Table 1: Diagnosis of associated medical conditions.

Prestroke dementiaAssessment was based on interviews with the persons and a knowledgeable informant. We required the presence of memory impairment as well as deficits in other cognitive abilities according to the ICD-10 classification

Atrial fibrillation (AF)A documented history of paroxysmal AF, alternatively if AF was present at hospital admission

Heart failure and myocardial infarctionDocumentation of these conditions in medical records

HypertensionWhen the presence of hypertension was documented in medical records, alternatively if ≥2 readings of systolic blood pressure were ≥160 mm Hg, or diastolic blood pressure was ≥95 mm Hg at any time before the onset of stroke

Pre-stroke transient ischemic attack (TIA)Documentation of TIA in medical records or from the person’s own report

Diabetes mellitusIf a person gave a history of diabetes mellitus that was confirmed by their medical records or was taking insulin or an oral hypoglycemic agent

EpilepsyEpilepsy was diagnosed from the hospital’s patient register (diagnosis code G40) and confirmed from the patient records. Epilepsy could be present both before as well as at any time after the stroke