About this Journal Submit a Manuscript Table of Contents
Stroke Research and Treatment
Volume 2013 (2013), Article ID 648061, 13 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2013/648061
Research Article

Targeting Oxidative Stress Injury after Ischemic Stroke in Conscious Rats: Limited Benefits with Apocynin Highlight the Need to Incorporate Long Term Recovery

1Stroke Injury and Repair Team, O'Brien Institute, St Vincent's Hospital Melbourne, Fitzroy, Victoria, Australia
2Cytoprotection Pharmacology Program, Centre for Eye Research, The Royal Eye and Ear Hospital Victoria, Melbourne, Victoria, Australia
3Department of Ophthalmology, Faculty of Medicine, The University of Melbourne, Victoria, Australia
4Department of Surgery, Faculty of Medicine, The University of Melbourne, Victoria, Australia

Received 1 November 2012; Accepted 14 December 2012

Academic Editor: Iwa Antonow-Schlorke

Copyright © 2013 Robert M. Weston et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Linked References

  1. B. Schaller, “Prospects for the future: the role of free radicals in the treatment of stroke,” Free Radical Biology and Medicine, vol. 38, no. 4, pp. 411–425, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  2. S. P. Green, B. Cairns, J. Rae et al., “Induction of gp91-phox, a component of the phagocyte NADPH oxidase, in microglial cells during central nervous system inflammation,” Journal of Cerebral Blood Flow and Metabolism, vol. 21, no. 4, pp. 374–384, 2001. View at Scopus
  3. A. A. Miller, G. J. Dusting, C. L. Roulston, and C. G. Sobey, “NADPH-oxidase activity is elevated in penumbral and non-ischemic cerebral arteries following stroke,” Brain Research, vol. 1111, no. 1, pp. 111–116, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  4. S. K. McCann, G. J. Dusting, and C. L. Roulston, “Early increase of Nox4 NADPH oxidase and superoxide generation following endothelin-1-induced stroke in conscious rats,” Journal of Neuroscience Research, vol. 86, no. 11, pp. 2524–2534, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  5. C. X. Wang and A. Shuaib, “Neuroprotective effects of free radical scavengers in stroke,” Drugs and Aging, vol. 24, no. 7, pp. 537–546, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  6. F. Jiang, G. R. Drummond, and G. J. Dusting, “Suppression of oxidative stress in the endothelium and vascular wall,” Endothelium, vol. 11, no. 2, pp. 79–88, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  7. K. K. Griendling, D. Sorescu, and M. Ushio-Fukai, “NAD(P)H oxidase: role in cardiovascular biology and disease,” Circulation Research, vol. 86, no. 5, pp. 494–501, 2000. View at Scopus
  8. A. A. Miller, G. R. Drummond, H. H. Schmidt, and C. G. Sobey, “NADPH oxidase activity and function are profoundly greater in cerebral versus systemic arteries,” Circulation Research, vol. 97, no. 10, pp. 1055–1062, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  9. P. Vallet, Y. Charnay, K. Steger et al., “Neuronal expression of the NADPH oxidase NOX4, and its regulation in mouse experimental brain ischemia,” Neuroscience, vol. 132, no. 2, pp. 233–238, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  10. E. C. Chan, F. Jiang, H. M. Peshavariya, and G. J. Dusting, “Regulation of cell proliferation by NADPH oxidase-mediated signaling: potential roles in tissue repair, regenerative medicine and tissue engineering,” Pharmacology and Therapeutics, vol. 122, no. 2, pp. 97–108, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  11. R. Vlahos, J. Stambas, S. Bozinovski, B. R. Broughton, G. R. Drummond, and S. Selemidis, “Inhibition of Nox2 oxidase activity ameliorates influenza a virus-induced lung inflammation,” PLoS Pathogens, vol. 7, no. 2, Article ID e1001271, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  12. L. L. Tang, K. Ye, X. F. Yang, and J. S. Zheng, “Apocynin attenuates cerebral infarction after transient focal ischaemia in rats,” Journal of International Medical Research, vol. 35, no. 4, pp. 517–522, 2007. View at Scopus
