- About this Journal ·
- Abstracting and Indexing ·
- Advance Access ·
- Aims and Scope ·
- Annual Issues ·
- Article Processing Charges ·
- Articles in Press ·
- Author Guidelines ·
- Bibliographic Information ·
- Citations to this Journal ·
- Contact Information ·
- Editorial Board ·
- Editorial Workflow ·
- Free eTOC Alerts ·
- Publication Ethics ·
- Reviewers Acknowledgment ·
- Submit a Manuscript ·
- Subscription Information ·
- Table of Contents
Stroke Research and Treatment
Volume 2013 (2013), Article ID 651958, 7 pages
Pathophysiological Role of Global Cerebral Ischemia following Subarachnoid Hemorrhage: The Current Experimental Evidence
Institute for Stroke and Dementia Research (ISD), University of Munich Medical Center, Ludwig-Maximilians-University, Max-Lebsche Platz 3, 81377 Munich, Germany
Received 28 February 2013; Accepted 29 April 2013
Academic Editor: R. Loch Macdonald
Copyright © 2013 Nikolaus Plesnila. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
- L. H. Pobereskin, “Incidence and outcome of subarachnoid haemorrhage: a retrospective population based study,” Journal of Neurology Neurosurgery and Psychiatry, vol. 70, no. 3, pp. 340–343, 2001.
- J. van Gijn and G. J. E. Rinkel, “Subarachnoid haemorrhage: diagnosis, causes and management,” Brain, vol. 124, no. 2, pp. 249–278, 2001.
- M. S. Sandvei, E. B. Mathiesen, L. J. Vatten, et al., “Incidence and mortality of aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage in two Norwegian cohorts, 1984–2007,” Neurology, vol. 77, no. 20, pp. 1833–1839, 2011.
- M. B. Skrifvars and M. J. Parr, “Incidence, predisposing factors, management and survival following cardiac arrest due to subarachnoid haemorrhage: a review of the literature,” Scandinavian Journal of Trauma, Resuscitation and Emergency Medicine, vol. 20, article 75, 2012.
- C. E. Lovelock, G. J. E. Rinkel, and P. M. Rothwell, “Time trends in outcome of subarachnoid hemorrhage: population-based study and systematic review,” Neurology, vol. 74, no. 19, pp. 1494–1501, 2010.
- J. W. Hop, G. J. E. Rinkel, A. Algra, and J. Van Gijn, “Quality of life in patients and partners after aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage,” Stroke, vol. 29, no. 4, pp. 798–804, 1998.
- S. C. Johnston, S. Selvin, and D. R. Gress, “The burden, trends, and demographics of mortality from subarachnoid hemorrhage,” Neurology, vol. 50, no. 5, pp. 1413–1418, 1998.
- J. Cahill and J. H. Zhang, “Subarachnoid hemorrhage: is it time for a new direction?” Stroke, vol. 40, pp. S86–S87, 2009.
- G. Alvarez, P. Cox, M. Pairoa, M. García, I. Delgado, and P. M. Lavados, “Incidence of subarachnoid haemorrhage in the Aconcagua Valley, Chile: a community-based, prospective surveillance project,” Journal of Neurology, Neurosurgery and Psychiatry, vol. 81, no. 7, pp. 778–782, 2010.
- R. L. Macdonald, R. M. Pluta, and J. H. Zhang, “Cerebral vasospasm after subarachnoid hemorrhage: the emerging revolution,” Nature Clinical Practice Neurology, vol. 3, no. 5, pp. 256–263, 2007.
- R. L. Macdonald, R. T. Higashida, E. Keller et al., “Clazosentan, an endothelin receptor antagonist, in patients with aneurysmal subarachnoid haemorrhage undergoing surgical clipping: a randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled phase 3 trial (CONSCIOUS-2),” The Lancet Neurology, vol. 10, no. 7, pp. 618–625, 2011.
- J. H. Zhang, R. M. Pluta, J. Hansen-Schwartz et al., “Cerebral vasospasm following subarachnoid hemorrhage: time for a new world of thought,” Neurological Research, vol. 31, no. 2, pp. 151–158, 2009.
