Table 3: Etiologies of ischemic stroke complicating pregnancy and the puerperium.

Author, yearMean age, yrsN° caseLarge artery diseaseCardiac disease N° (%)Coagulopathy N° (%)Other causes N° (%)Pre-eclampsia eclampsia N° (%)Other pregnancy N° (%)Unkown N° (%)Notes

Awada et al., 19953093 (33%)*1(11%)**1(11%)4(45%) *2 valvular heart disease, 1 postpartum cardiomyopathy with atrial fibrillation, *Nephrotic syndrome

Sharshar et al., 199530,2151(6,6%)*1(6,6%)**7(47%)2(13,2%)***4(26,6%) *Protein S deficiency; **vertebral artery dissection; ***1 postpartum cerebral angiopathy, 1 amniotic fluid embolism

Kittner et al., 199627171 (5,9%)*6 (35,3%)**4 (23,5%)6 (35,3%) *Mitral valve prolapse; **2 primary CNS vasculopathy, 1 cerebral artery dissection, 1 cerebral venous thrombosis, 1 postherpetic vasculitis, 1 thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura;

Jiagobin and Silver, 200030131 (8%)*4 (30,7%)**2 (15,3%)***3 (23,1)****6 (46%) *Carotid artery dissection; *valvular heart disease, coronary artery disease, patent foramen ovale; ***deficiencies of protein C, protein S, activated protein C resistance; ****preeclampsia-eclampsia was considered as a risk factor

Skidmore et al., 200126,9215 (23,7%)*2 (9,6%)**5 (23,7%)***3 (14,4%)6 (28,6%) *1 pedunculated cardiac mass, 2 rheumatic heart disease, 1 valvular heart disease, 1 peripartum cardiomyopathy, **1 protein S deficiency, 1 factor VII anomaly, ***1 cerebral vasculitis, 1 migrainous infarct, 1 mucormycosis, 1 hypotension, 1 thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura

Jeng et al., 200428,9169 (56%)*3 (19%)**1 (6%)***1(6%)2 (13%) *7 rheumatic heart disease, 2 other heart diseases; **protein S deficiency; ***giant cerebral aneurysm

Liang et al., 200631,5111 (9%)4 (36%)*3 (27%)**2 (18%)1 (9%)*** *2 congenital heart disease, 1 rheumatic heart disease, 1 atrial mixoma; **cerebral venous thrombosis; ***amniotic fluid embolism;