- About this Journal
- Abstracting and Indexing
- Aims and Scope
- Annual Issues
- Article Processing Charges
- Articles in Press
- Author Guidelines
- Bibliographic Information
- Citations to this Journal
- Contact Information
- Editorial Board
- Editorial Workflow
- Free eTOC Alerts
- Publication Ethics
- Reviewers Acknowledgment
- Submit a Manuscript
- Subscription Information
- Table of Contents
Stroke Research and Treatment
Volume 2011 (2011), Article ID 764830, 6 pages
Persistent Penumbra in a Rabbit Stroke Model: Incidence and Histologic Characteristics
1Department of Pathology, College of Medicine, University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences, Little Rock, AR 72205, USA
2Department of Radiology, College of Medicine, University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences, Little Rock, AR 72205, USA
3Department of Biostatistics, College of Medicine, University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences, Little Rock, AR 72205, USA
4Division of Laboratory Animal Medicine, College of Medicine, University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences, Little Rock, AR 72205, USA
Received 31 October 2010; Revised 4 April 2011; Accepted 20 April 2011
Academic Editor: David S. Liebeskind
Copyright © 2011 Leah J. Hennings et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
- M. J. Alberts, C. Bertels, and D. V. Dawson, “An analysis of time presentation after stroke,” Journal of the American Medical Association, vol. 263, no. 1, pp. 65–68, 1990.
- S. J. Read, T. Hirano, D. F. Abbott et al., “The fate of hypoxic tissue on 18F-fluoromisonidazole positron emission tomography after ischemic stroke,” Annals of Neurology, vol. 48, no. 2, pp. 228–235, 2000.
- S. J. Read, T. Hirano, D. F. Abbott et al., “Identifying hypoxic tissue after acute ischemic stroke using PET and F-fluoromisonidazole,” Neurology, vol. 51, no. 6, pp. 1617–1621, 1998.
- K. Saita, M. Chen, N. J. Spratt et al., “Imaging the ischemic penumbra with 18F-fluoromisonidazole in a rat model of ischemic stroke,” Stroke, vol. 35, no. 4, pp. 975–980, 2004.
- W. D. Heiss, L. Kracht, M. Grond et al., “Early [(11)C]flumazenil/HO positron emission tomography predicts irreversible ischemic cortical damage in stroke patients receiving acute thrombolytic therapy,” Stroke, vol. 31, no. 2, pp. 366–369, 2000.
- M. D. Ginsberg, “Adventures in the pathophysiology of brain ischemia: penumbra, gene expression, neuroprotection: the 2002 Thomas Willis lecture,” Stroke, vol. 34, no. 1, pp. 214–223, 2003.
- A. Y. Shih, B. Friedman, P. J. Drew, P. S. Tsai, P. D. Lyden, and D. Kleinfeld, “Active dilation of penetrating arterioles restores red blood cell flux to penumbral neocortex after focal stroke,” Journal of Cerebral Blood Flow and Metabolism, vol. 29, no. 4, pp. 738–751, 2009.
- G. J. del Zoppo and T. Mabuchi, “Cerebral microvessel responses to focal ischemia,” Journal of Cerebral Blood Flow and Metabolism, vol. 23, no. 8, pp. 879–894, 2003.
- G. J. del Zoppo, “Virchow's triad: the vascular basis of cerebral injury,” Reviews in Neurological Diseases, vol. 5, supplement 1, pp. S12–S21, 2008.
- G. Tsivgoulis, W. C. Culp, and A. V. Alexandrov, “Ultrasound enhanced thrombolysis in acute arterial ischemia,” Ultrasonics, vol. 48, no. 4, pp. 303–311, 2008.
- S. C. Chen, J. L. Ruan, P. O. W. Cheng, Y. H. Chuang, and P. C. Li, “In vitro evaluation of ultrasound-assisted thrombolysis using a targeted ultrasound contrast agent,” Ultrason Imaging, vol. 31, no. 4, pp. 235–246, 2009.
- C. A. Molina, M. Ribo, M. Rubiera et al., “Microbubble administration accelerates clot lysis during continuous 2-MHz ultrasound monitoring in stroke patients treated with intravenous tissue plasminogen activator,” Stroke, vol. 37, no. 2, pp. 425–429, 2006.
