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Stroke Research and Treatment
Volume 2011 (2011), Article ID 781612, 11 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.4061/2011/781612
Case Report

Paediatric Stroke: Review of the Literature and Possible Treatment Options, including Endovascular Approach

1Neuroradiology Department, Fondazione Istituto “C. Besta”, Via Celoria 11, 20133 Milan, Italy
2Paediatric Department, Fondazione Istituto “C. Besta”, Via Celoria 11, 20133 Milan, Italy
3Neuroradiology Department, Ospedale Niguarda, Piazza Ospedale Maggiore 3, 20162 Milan, Italy

Received 23 September 2010; Revised 11 May 2011; Accepted 12 May 2011

Academic Editor: Halvor Naess

Copyright © 2011 Elisa F. Ciceri et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Abstract

Stroke is among the top 10 causes of death in childhood. More than half of the surviving children have long-term neurological sequelae. Ischemic stroke (IS) includes arterial ischemic stroke and cerebral venous thrombosis with venous infarction. Haemorrhagic stroke (HS) includes intracerebral haematoma or subarachnoid haemorrhage. Risk factors for stroke are different in children and in adults. 10–30% of IS have no identified risk factors. However, multiple risk factors are recognizable in the majority of stroke in children; thus, a comprehensive diagnostic evaluation is crucial. Vascular abnormalities, such as arteriovenous malformations, aneurysms, vessel dissection, stenosis, and moyamoya disease, are frequently associated with both IS and HS and lead to high recurrence rates. Endovascular and surgical treatment options are sometimes indicated, performed on the basis of expert opinion, and extrapolated from the adult procedures. In the present paper, we review the recent literature and we discuss the treatment in five cases managed at our institutions.