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Stroke Research and Treatment
Volume 2013 (2013), Article ID 659374, 11 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2013/659374
Review Article

Hypoxic-Ischemic Neonatal Encephalopathy: Animal Experiments for Neuroprotective Therapies

Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology and Center for Perinatal Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, University of Miyazaki, 5200 Kiyotake, Kihara, Miyazaki 889-1692, Japan

Received 22 October 2012; Accepted 20 December 2012

Academic Editor: Guodong Cao

Copyright © 2013 Hiroshi Sameshima and Tsuyomu Ikenoue. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Abstract

Hypoxic-ischemic neonatal encephalopathy and ensuing brain damage is still an important problem in modern perinatal medicine. In this paper, we would like to share some of the results of our recent studies on neuroprotective therapies in animal experiments, as well as some literature reviews. From the basic animal studies, we have now obtained some possible candidates for therapeutic measures against hypoxic-ischemic neonatal encephalopathy. For example, they are hypothermia, rehabilitation, free radical scavenger, neurotrophic factors and growth factors, steroid, calcium channel blocker, vagal stimulation, some anti apoptotic agents, pre- and post conditioning, antioxidants, cell therapy with stem cells, modulators of K(+)-ATP channels, and so on. Whether combination of these therapies may be more beneficial than any single therapy needs to be clarified. Hypoxia-ischemia is a complicated condition, in which the cause, severity, and time-course are different in each case. Likewise, each fetus has its own inherent potentials such as adaptation, preconditioning-tolerance, and intolerance. Therefore, further extensive studies are required to establish an individualized strategy for neuroprotection against perinatal hypoxic-ischemic insult.