- W. C. Culp, T. R. Porter, J. Lowery, F. Xie, P. K. Roberson, and L. Marky, “Intracranial clot lysis with intravenous microbubbles and transcranial ultrasound in swine,” Stroke, vol. 35, no. 10, pp. 2407–2411, 2004.
- A. Abou-Chebl, “Endovascular treatment of acute ischemic stroke may be safely performed with no time window limit in appropriately selected patients,” Stroke, vol. 41, no. 9, pp. 1996–2000, 2010.
- P. Thored, J. Wood, A. Arvidsson, J. Cammenga, Z. Kokaia, and O. Lindvall, “Long-term neuroblast migration along blood vessels in an area with transient angiogenesis and increased vascularization after stroke,” Stroke, vol. 38, no. 11, pp. 3032–3039, 2007.
- A. T. Brown, R. D. Skinner, R. Flores et al., “Stroke location and brain function in an embolic rabbit stroke model,” Journal of Vascular and Interventional Radiology, vol. 21, no. 6, pp. 903–909, 2010.
- L. Belayev, W. Zhao, R. Busto, and M. D. Ginsberg, “Transient middle cerebral artery occlusion by intraluminal suture: I. Three-dimensional autoradiographic image-analysis of local cerebral glucose metabolism blood flow interrelationships during ischemia and early recirculation,” Journal of Cerebral Blood Flow and Metabolism, vol. 17, no. 12, pp. 1266–1280, 1997.
- M. Takasawa, J. S. Beech, T. D. Fryer et al., “Imaging of brain hypoxia in permanent and temporary middle cerebral artery occlusion in the rat using 18F-fluoromisonidazole and positron emission tomography: a pilot study,” Journal of Cerebral Blood Flow and Metabolism, vol. 27, no. 4, pp. 679–689, 2007.
- M. D. Ginsberg, L. Belayev, W. Zhao, P. W. Huh, and R. Busto, “The acute ischemic penumbra: topography, life span, and therapeutic response,” Acta Neurochirurgica, vol. 1999, no. 73, supplement, pp. 45–50, 1999.
- T. Noto, Y. Furuichi, M. Ishiye et al., “Tacrolimus (FK506) limits accumulation of granulocytes and platelets and protects against brain damage after transient focal cerebral ischemia in rat,” Biological and Pharmaceutical Bulletin, vol. 30, no. 2, pp. 313–317, 2007.
- T. Noto, Y. Furuichi, M. Ishiye et al., “Temporal and topographic profiles of tissue hypoxia following transient focal cerebral ischemia in rats,” Journal of Veterinary Medical Science, vol. 68, no. 8, pp. 803–807, 2006.
- W. Zhao, L. Belayev, and M. D. Ginsberg, “Transient middle cerebral artery occlusion by intraluminal suture: 2. neurological deficits, and pixel-based correlation of histopathology with local blood flow and glucose utilization,” Journal of Cerebral Blood Flow and Metabolism, vol. 17, no. 12, pp. 1281–1290, 1997.
- D. Lloyd-Jones, R. J. Adams, T. M. Brown et al., “Heart disease and stroke statistics-2010 update: a report from the american heart association,” Circulation, vol. 121, no. 7, pp. e46–e215, 2010.
- D. Kleindorfer, Y. Xu, C. J. Moomaw, P. Khatri, O. Adeoye, and R. Hornung, “US geographic distribution of rt-PA utilization by hospital for acute ischemic stroke,” Stroke, vol. 40, no. 11, pp. 3580–3584, 2009.
- N. Ahmed, N. Wahlgren, M. Grond et al., “Implementation and outcome of thrombolysis with alteplase 3-4·5 h after an acute stroke: an updated analysis from SITS-ISTR,” The Lancet Neurology, vol. 9, no. 9, pp. 866–874, 2010.
- W. Hacke, M. Kaste, E. Bluhmki et al., “Thrombolysis with alteplase 3 to 4.5 hours after acute ischemic stroke,” New England Journal of Medicine, vol. 359, no. 13, pp. 1317–1329, 2008.