- B. Weir, M. Grace, J. Hansen, and C. Rothberg, “Time course of vasospasm in man,” Journal of Neurosurgery, vol. 48, no. 2, pp. 173–178, 1978.
- C. G. Harrod, B. R. Bendok, and H. H. Batjer, “Prediction of cerebral vasospasm in patients presenting with aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage: a review,” Neurosurgery, vol. 56, no. 4, pp. 633–654, 2005.
- G. A. Schubert, M. Seiz, A. A. Hegewald, J. Manville, and C. Thomé, “Acute hypoperfusion immediately after subarachnoid hemorrhage: a xenon contrast-enhanced CT study,” Journal of Neurotrauma, vol. 26, no. 12, pp. 2225–2231, 2009.
- H. P. Adams Jr., N. F. Kassell, and J. C. Torner, “Early management of aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage. A report of the cooperative aneurysm study,” Journal of Neurosurgery, vol. 54, no. 2, pp. 141–145, 1981.
- E. Uhl, J. Lehmberg, H. J. Steiger et al., “Intraoperative detection of early microvasospasm in patients with subarachnoid hemorrhage by using orthogonal polarization spectral imaging,” Neurosurgery, vol. 52, no. 6, pp. 1307–1317, 2003.
- F. A. Pennings, G. J. Bouma, and C. Ince, “Direct observation of the human cerebral microcirculation during aneurysm surgery reveals increased arteriolar contractility,” Stroke, vol. 35, no. 6, pp. 1284–1288, 2004.
- F. A. Sehba, V. Friedrich, G. Makonnen, and J. B. Bederson, “Acute cerebral vascular injury after subarachnoid hemorrhage and its prevention by administration of a nitric oxide donor,” Journal of Neurosurgery, vol. 106, no. 2, pp. 321–329, 2007.
- B. L. Sun, C. B. Zheng, M. F. Yang, H. Yuan, S. M. Zhang, and L. X. Wang, “Dynamic alterations of cerebral pial microcirculation during experimental subarachnoid hemorrhage,” Cellular and Molecular Neurobiology, vol. 29, no. 2, pp. 235–241, 2009.
- B. Friedrich, F. Müller, S. Feiler, K. Schöller, and N. Plesnila, “Experimental subarachnoid hemorrhage causes early and long-lasting microarterial constriction and microthrombosis: an in-vivo microscopy study,” Journal of Cerebral Blood Flow and Metabolism, vol. 32, no. 3, pp. 447–455, 2012.
- J. Claassen, J. R. Carhuapoma, K. T. Kreiter, E. Y. Du, E. S. Connolly, and S. A. Mayer, “Global cerebral edema after subarachnoid hemorrhage: frequency, predictors, and impact on outcome,” Stroke, vol. 33, no. 5, pp. 1225–1232, 2002.
- R. Helbok, S. B. Ko, J. M. Schmidt et al., “Global cerebral edema and brain metabolism after subarachnoid hemorrhage,” Stroke, vol. 42, no. 6, pp. 1534–1539, 2011.
- T. Westermaier, A. Jauss, J. Eriskat, E. Kunze, and K. Roosen, “The temporal profile of cerebral blood flow and tissue metabolites indicates sustained metabolic depression after experimental subarachnoid hemorrhage in rats,” Neurosurgery, vol. 68, no. 1, pp. 223–229, 2011.
- S. Feiler, B. Friedrich, K. Schöller, S. C. Thal, and N. Plesnila, “Standardized induction of subarachnoid hemorrhage in mice by intracranial pressure monitoring,” Journal of Neuroscience Methods, vol. 190, no. 2, pp. 164–170, 2010.
- M. V. Springer, J. M. Schmidt, K. E. Wartenberg, J. A. Frontera, N. Badjatia, and S. A. Mayer, “Predictors of global cognitive impairment 1 year after subarachnoid hemorrhage,” Neurosurgery, vol. 65, no. 6, pp. 1043–1050, 2009.
- T. Shigeno, E. Fritschka, and M. Brock, “Cerebral edema following experimental subarachnoid hemorrhage,” Stroke, vol. 13, no. 3, pp. 368–379, 1982.
- A. D. Mendelow, “Mechanisms of ischemic brain damage with intracerebral hemorrhage,” Stroke, vol. 24, no. 12, pp. I115–I117, 1993.
