Shock and Vibration http://www.hindawi.com The latest articles from Hindawi Publishing Corporation © 2016 , Hindawi Publishing Corporation . All rights reserved. A Two-Stage Compression Method for the Fault Detection of Roller Bearings Thu, 26 May 2016 17:28:10 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/sv/2016/2971749/ Data measurement of roller bearings condition monitoring is carried out based on the Shannon sampling theorem, resulting in massive amounts of redundant information, which will lead to a big-data problem increasing the difficulty of roller bearing fault diagnosis. To overcome the aforementioned shortcoming, a two-stage compressed fault detection strategy is proposed in this study. First, a sliding window is utilized to divide the original signals into several segments and a selected symptom parameter is employed to represent each segment, through which a symptom parameter wave can be obtained and the raw vibration signals are compressed to a certain level with the faulty information remaining. Second, a fault detection scheme based on the compressed sensing is applied to extract the fault features, which can compress the symptom parameter wave thoroughly with a random matrix called the measurement matrix. The experimental results validate the effectiveness of the proposed method and the comparison of the three selected symptom parameters is also presented in this paper. Huaqing Wang, Yanliang Ke, Ganggang Luo, Lingyang Li, and Gang Tang Copyright © 2016 Huaqing Wang et al. All rights reserved. Study of the Mechanical Properties and Vibration Isolation Performance of a Molecular Spring Isolator Thu, 26 May 2016 15:17:06 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/sv/2016/6451829/ Molecular Spring Isolator (MSI) is a novel passive vibration isolation technique, providing High-Static-Low-Dynamic (HSLD) stiffness based on the use of molecular spring material. The molecular spring material is a solid-liquid mixture consisting of water and hydrophobic nanoporous materials. Under a certain level of external pressure, water molecules can intrude into the hydrophobic pores of nanoporous materials, developing an additional solid-liquid interface. Such interfaces are able to store, release, and transform mechanical energy, providing properties like mechanical spring. Having been only recently developed, the basic mechanic properties of a MSI have not been studied in depth. This paper focuses on the stiffness influence factors, the dynamic frequency response, and the vibration isolation performance of a MSI; these properties help engineers to design MSIs for different engineering applications. First, the working mechanism of a MSI is introduced from a three-dimensional general view of the water infiltration massive hydrophobic nanoporous pores. Next, a wide range of influence factors on the stiffness properties of MSI are studied. In addition, the frequency response functions (FRFs) of the MSI vibration isolation system are studied utilizing the matching method based on equivalent piecewise linear (EPL) system. Finally, the vibration isolation properties of MSI are evaluated by force transmissibility. Muchun Yu, Xue Gao, and Qian Chen Copyright © 2016 Muchun Yu et al. All rights reserved. Shock Wave Speed and Transient Response of PE Pipe with Steel-Mesh Reinforcement Wed, 25 May 2016 13:40:01 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/sv/2016/8705031/ A steel mesh can improve the tensile strength and stability of a polyethylene (PE) pipe in a water supply pipeline system. However, it can also cause more severe water hammer hazard due to increasing wave speed. In order to analyze the influence of the steel mesh on the shock wave speed and transient response processes, an improved wave speed formula is proposed by incorporating the equivalent elastic modulus. A field measurement validates the wave speed formula. Moreover, the transient wave propagation and extreme pressures are simulated and compared by the method of characteristics (MOC) for reinforced PE pipes with various steel-mesh densities. Results show that a steel mesh can significantly increase the shock wave speed in a PE pipe and thus can cause severe peak pressure and hydraulic surges in a water supply pipeline system. The proposed wave speed formula can more reasonably evaluate the wave speed and improve the transient simulation of steel-mesh-reinforced PE pipes. Wuyi Wan and Xinwei Mao Copyright © 2016 Wuyi Wan and Xinwei Mao. All rights reserved. Comparison on the Horizontal Behaviors of Lattice-Shaped Diaphragm Wall and Pile Group under Static and Seismic Loads Wed, 25 May 2016 09:10:55 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/sv/2016/1289375/ Lattice-shaped diaphragm wall (hereafter referring to LSDW) is a new type of bridge foundation, and the relevant investigation on its horizontal behaviors is scant. This paper is devoted to the numerical study of the comparison on the static and seismic responses of LSDW and pile group under similar material quantity in soft soil. It can be found that the horizontal bearing capacity of LSDW is considerably larger than that of pile group, and the deformation pattern of LSDW basically appears to be an overall toppling while pile group clearly shows a local bending deformation pattern during the static loading process. The acceleration response and the acceleration amplification effects of LSDW are slightly greater than that of pile group due to the existing of soil core and the difference on the ability of energy dissipation. The horizontal displacement response of pile group is close to that of LSDW at first and becomes stronger than that of LSDW due to the generation of plastic soil deformation near the pile-soil interface at last. The pile body may be broken in larger potential than LSDW especially when its horizontal displacement is notable. Compared with pile group, LSDW can be a good option for being served as a lateral bearing or an earthquake-proof foundation in soft soil. Jiu-jiang Wu, Qian-gong Cheng, Hua Wen, Yan Li, Jian-lei Zhang, and Ling-juan Wang Copyright © 2016 Jiu-jiang Wu et al. All rights reserved. Detection and Quantization of Bearing Fault in Direct Drive Wind Turbine via Comparative Analysis Sun, 22 May 2016 14:00:46 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/sv/2016/2378435/ Bearing fault is usually buried by intensive noise because of the low speed and heavy load in direct drive wind turbine (DDWT). Furthermore, varying wind speed and alternating loads make it difficult to quantize bearing fault feature that indicates the degree of deterioration. This paper presents the