946056.fig.004a
(a)
946056.fig.004b
(b)
946056.fig.004c
(c)
946056.fig.004d
(d)
Figure 4: Changes in cerebral blood flow parameters over the course of treatment. (a) and (b) Systolic and diastolic blood flow velocity in the middle cerebral artery (MCA) of the affected hemisphere increased in robotic groups more than in control. (c) and (d) Indices of pulsatility and vascular resistance were mainly improved by ROBO-FES, while ROBO training had similar effects as compared with control. Error bars indicate standard deviations.