The Lancet, vol. 365, no. 9455, pp. 224–232, 2005.
- A. Pezzini, M. Grassi, E. Del Zotto et al., “Migraine mediates the influence of C677T MTHFR genotypes on ischemic stroke risk with a stroke-subtype effect,” Stroke, vol. 38, no. 12, pp. 3145–3151, 2007.
- M. Schürks, R. Y. L. Zee, J. E. Buring, and T. Kurth, “Interrelationships among the MTHFR polymorphism, migraine, and cardiovascular disease,” Neurology, vol. 71, no. 7, pp. 505–513, 2008.
- A. Joutel, C. Corpechot, A. Ducros et al., “Notch3 mutations in CADASIL, a hereditary adult-onset condition causing stroke and dementia,” Nature, vol. 383, no. 6602, pp. 707–710, 1996.
- H. Chabriat, K. Vahedi, M. T. Iba-Zizen et al., “Clinical spectrum of CADASIL: a study of 7 families,” The Lancet, vol. 346, no. 8980, pp. 934–939, 1995.
- M. Verin, Y. Rolland, F. Landgraf et al., “New phenotype of the cerebral autosomal dominant arteriopathy mapped to chromosome 19: migraine as the prominent clinical feature,” Journal of Neurology Neurosurgery and Psychiatry, vol. 59, no. 6, pp. 579–585, 1995.
- K. Vahedi, H. Chabriat, C. Levy, A. Joutel, E. Tournier-Lasserve, and M. G. Bousser, “Migraine with aura and brain magnetic resonance imaging abnormalities in patients with CADASIL,” Archives of Neurology, vol. 61, no. 8, pp. 1237–1240, 2004.
- A. E. Guttmacher, D. A. Marchuk, and R. I. White, “Hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia,” The New England Journal of Medicine, vol. 333, no. 14, pp. 918–924, 1995.