Table 1: Univariate associations of demographic, baseline, vital signs, hospital complications, and procedures with the development of an infection and serious infection during the hospital stay.

No infection   𝑁 = 5 5 Infection   𝑁 = 3 9 𝑃 Serious infection   𝑁 = 1 9 𝑃 *

Demographics, clinical variables on admission

Age (years) 6 9 . 2 ± 1 . 6 7 5 . 5 ± 8 . 9 .006 7 4 . 6 ± 2 . 2 NS
Male sex2815NS8NS
Time symptom onset to admission (hours) 5 . 2 ± 0 . 7 3 . 8 ± 0 . 7 NS 2 . 8 ± 1 . 2 NS
History of diabetes mellitus1817NS9NS
History of hypertension4437NS18NS
History of metabolic syndrome1514NS5NS
History of coronary artery disease2420NS11NS
History of stroke95NS3NS
Admission NIHSS 8 . 3 ± 0 . 6 1 3 . 3 ± 0 . 9 <.0001 1 4 . 8 ± 1 . 3 <.0001
Thrombolysis (IV and/or IA)1815NS10NS
Systolic blood pressure on admission (mm Hg) 1 6 1 . 0 ± 4 . 1 1 7 0 . 6 ± 5 . 0 NS 1 7 1 . 6 ± 7 . 0 NS
Diastolic blood pressure on admission (mm Hg) 8 5 . 2 ± 2 . 5 8 4 . 9 ± 3 . 2 NS 8 4 . 0 ± 4 . 3 NS
Heart rate on admission (bpm) 8 1 . 6 ± 2 . 0 8 2 . 0 ± 2 . 5 NS 8 3 . 5 0 ± 3 . 6 NS
Oxygen saturation on admission (%) 9 5 . 6 ± 0 . 4 9 5 . 3 ± 0 . 3 NS 9 4 . 7 ± 0 . 6 NS

Hospital complications and procedures

Dysphagia823<.000116<.0001
Central line114<.000113<.0001
Urinary catheter1638<.000119<.0001
Mechanical ventilation111<.000110<.0001
Length of hospital stay (days) 9 . 9 ± 0 . 7 1 7 . 3 ± 1 . 2 <.0001 2 0 . 7 ± 2 . 1 <.0001

Radiological variables

DWI volume day 1 (cm3) 1 1 . 3 ± 3 . 5 4 5 . 6 ± 1 1 . 9 .002 5 8 . 0 ± 2 0 . 2 .001
FLAIR volume day 5–7 (cm3) 1 5 . 8 ± 4 . 2 7 5 . 6 ± 1 7 . 8 <.0001 1 0 5 . 3 ± 3 2 . 1 <.0001
Location of stroke
 Anterior insula included03.0371NS
 Posterior insula included92NS1NS
 Entire insula included313 < . 0 0 0 1 8.001
 MCA territory4029NS15NS
 ACA territory12NS1NS
 PCA territory197NS3NS
 Brain stem44NS2NS
 Cerebellum51NS1NS
 Right sided stroke2516NS9NS
 Left sided stroke2419NS8NS
 Bilateral stroke64NS2NS
Outcome

mRS at 3 months
030<.00010<.0001
11110
22341
315112
421410
5122
6074

Data are shown as number for dichotomized variables mean ± standard error of the mean (SEM) for normally distributed continuous variables, or median (range) for abnormally distributed continuous variables. * 𝑃 value for analysis of serious infection versus no infection.
NIHSS: National Institute of Health Stroke Scale; IV: intravenous; IA: intra-arterial; DWI: diffusion weighted imaging; FLAIR: fluid attenuated inversion recovery imaging; MCA: middle cerebral artery; ACA: anterior cerebral artery; PCA: posterior cerebral artery; mRS: modified Rankin scale.