- About this Journal ·
- Abstracting and Indexing ·
- Aims and Scope ·
- Annual Issues ·
- Article Processing Charges ·
- Articles in Press ·
- Author Guidelines ·
- Bibliographic Information ·
- Citations to this Journal ·
- Contact Information ·
- Editorial Board ·
- Editorial Workflow ·
- Free eTOC Alerts ·
- Publication Ethics ·
- Reviewers Acknowledgment ·
- Submit a Manuscript ·
- Subscription Information ·
- Table of Contents
Stroke Research and Treatment
Volume 2013 (2013), Article ID 562506, 6 pages
The Cog-4 Subset of the National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale as a Measure of Cognition: Relationship with Baseline Factors and Functional Outcome after Stroke Using Data from the Virtual International Stroke Trials Archive
1Stroke Trials Unit, Division of Stroke, University of Nottingham, City Hospital Campus, Nottingham NG5 1PB, UK
2Stroke Service, City Hospital, Nottingham University Hospitals NHS Trust, Nottingham NG5 1PB, UK
Received 14 September 2012; Revised 3 February 2013; Accepted 11 February 2013
Academic Editor: Daniel Woo
Copyright © 2013 Sandeep Ankolekar et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
- V. K. Srikanth, S. J. Quinn, G. A. Donnan, M. M. Saling, and A. G. Thrift, “Long-term cognitive transitions, rates of cognitive change, and predictors of incident dementia in a population-based first-ever stroke cohort,” Stroke, vol. 37, no. 10, pp. 2479–2483, 2006.
- S. Serrano, J. Domingo, E. Rodríguez-Garcia, M. D. Castro, and T. Del Ser, “Frequency of cognitive impairment without dementia in patients with stroke: a two-year follow-up study,” Stroke, vol. 38, no. 1, pp. 105–110, 2007.
- C. Ballard, E. Rowan, S. Stephens, R. Kalaria, and R. A. Kenny, “Prospective follow-up study between 3 and 15 months after stroke: improvements and decline in cognitive function among dementia-free stroke survivors >75 years of age,” Stroke, vol. 34, no. 10, pp. 2440–2444, 2003.
- S. M. C. Rasquin, J. Lodder, and F. R. J. Verhey, “Predictors of reversible mild cognitive impairment after stroke: a 2-year follow-up study,” Journal of the Neurological Sciences, vol. 229-230, pp. 21–25, 2005.
- S. Ankolekar, C. Geeganage, P. Anderton, C. Hogg, and P. M. W. Bath, “Clinical trials for preventing post stroke cognitive impairment,” Journal of the Neurological Sciences, vol. 299, no. 1-2, pp. 168–174, 2010.
- J. C. L. Looi and P. S. Sachdev, “Differentiation of vascular dementia from AD on neuropsychological tests,” Neurology, vol. 53, no. 4, pp. 670–678, 1999.
- D. W. Desmond, “Vascular dementia: a construct in evolution,” Cerebrovascular and Brain Metabolism Reviews, vol. 8, no. 4, pp. 296–325, 1996.
- K. D. Garrett, J. N. Browndyke, W. Whelihan et al., “The neuropsychological profile of vascular cognitive impairment—no dementia: comparisons to patients at risk for cerebrovascular disease and vascular dementia,” Archives of Clinical Neuropsychology, vol. 19, no. 6, pp. 745–757, 2004.
- D. W. Desmond, J. T. Moroney, E. Bagiella, M. Sano, and Y. Stern, “Dementia as a predictor of adverse outcomes following stroke: an evaluation of diagnostic methods,” Stroke, vol. 29, no. 1, pp. 69–74, 1998.
- S. T. Pendlebury, F. C. Cuthbertson, S. J. V. Welch, Z. Mehta, and P. M. Rothwell, “Underestimation of cognitive impairment by mini-mental state examination versus the montreal cognitive assessment in patients with transient ischemic attack and stroke: a population-based study,” Stroke, vol. 41, no. 6, pp. 1290–1293, 2010.
- Z. S. Nasreddine, N. A. Phillips, V. Bédirian et al., “The Montreal Cognitive Assessment, MoCA: a brief screening tool for mild cognitive impairment,” Journal of the American Geriatrics Society, vol. 53, no. 4, pp. 695–699, 2005.