  13. X. N. Tang, B. Cairns, N. Cairns, and M. A. Yenari, “Apocynin improves outcome in experimental stroke with a narrow dose range,” Neuroscience, vol. 154, no. 2, pp. 556–562, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  14. K. A. Jackman, A. A. Miller, T. M. De Silva, P. J. Crack, G. R. Drummond, and C. G. Sobey, “Reduction of cerebral infarct volume by apocynin requires pretreatment and is absent in Nox2-deficient mice,” British Journal of Pharmacology, vol. 156, no. 4, pp. 680–688, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  15. J. K. Callaway, M. J. Knight, D. J. Watkins, P. M. Beart, and B. Jarrott, “Delayed treatment with AM-36, a novel neuroprotective agent, reduces neuronal damage after endothelin-1-induced middle cerebral artery occlusion in conscious rats,” Stroke, vol. 30, no. 12, pp. 2704–2712, 1999. View at Scopus
  16. C. L. Roulston, J. K. Callaway, B. Jarrott, O. L. Woodman, and G. J. Dusting, “Using behaviour to predict stroke severity in conscious rats: post-stroke treatment with 3′, 4′-dihydroxyflavonol improves recovery,” European Journal of Pharmacology, vol. 584, no. 1, pp. 100–110, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  17. M. Yamamoto, A. Tamura, T. Kirino, M. Shimizu, and K. Sano, “Behavioral changes after focal cerebral ischemia by left middle cerebral artery occlusion in rats,” Brain Research, vol. 452, no. 1-2, pp. 323–328, 1988. View at Scopus
  18. J. K. Callaway, M. J. Knight, D. J. Watkins, P. M. Beart, B. Jarrott, and P. M. Delaney, “A novel, rapid, computerised method for quantitation of neuronal damage in a rat model of stroke,” Journal of Neuroscience Methods, vol. 102, no. 1, pp. 53–60, 2000. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  19. H. Shichinohe, S. Kuroda, H. Yasuda et al., “Neuroprotective effects of the free radical scavenger Edaravone (MCI-186) in mice permanent focal brain ischemia,” Brain Research, vol. 1029, no. 2, pp. 200–206, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  20. C. L. Roulston, A. J. Lawrence, R. E. Widdop, and B. Jarrott, “Minocycline treatment attenuates microglia activation and non-angiotensin II [125I] CGP42112 binding in brainstem following nodose ganglionectomy,” Neuroscience, vol. 135, no. 4, pp. 1241–1253, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  21. Michael J. O'Neill and Clemens James A., “Rodent Models of focal cerebral ischemia,” in Current Protocols in Neuroscience, chapter 9, unit 9.6, pp. 1–32, John Wiley & Sons, New York, NY, USA, 2000. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  22. M. S. K. C. L. Roulston, R. M. Weston, and B. Jarrott, “Animal models of stroke for preclinical drug development: a comparative study of flavonols for cytoprotection,” in Translational Stroke Research, P. A. Lapchak and J. H. Zhang, Eds., Springer, Berlin, Germany, 2011.
  23. D. Virley, S. J. Hadingham, J. C. Roberts et al., “A new primate model of focal stroke: endothelin-1-induced middle cerebral artery occlusion and reperfusion in the common marmoset,” Journal of Cerebral Blood Flow and Metabolism, vol. 24, no. 1, pp. 24–41, 2004. View at Scopus
  24. M. Hagerdal, F. A. Welsh, and M. M. Keykhah, “Protective effects of combinations of hypothermia and barbiturates in cerebral hypoxia in the rat,” Anesthesiology, vol. 49, no. 3, pp. 165–169, 1978. View at Scopus
