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Stroke Research and Treatment
Volume 2013 (2013), Article ID 473416, 13 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2013/473416
Review Article

Emerging Molecular Targets for Brain Repair after Stroke

1Cerebrovascular Diseases Unit, Department of Neurology, University Hospital Mutua Terrassa, Terrassa, 08221 Barcelona, Spain
2School of Healthcare Science, Manchester Metropolitan University, Manchester M1 5GD, UK

Received 31 August 2012; Accepted 14 December 2012

Academic Editor: Julio Josë Secades

Copyright © 2013 Jerzy Krupinski and Mark Slevin. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Abstract

The field of neuroprotection generated consistent preclinical findings of mechanisms of cell death but these failed to be translated into clinics. The approaches that combine the modulation of the inhibitory environment together with the promotion of intrinsic axonal outgrowth needs further work before combined therapeutic strategies will be transferable to clinic trials. It is likely that only when some answers have been found to these issues will our therapeutic efforts meet our expectations. Stroke is a clinically heterogeneous disease and combinatorial treatments require much greater work in pharmacological and toxicological testing. Advances in genetics and results of the Whole Human Genome Project (HGP) provided new unknown information in relation to stroke. Genetic factors are not the only determinants of responses to some diseases. It was recognized early on that “epigenetic” factors were major players in the aetiology and progression of many diseases like stroke. The major players are microRNAs that represent the best-characterized subclass of noncoding RNAs. Epigenetic mechanisms convert environmental conditions and physiological stresses into long-term changes in gene expression and translation. Epigenetics in stroke are in their infancy but offer great promise for better understanding of stroke pathology and the potential viability of new strategies for its treatment.