Table 1: Risk factors for pediatric stroke.

Congenital heart disease

Ventricular/atrial septal defect
Patent ductus arteriosus
Aortic/mitral stenosis
Coarctation
Cardiac rhabdomyoma
Complex congenital heart defects

Acquired heart disease

Rheumatic heart disease
Prosthetic heart valve
Endocarditis
Cardiomyopathy
Myocarditis
Atrial myxoma
Arrhythmia

Systemic vascular disease

Systemic hypertension
Volume depletion or systemic hypotension
Hypernatremia
Superior vena cava syndrome
Diabetes

Vasculitis

Meningitis
Systemic infection
Systemic lupus erythematosus
Polyarteritis nodosa
Granulomatous angiitis
Takayasu's arteritis
Rheumatoid arthritis
Dermatomyositis
Inflammatory bowel disease
Drug abuse (cocaine, amphetamines)
Hemolytic-uremic syndrome

Vasculopathies

Ehlers-Danlos syndrome
Homocystinuria
Moyamoya syndrome
Fabry's disease
Malignant atrophic papulosis
Pseudoxanthoma elasticurn
NADH-CoQ reductase deficiency

Vasospastic disorders

Migraine
Ergot poisoning
Vasospasm with subarachnoid hemorrhage

Hematologic disorders and coagulopathies

Hemoglobinopathies (sickle cell anemia, sickle
cell-hemoglobin C, sickle-thalassemia)
Immune thrombocytopenic purpura
Thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura
Thrombocytosis
Polycythemia
Disseminated intravascular coagulation
Leukemia or other neoplasms
Congenital coagulation defects
Oral contraceptive use
Antithrombin III deficiency
Protein S deficiency
Protein C deficiency
Congenital serum C2 deficiency
Liver dysfunction with coagulation defect
Vitamin K deficiency
Lupus anticoagulant
Anticardiolipin antibodies

Structural anomalies of the cerebrovascular system

Arterial fibromuscular dysplasia
Agenesis or hypoplasia of the internal carotid or
vertebral arteries
Arteriovenous malformation
Hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia
Sturge-Weber syndrome
Intracranial aneurysm

Trauma

Child abuse
Fat or air embolism
Foreign body embolism
Carotid ligation
Vertebral occlusion following abrupt cervical rotation
Posttraumatic arterial dissection
Blunt cervical arterial trauma
Arteriography
Posttraumatic carotid cavernous fistula
Coagulation defect with minor trauma
Penetrating intracranial trauma