- J. F. Megyesi, B. Vollrath, D. A. Cook, and J. M. Findlay, “In vivo animal models of cerebral vasospasm: a review,” Neurosurgery, vol. 46, no. 2, pp. 448–460, 2000.
- D. Strbian, A. Durukan, and T. Tatlisumak, “Rodent models of hemorrhagic stroke,” Current Pharmaceutical Design, vol. 14, no. 4, pp. 352–358, 2008.
- E. Titova, R. P. Ostrowski, J. H. Zhang, and J. Tang, “Experimental models of subarachnoid hemorrhage for studies of cerebral vasospasm,” Neurological Research, vol. 31, no. 6, pp. 568–581, 2009.
- S. Marbacher, J. Fandino, and N. D. Kitchen, “Standard intracranial in vivo animal models of delayed cerebral vasospasm,” British Journal of Neurosurgery, vol. 24, no. 4, pp. 415–434, 2010.
- J. B. Bederson, A. L. Levy, W. H. Ding et al., “Acute vasoconstriction after subarachnoid hemorrhage,” Neurosurgery, vol. 42, no. 2, pp. 352–360, 1998.
- K. Hockel, K. Schöller, R. Trabold, J. Nussberger, and N. Plesnila, “Vasopressin V(1a) receptors mediate posthemorrhagic systemic hypertension thereby determining rebleeding rate and outcome after experimental subarachnoid hemorrhage,” Stroke, vol. 43, no. 1, pp. 227–232, 2012.
- R. Schmid-Elsaesser, S. Zausinger, E. Hungerhuber, A. Baethmann, and H. J. Reulen, “A critical reevaluation of the intraluminal thread model of focal cerebral ischemia: evidence of inadvertent premature reperfusion and subarachnoid hemorrhage in rats by laser-Doppler flowmetry,” Stroke, vol. 29, no. 10, pp. 2162–2170, 1998.
- E. Hungerhuber, S. Zausinger, T. Westermaier, N. Plesnila, and R. Schmid-Elsaesser, “Simultaneous bilateral laser Doppler fluxmetry and electrophysiological recording during middle cerebral artery occlusion in rats,” Journal of Neuroscience Methods, vol. 154, no. 1-2, pp. 109–115, 2006.
- S. Feiler, N. Plesnila, S. C. Thal, S. Zausinger, and K. Schöller, “Contribution of matrix metalloproteinase-9 to cerebral edema and functional outcome following experimental subarachnoid hemorrhage,” Cerebrovascular Diseases, vol. 32, no. 3, pp. 289–295, 2011.
- K. Hockel, R. Trabold, K. Schöller, E. Török, and N. Plesnila, “Impact of anesthesia on pathophysiology and mortality following subarachnoid hemorrhage in rats,” Experimental & Translational Stroke Medicine, vol. 4, no. 1, article 5, 2012.
- S. C. Thal, S. Sporer, M. Klopotowski et al., “Brain edema formation and neurological impairment after subarachnoid hemorrhage in rats: laboratory investigation,” Journal of Neurosurgery, vol. 111, no. 5, pp. 988–994, 2009.
- T. Westermaier, C. Stetter, F. Raslan, G. H. Vince, and R.-I. Ernestus, “Brain edema formation correlates with perfusion deficit during the first six hours after experimental subarachnoid hemorrhage in rats,” Experimental & Translational Stroke Medicine, vol. 4, article 8, 2012.
- K. A. Hossmann, S. Sakaki, and V. Zimmermann, “Cation activities in reversible ischemia of the cat brain,” Stroke, vol. 8, no. 1, pp. 77–81, 1977.
- T. Doczi, “The pathogenetic and prognostic significance of blood-brain barrier damage at the acute stage of aneurysmal subarachnoid haemorrhage. Clinical and experimental studies,” Acta Neurochirurgica, vol. 77, no. 3-4, pp. 110–132, 1985.
- K. Schöller, A. Trinkl, M. Klopotowski et al., “Characterization of microvascular basal lamina damage and blood-brain barrier dysfunction following subarachnoid hemorrhage in rats,” Brain Research, vol. 1142, no. 1, pp. 237–246, 2007.