  25. A. Bhardwaj, T. Brannan, and J. Weinberger, “Pentobarbital inhibits extracellular release of dopamine in the ischemic striatum,” Journal of Neural Transmission, vol. 82, no. 2, pp. 111–117, 1990. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  26. C. D. Fütterer, M. H. Maurer, A. Schmitt, R. E. Feldmann, W. Kuschinsky, and K. F. Waschke, “Alterations in rat brain proteins after desflurane anesthesia,” Anesthesiology, vol. 100, no. 2, pp. 302–308, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  27. H. Chen, Y. S. Song, and P. H. Chan, “Inhibition of NADPH oxidase is neuroprotective after ischemia-reperfusion,” Journal of Cerebral Blood Flow and Metabolism, vol. 29, no. 7, pp. 1262–1272, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  28. R. M. Weston, N. M. Jones, B. Jarrott, and J. K. Callaway, “Inflammatory cell infiltration after endothelin-1-induced cerebral ischemia: histochemical and myeloperoxidase correlation with temporal changes in brain injury,” Journal of Cerebral Blood Flow and Metabolism, vol. 27, no. 1, pp. 100–114, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  29. J. Hur, P. Lee, M. J. Kim, Y. Kim, and Y. W. Cho, “Ischemia-activated microglia induces neuronal injury via activation of gp91phox NADPH oxidase,” Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications, vol. 391, no. 3, pp. 1526–1530, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  30. J. M. Simons, B. A. 't Hart, T. R. A. M. Ip Vai Ching, H. Van Dijk, and R. P. Labadie, “Metabolic activation of natural phenols into selective oxidative burst agonists by activated human neurophils,” Free Radical Biology and Medicine, vol. 8, no. 3, pp. 251–258, 1990. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  31. E. Van den Worm, C. J. Beukelman, A. J. J. Van den Berg, B. H. Kroes, R. P. Labadie, and H. Van Dijk, “Effects of methoxylation of apocynin and analogs on the inhibition of reactive oxygen species production by stimulated human neutrophils,” European Journal of Pharmacology, vol. 433, no. 2-3, pp. 225–230, 2001. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  32. S. Heumüller, S. Wind, E. Barbosa-Sicard et al., “Apocynin is not an inhibitor of vascular NADPH oxidases but an antioxidant,” Hypertension, vol. 51, no. 2, pp. 211–217, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  33. J. Stolk, T. J. Hiltermann, J. H. Dijkman, and A. J. Verhoeven, “Characteristics of the inhibition of NADPH oxidase activation in neutrophils by apocynin, a methoxy-substituted catechol,” The American Journal of Respiratory Cell and Molecular Biology, vol. 11, no. 1, pp. 95–102, 1994. View at Scopus
  34. O. J. Dodd and D. B. Pearse, “Effect of the NADPH oxidase inhibitor apocynin on ischemia-reperfusion lung injury,” The American Journal of Physiology, vol. 279, no. 1, pp. H303–H312, 2000. View at Scopus
  35. M. Vejražka, R. Míček, and S. Štípek, “Apocynin inhibits NADPH oxidase in phagocytes but stimulates ROS production in non-phagocytic cells,” Biochimica et Biophysica Acta, vol. 1722, no. 2, pp. 143–147, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  36. P. S. Green, A. J. Mendez, J. S. Jacob et al., “Neuronal expression of myeloperoxidase is increased in Alzheimer's disease,” Journal of Neurochemistry, vol. 90, no. 3, pp. 724–733, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  37. C. Kleinschnitz, H. Grund, K. Wingler et al., “Post-stroke inhibition of induced NADPH Oxidase type 4 prevents oxidative stress and neurodegeneration,” PLoS Biology, vol. 8, no. 9, Article ID e1000479, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  38. H. Sheng, W. Yang, S. Fukuda et al., “Long-term neuroprotection from a potent redox-modulating metalloporphyrin in the rat,” Free Radical Biology and Medicine, vol. 47, no. 7, pp. 917–923, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus