- About this Journal
- Abstracting and Indexing
- Aims and Scope
- Annual Issues
- Article Processing Charges
- Articles in Press
- Author Guidelines
- Bibliographic Information
- Citations to this Journal
- Contact Information
- Editorial Board
- Editorial Workflow
- Free eTOC Alerts
- Publication Ethics
- Reviewers Acknowledgment
- Submit a Manuscript
- Subscription Information
- Table of Contents
Stroke Research and Treatment
Volume 2013 (2013), Article ID 862978, 11 pages
Depression after Stroke and Risk of Mortality: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis
1Department of Surgery and Interdisciplinary Medicine, University of Milano-Bicocca, 20900 Monza, Italy
2Stroke Unit, Neurology Department, Azienda Ospedaliera Niguarda Cà Granda, 20162 Milan, Italy
3Department of Mental Health, Azienda Ospedaliera San Gerardo, 20900 Monza, Italy
4Department of Mental Health Sciences, University College London, London W1W 7EJ, UK
Received 12 October 2012; Revised 21 December 2012; Accepted 25 January 2013
Academic Editor: Caroline L. Watkins
Copyright © 2013 Francesco Bartoli et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
- J. Mackay and G. A. Mensah, Deaths from Stroke. The Atlas of Heart Disease and Stroke, World Health Organization, Geneva, Switzerland, 2004, http://www.who.int/cardiovascular_diseases/en/cvd_atlas_16_death_from_stroke.pdf.
- J. A. Bourgeois, D. M. Hilty, C. H. Chang, M. A. Wineinger, and M. E. Servis, “Poststroke neuropsychiatric illness: an integrated approach to diagnosis and management,” Current Treatment Options in Neurology, vol. 6, no. 5, pp. 403–420, 2004.
- S. M. Lai, S. Studenski, P. W. Duncan, and S. Perera, “Persisting consequences of stroke measured by the stroke impact scale,” Stroke, vol. 33, no. 7, pp. 1840–1844, 2002.
- A. J. Carson, “Impact commentaries. Mood disorder as a specific complication of stroke,” Journal of Neurology, Neurosurgery & Psychiatry, vol. 83, no. 9, p. 859, 2012.
- M. F. Folstein, R. Maiberger, and P. R. McHugh, “Mood disorder as a specific complication of stroke,” Journal of Neurology Neurosurgery and Psychiatry, vol. 40, no. 10, pp. 1018–1020, 1977.
- R. G. Robinson, W. J. Shoemaker, M. Schlumpf, T. Valk, and F. E. Bloom, “Effect of experimental cerebral infarction in rat brain on catecholamines and behaviour,” Nature, vol. 255, no. 5506, pp. 332–334, 1975.
- R. G. Robinson, “Poststroke depression: prevalence, diagnosis, treatment, and disease progression,” Biological Psychiatry, vol. 54, no. 3, pp. 376–387, 2003.
- O. P. Almeida and J. Xiao, “Mortality associated with incident mental health disorder after stroke,” Australian and New Zealand Journal of Psychiatry, vol. 41, no. 3, pp. 274–281, 2007.
- C. Ellis, Y. Zhao, and L. E. Egede, “Depression and increased risk of death in adults with stroke,” Journal of Psychosomatic Research, vol. 68, no. 6, pp. 545–551, 2010.
- A. House, P. Knapp, J. Bamford, and A. Vail, “Mortality at 12 and 24 months after stroke may be associated with depressive symptoms at 1 month,” Stroke, vol. 32, no. 3, pp. 696–701, 2001.
- H. Jia, T. M. Damush, H. Qin et al., “The impact of poststroke depression on healthcare use by veterans with acute stroke,” Stroke, vol. 37, no. 11, pp. 2796–2801, 2006.
- R. E. Jorge, R. G. Robinson, S. Arndt, and S. Starkstein, “Mortality and poststroke depression: a placebo-controlled trial of antidepressants,” American Journal of Psychiatry, vol. 160, no. 10, pp. 1823–1829, 2003.
- C. Kemper, D. Koller, G. Glaeske, and H. van den Bussche, “Mortality and nursing care dependency one year after first ischemic stroke: an analysis of German statutory health insurance data,” Topics in Stroke Rehabilitation, vol. 18, no. 2, pp. 172–178, 2011.
- P. L. P. Morris, R. G. Robinson, P. Andrzejewski, J. Samuels, and T. R. Price, “Association of depression with 10-year poststroke mortality,” American Journal of Psychiatry, vol. 150, no. 1, pp. 124–129, 1993.
- P. L. P. Morris, R. G. Robinson, and J. Samuels, “Depression, introversion and mortality following stroke,” Australian and New Zealand Journal of Psychiatry, vol. 27, no. 3, pp. 443–449, 1993.
- H. Naess, L. Lunde, J. Brogger, and U. Waje-Andreassen, “Depression predicts unfavourable functional outcome and higher mortality in stroke patients: the Bergen Stroke Study,” Acta Neurologica Scandinavica, vol. 122, no. 190, pp. 34–38, 2010.
- S. Paolucci, C. Gandolfo, L. Provinciali, R. Torta, V. Toso, and DESTRO Study Group, “The Italian multicenter observational study on post-stroke depression (DESTRO),” Journal of Neurology, vol. 253, no. 5, pp. 556–562, 2006.
- L. D. Ried, H. Jia, H. Feng et al., “Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor treatment and depression are associated with poststroke mortality,” Annals of Pharmacotherapy, vol. 45, no. 7-8, pp. 888–897, 2011.
- J. Z. Willey, N. Disla, Y. P. Moon et al., “Early depressed mood after stroke predicts long-term disability: the Northern Manhattan Stroke Study (NOMASS),” Stroke, vol. 41, no. 9, pp. 1896–1900, 2010.
- L. S. Williams, S. S. Ghose, and R. W. Swindle, “Depression and other mental health diagnoses increase mortality risk after ischemic stroke,” American Journal of Psychiatry, vol. 161, no. 6, pp. 1090–1095, 2004.
- W. A. Gordon and M. R. Hibbard, “Poststroke depression: an examination of the literature,” Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, vol. 78, no. 6, pp. 658–663, 1997.
- K. A. Spencer, C. A. Tompkins, and R. Schulz, “Assessment of depression in patients with brain pathology: the case of stroke,” Psychological Bulletin, vol. 122, no. 2, pp. 132–152, 1997.
- M. L. Hackett, C. Yapa, V. Parag, and C. S. Anderson, “Frequency of depression after stroke: a systematic review of observational studies,” Stroke, vol. 36, no. 6, pp. 1330–1340, 2005.
- L. de Wit, K. Putman, I. Baert et al., “Anxiety and depression in the first six months after stroke. A longitudinal multicentre study,” Disability and Rehabilitation, vol. 30, no. 24, pp. 1858–1866, 2008.
- A. Srivastava, A. B. Taly, A. Gupta, and T. Murali, “Post-stroke depression: prevalence and relationship with disability in chronic stroke survivors,” Annals of Indian Academy of Neurology, vol. 13, no. 2, pp. 123–127, 2010.
- J. P. Fedoroff, S. E. Starkstein, R. M. Parikh, T. R. Price, and R. G. Robinson, “Are depressive symptoms nonspecific in patients with acute stroke?” American Journal of Psychiatry, vol. 148, no. 9, pp. 1172–1176, 1991.
- D. S. P. Schubert, R. Burns, W. Paras, and E. Sioson, “Increase of medical hospital length of stay by depression in stroke and amputation patients: a pilot study,” Psychotherapy and Psychosomatics, vol. 57, no. 1-2, pp. 61–66, 1992.
- K. Salter, S. K. Bhogal, N. Foley, J. Jutai, and R. Teasell, “The assessment of poststroke depression,” Topics in Stroke Rehabilitation, vol. 14, no. 3, pp. 1–24, 2007.
- T. Pohjasvaara, R. Vataja, A. Leppävuori, M. Kaste, and T. Erkinjuntti, “Depression is an independent predictor of poor long-term functional outcome post-stroke,” European Journal of Neurology, vol. 8, no. 4, pp. 315–319, 2001.
- R. Gillen, T. L. Eberhardt, H. Tennen, G. Affleck, and Y. Groszmann, “Screening for depression in stroke: relationship to rehabilitation efficiency,” Journal of Stroke and Cerebrovascular Diseases, vol. 8, no. 5, pp. 300–306, 1999.
- E. Chemerinski, R. G. Robinson, and J. T. Kosier, “Improved recovery in activities of daily living associated with remission of poststroke depression,” Stroke, vol. 32, no. 1, pp. 113–117, 2001.
- R. G. Robinson, K. Bolla-Wilson, E. Kaplan, J. R. Lipsey, and T. R. Price, “Depression influences intellectual impairment in stroke patients,” British Journal of Psychiatry, vol. 148, pp. 541–547, 1986.
- S. Serrano, J. Domingo, E. Rodríguez-Garcia, M. D. Castro, and T. del Ser, “Frequency of cognitive impairment without dementia in patients with stroke: a two-year follow-up study,” Stroke, vol. 38, no. 1, pp. 105–110, 2007.
- H. W. Yuan, C. X. Wang, N. Zhang et al., “Poststroke depression and risk of recurrent stroke at 1 year in a chinese cohort study,” PLoS One, vol. 7, article e46906, no. 10, 2012.
- P. L. P. Morris, R. G. Robinson, and B. Raphael, “Prevalence and course of depressive disorders in hospitalized stroke patients,” International Journal of Psychiatry in Medicine, vol. 20, no. 4, pp. 349–364, 1990.
- R. G. Robinson and G. Spalletta, “Poststroke depression: a review,” Canadian Journal of Psychiatry, vol. 55, no. 6, pp. 341–349, 2010.
- D. F. Stroup, J. A. Berlin, S. C. Morton et al., “Meta-analysis of observational studies in epidemiology: a proposal for reporting,” Journal of the American Medical Association, vol. 283, no. 15, pp. 2008–2012, 2000.
- Review Manager (RevMan), Version 5.1., The Nordic Cochrane Centre, The Cochrane Collaboration, Copenhagen, Denmark, 2011.
- StataCorp, Stata Statistical Software: Release 10, StataCorp LP, College Station, Tex, USA, 2007.
- S. Paolucci, “Epidemiology and treatment of post-stroke depression,” Neuropsychiatric Disease and Treatment, vol. 4, no. 1, pp. 145–154, 2008.
- M. Egger, M. Schneider, and G. D. Smith, “Meta-analysis spurious precision? meta-analysis of observational studies,” British Medical Journal, vol. 316, no. 7125, pp. 140–144, 1998.
- D. A. Grimes and K. F. Schulz, “Bias and causal associations in observational research,” The Lancet, vol. 359, no. 9302, pp. 248–252, 2002.
- A. Dossa, M. E. Glickman, and D. Berlowitz, “Association between mental health conditions and rehospitalization, mortality, and functional outcomes in patients with stroke following inpatient rehabilitation,” BMC Health Services Research, vol. 11, p. 311, 2011.
- G. Carrà, S. Johnson, P. Bebbington et al., “The lifetime and past-year prevalence of dual diagnosis in people with schizophrenia across Europe: findings from the European Schizophrenia Cohort (EuroSC),” European Archives of Psychiatry and Clinical Neuroscience, vol. 262, no. 7, pp. 607–616, 2012.
- M. L. Hackett and C. S. Anderson, “Predictors of depression after stroke: a systematic review of observational studies,” Stroke, vol. 36, no. 10, pp. 2296–2301, 2005.
- J. Blume, S. D. Douglas, and D. L. Evans, “Immune suppression and immune activation in depression,” Brain, Behavior, and Immunity, vol. 25, no. 2, pp. 221–229, 2011.
- J. Barth, M. Schumacher, and C. Herrmann-Lingen, “Depression as a risk factor for mortality in patients with coronary heart disease: a meta-analysis,” Psychosomatic Medicine, vol. 66, no. 6, pp. 802–813, 2004.
- G. Carrà, P. Sciarini, G. Segagni-Lusignani, M. Clerici, C. Montomoli, and R. C. Kessler, “Do they actually work across borders? Evaluation of two measures of psychological distress as screening instruments in a non Anglo-Saxon country,” European Psychiatry, vol. 26, no. 2, pp. 122–127, 2011.
- K. Mikami, R. E. Jorge, H. P. Adams Jr. et al., “Effect of antidepressants on the course of disability following stroke,” American Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry, vol. 19, no. 12, pp. 1007–1015, 2011.
- L. Wiart, H. Petit, P. A. Joseph, J. M. Mazaux, and M. Barat, “Fluoxetine in early poststroke depression: a double-blind placebo-controlled study,” Stroke, vol. 31, no. 8, pp. 1829–1832, 2000.
- G. Andersen, K. Vestergaard, and L. Lauritzen, “Effective treatment of poststroke depression with the selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor citalopram,” Stroke, vol. 25, no. 6, pp. 1099–1104, 1994.
- L. Rampello, S. Chiechio, G. Nicoletti et al., “Prediction of the response to citalopram and reboxetine in post-stroke depressed patients,” Psychopharmacology, vol. 173, no. 1-2, pp. 73–78, 2004.
- L. Rampello, A. Alvano, S. Chiechio, R. Raffaele, I. Vecchio, and M. Malaguarnera, “An evaluation of efficacy and safety of reboxetine in elderly patients affected by "retarded" post-stroke depression: a random, placebo-controlled study,” Archives of Gerontology and Geriatrics, vol. 40, no. 3, pp. 275–285, 2005.
- M. L. Hackett, C. S. Anderson, A. House, and J. Xia, “Interventions for treating depression after stroke,” Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, no. 4, Article ID CD003437, 2008.
- M. L. Hackett, C. S. Anderson, A. House, and C. Halteh, “Interventions for preventing depression after stroke,” Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, no. 3, Article ID CD003689, 2008.
- G. Carrá, G. S. Lusignani, P. Sciarini, F. Barale, A. Marinoni, and M. Clerici, “And how shall we deal with adaptation and implementation of NICE schizophrenia guidelines in Italy?” Epidemiologia e Psichiatria Sociale, vol. 17, no. 4, pp. 258–262, 2008.