- E. Mioshi, K. Dawson, J. Mitchell, R. Arnold, and J. R. Hodges, “The Addenbrooke's Cognitive Examination revised (ACE-R): a brief cognitive test battery for dementia screening,” International Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry, vol. 21, no. 11, pp. 1078–1085, 2006.
- V. Hachinski, C. Iadecola, R. C. Petersen et al., “National Institute of neurological disorders and stroke-Canadian stroke network vascular cognitive impairment harmonization standards,” Stroke, vol. 37, pp. 2220–2241, 2006.
- T. Brott, H. P. Adams, C. P. Olinger et al., “Measurements of acute cerebral infarction: a clinical examination scale,” Stroke, vol. 20, no. 7, pp. 864–870, 1989.
- T. B. Cumming, C. Blomstrand, J. Bernhardt, and T. Linden, “The NIH stroke scale can establish cognitive function after stroke,” Cerebrovascular Diseases, vol. 30, no. 1, pp. 7–14, 2010.
- M. Ali, P. M. W. Bath, J. Curram et al., “The virtual international stroke trials archive,” Stroke, vol. 38, no. 6, pp. 1905–1910, 2007.
- G. Sulter, C. Steen, and J. De Keyser, “Use of the Barthel Index and Modified Rankin Scale in acute stroke trials,” Stroke, vol. 30, no. 8, pp. 1538–1541, 1999.
- J. Bamford, P. Sandercock, M. Dennis, J. Burn, and C. Warlow, “Classification and natural history of clinical identifiable subtypes of cerebral infarction,” Lancet, vol. 337, no. 8756, pp. 1521–1526, 1991.
- B. Censori, O. Manara, C. Agostinis et al., “Dementia after first stroke,” Stroke, vol. 27, no. 7, pp. 1205–1210, 1996.
- R. Barba, S. Martínez-Espinosa, E. Rodríguez-García, M. Pondal, J. Vivancos, and T. Del Ser, “Poststroke dementia: clinical features and risk factors,” Stroke, vol. 31, no. 7, pp. 1494–1501, 2000.
- B. Tamam, N. Taşdemir, and Y. Tamam, “The prevalence of dementia three months after stroke and its risk factors,” Turkish Journal of Psychiatry, vol. 19, no. 1, pp. 46–56, 2008.
- S. M. C. Rasquin, F. R. J. Verhey, R. J. Van Oostenbrugge, R. Lousberg, and J. Lodder, “Demographic and CT scan features related to cognitive impairment in the first year after stroke,” Journal of Neurology, Neurosurgery and Psychiatry, vol. 75, no. 11, pp. 1562–1567, 2004.
- D. H. D. Zhou, J. Y. J. Wang, J. Li, J. Deng, C. Gao, and M. Chen, “Study on frequency and predictors of dementia after ischemic stroke: the chongqing stroke study,” Journal of Neurology, vol. 251, no. 4, pp. 421–427, 2004.
- J. H. Lin, R. T. Lin, C. T. Tai, C. L. Hsieh, S. F. Hsiao, and C. K. Liu, “Prediction of poststroke dementia,” Neurology, vol. 61, no. 3, pp. 343–348, 2003.
- A. Jaillard, S. Grand, J. F. Le Bas, and M. Hommel, “Predicting cognitive dysfunctioning in nondemented patients early after stroke,” Cerebrovascular Diseases, vol. 29, no. 5, pp. 415–423, 2010.
- H. Hénon, I. Durieu, D. Guerouaou, F. Lebert, F. Pasquier, and D. Leys, “Poststroke dementia: incidence and relationship to prestroke cognitive decline,” Neurology, vol. 57, no. 7, pp. 1216–1222, 2001.
- T. Pohjasvaara, T. Erkinjuntti, R. Ylikoski, M. Hietanen, R. Vataja, and M. Kaste, “Clinical determinants of poststroke dementia,” Stroke, vol. 29, no. 1, pp. 75–81, 1998.
- C. Counsell, The prediction of outcome in patients with acute stroke [dissertation], University of Cambridge, Cambridge, UK, 1998.
- “Aphasia, memory loss, and other focal cerebral disorders,” in Harrison'S Principles of Internal Medicine, D. L. Kasper, Ed., pp. 145–153, McGraw Hill, New York, NY, USA, 2005.
- D. Woo, J. P. Broderick, R. U. Kothari et al., “Does the National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale favor left hemisphere strokes?” Stroke, vol. 30, no. 11, pp. 2355–2359, 1999.