- M. Zetterling, L. Hallberg, L. Hillered, T. Karlsson, P. Enblad, and E. R. Engström, “Brain energy metabolism in patients with spontaneous subarachnoid hemorrhage and global cerebral edema,” Neurosurgery, vol. 66, no. 6, pp. 1102–1110, 2010.
- E. Török, M. Klopotowski, R. Trabold, S. C. Thal, N. Plesnila, and K. Schöller, “Mild hypothermia (33°C) reduces intracranial hypertension and improves functional outcome after subarachnoid hemorrhage in rats,” Neurosurgery, vol. 65, no. 2, pp. 352–359, 2009.
- F. A. Sehba, J. Hou, R. M. Pluta, and J. H. Zhang, “The importance of early brain injury after subarachnoid hemorrhage,” Progress in Neurobiology, vol. 97, no. 1, pp. 14–37, 2012.
- I. Yonekura, N. Kawahara, H. Nakatomi, K. Furuya, and T. Kirino, “A Model of Global Cerebral Ischemia in C57 BL/6 Mice,” Journal of Cerebral Blood Flow and Metabolism, vol. 24, no. 2, pp. 151–158, 2004.
- S. C. Thal, S. E. Thal, and N. Plesnila, “Characterization of a 3-vessel occlusion model for the induction of complete global cerebral ischemia in mice,” Journal of Neuroscience Methods, vol. 192, no. 2, pp. 219–227, 2010.
- W. Paschen, “Glutamate excitotoxicity in transient global cerebral ischemia,” Acta Neurobiologiae Experimentalis, vol. 56, no. 1, pp. 313–322, 1996.
- P. Vaagenes, M. Ginsberg, U. Ebmeyer et al., “Cerebral resuscitation from cardiac arrest: pathophysiologic mechanisms,” Critical Care Medicine, vol. 24, no. 2, supplement, pp. S57–S68, 1996.
- K. A. Hossmann, “Reperfusion of the brain after global ischemia: hemodynamic disturbances,” Shock, vol. 8, no. 2, pp. 95–101, 1997.
- E. Uhl, J. Beck, W. Stummer, J. Lehmberg, and A. Baethmann, “Leukocyte-endothelium interactions in pial venules during the early and late reperfusion period after global cerebral ischemia in gerbils,” Journal of Cerebral Blood Flow and Metabolism, vol. 20, no. 6, pp. 979–987, 2000.
- B. K. Siesjo, K. I. Katsura, Q. Zhao et al., “Mechanisms of secondary brain damage in global and focal ischemia: a speculative synthesis,” Journal of Neurotrauma, vol. 12, no. 5, pp. 943–956, 1995.
- C. Lim, M. P. Alexander, G. LaFleche, D. M. Schnyer, and M. Verfaellie, “The neurological and cognitive sequelae of cardiac arrest,” Neurology, vol. 63, no. 10, pp. 1774–1778, 2004.
- M. P. Alexander, G. Lafleche, D. Schnyer, C. Lim, and M. Verfaellie, “Cognitive and functional outcome after out of hospital cardiac arrest,” Journal of the International Neuropsychological Society, vol. 17, no. 2, pp. 364–368, 2011.
- F. J. Mateen, K. A. Josephs, M. R. Trenerry, et al., “Long-term cognitive outcomes following out-of-hospital cardiac arrest: a population-based study,” Neurology, vol. 77, no. 15, pp. 1438–1445, 2011.
- M. Ishikawa, G. Kusaka, N. Yamaguchi et al., “Platelet and leukocyte adhesion in the microvasculature at the cerebral surface immediately after subarachnoid hemorrhage,” Neurosurgery, vol. 64, no. 3, pp. 546–553, 2009.
- F. A. Sehba, G. Mostafa, V. Friedrich, and J. B. Bederson, “Acute microvascular platelet aggregation after subarachnoid hemorrhage,” Journal of Neurosurgery, vol. 102, no. 6, pp. 1094–1100, 2005.
- G. A. Schubert and C. Thome, “Cerebral blood flow changes in acute subarachnoid hemorrhage,” Frontiers in Bioscience, vol. 13, no. 4, pp. 1594–1603, 2008.