Table 1: Subject characteristics and operative data.

Open heart surgeryControlsP

Number of subjects228
Male/female sex ()11/111/7NS
Age (years)45.2 ± 11.239.4 ± 16.6NS
Education (years)14.5 ± 2.815.4 ± 3.4NS
MMSE at first assessment (score)27.3 ± 2.627.6 ± 3.3NS
MMSE at followup (score)27.0 ± 3.028.1 ± 3.7NS
History of hypertension ()60NS
History of diabetes ()10NS
History of atrium fibrillation ()70NS
NYHA class III and IV ()800.046
Ejection fraction (%)62.3 ± 7.0
End systolic size of left ventricular (mm)35.6 ± 0.8
Mitral valve replacement ()10
Aortic valve replacement ()9
Aortic and mitral valve replacement ()3
Cardiopulmonary bypass time (minute)115.6 ± 49.5
Aortic cross-clamp time (minute)73.9 ± 34.5
Postoperative delirium ( 𝑛 )3

Data given as means and SD, unless otherwise indicated.
Abbreviations: n: number of patients; NS: not significant; NYHA: New York Heart Association.