application of multiscale enveloping spectrogram (MuSEnS) and cepstrum to detect and quantize bearing fault in DDWT. MuSEnS can manifest fault modulation information adaptively based on the capacity of complex wavelet transform, which enables the weak bearing fault in DDWT to be detected. Cepstrum can calculate the average interval of periodic components in frequency domain and is suitable for quantizing bearing fault feature under varying operation conditions due to the logarithm weight on the power spectrum. Through comparing a faulty DDWT with a normal one, the bearing fault feature is evidenced and the quantization index is calculated, which show a good application prospect for condition monitoring and fault diagnosis in real DDWT. Wei Teng, Rui Jiang, Xian Ding, Yibing Liu, and Zhiyong Ma Copyright © 2016 Wei Teng et al. All rights reserved. Experimental and Numerical Investigations on Feasibility and Validity of Prismatic Rock Specimen in SHPB Thu, 19 May 2016 14:12:23 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/sv/2016/7198980/ The paper presents experimental and numerical studies on the feasibility and validity of using prismatic rock specimens in split Hopkinson pressure bar (SHPB) test. Firstly, the experimental tests are conducted to evaluate the stress and strain uniformity in the prismatic specimens during impact loading. The stress analysis at the ends of the specimen shows that stress equilibrium can be achieved after about three wave reflections in the specimen, and the balance can be well maintained for a certain time after peak stress. The strain analysis reveals that the prismatic specimen deforms uniformly during the dynamic loading period. Secondly, numerical simulation is performed to further verify the stress and strain uniformity in the prismatic specimen in SHPB test. It indicates that the stress equilibrium can be achieved in prismatic specimen despite a certain degree of stress concentration at the corners. The comparative experiments demonstrate that the change of specimen shape has no significant effect on dynamic responses and failure patterns of the specimen. Finally, a dynamic crack propagation test is presented to show the application of the present work in studying fracturing mechanisms under dynamic loading. Xibing Li, Tao Zhou, Diyuan Li, and Zewei Wang Copyright © 2016 Xibing Li et al. All rights reserved. A New Uncertain Analysis Method for the Prediction of Acoustic Field with Random and Interval Parameters Thu, 19 May 2016 13:08:01 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/sv/2016/3693262/ For the frequency response analysis of acoustic field with random and interval parameters, a nonintrusive uncertain analysis method named Polynomial Chaos Response Surface (PCRS) method is proposed. In the proposed method, the polynomial chaos expansion method is employed to deal with the random parameters, and the response surface method is used to handle the interval parameters. The PCRS method does not require efforts to modify model equations due to its nonintrusive characteristic. By means of the PCRS combined with the existing interval analysis method, the lower and upper bounds of expectation, variance, and probability density function of the frequency response can be efficiently evaluated. Two numerical examples are conducted to validate the accuracy and efficiency of the approach. The results show that the PCRS method is more efficient compared to the direct Monte Carlo simulation (MCS) method based on the original numerical model without causing significant loss of accuracy. Mingjie Wang, Zhimin Wan, and Qibai Huang Copyright © 2016 Mingjie Wang et al. All rights reserved. A Novel Clustering Method Combining ART with Yu’s Norm for Fault Diagnosis of Bearings Wed, 18 May 2016 13:53:56 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/sv/2016/5468716/ Clustering methods have been widely applied to the fault diagnosis of mechanical system, but the characteristic that the number of cluster needs to be determined in advance limits the application range of the method. In this paper, a novel clustering method combining the adaptive resonance theory (ART) with the similarity measure based on the Yu’s norm is presented and applied to the fault diagnosis of rolling element bearings, which can be adaptive to generate the number of cluster by the vigilance parameter test. Time-domain features, frequency-domain features, and time series model parameters are extracted to demonstrate the fault-related information about the bearings, and then considering the irrelevance or redundancy of some features many salient features are selected by an improved distance discriminant technique and input into the proposed clustering method to diagnose the faults of bearings. The experiment results confirmed that the proposed clustering method can diagnose the fault categories accurately and has better diagnosis performance compared with fuzzy ART and Self-Organizing Feature Map (SOFM). Zengbing Xu, Youyong Li, Zhigang Wang, and Jianping Xuan Copyright © 2016 Zengbing Xu et al. All rights reserved. Intelligent Prediction of Sieving Efficiency in Vibrating Screens Wed, 11 May 2016 12:41:22 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/sv/2016/9175417/ In order to effectively predict the sieving efficiency of a vibrating screen, experiments to investigate the sieving efficiency were carried out. Relation between sieving efficiency and other working parameters in a vibrating screen such as mesh aperture size, screen length, inclination angle, vibration amplitude, and vibration frequency was analyzed. Based on the experiments, least square support vector machine (LS-SVM) was established to predict the sieving efficiency, and adaptive genetic algorithm and cross-validation algorithm were used to optimize the parameters in LS-SVM. By the examination of testing points, the prediction performance of least square support vector machine is better than that of the existing formula and neural network, and its average relative error is only 4.2%. Bin Zhang, Jinke Gong, Wenhua Yuan, Jun Fu, and Yi Huang Copyright © 2016 Bin Zhang et al. All rights reserved. Direct FVM Simulation for Sound Propagation in an Ideal Wedge Tue, 10 May 2016 12:07:47 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/sv/2016/3703974/ The sound propagation in a wedge-shaped waveguide with perfectly reflecting boundaries is one of the few range-dependent problems with an analytical solution. This provides a benchmark for the theoretical and computational studies on the simulation of ocean acoustic applications. We present a direct finite volume method (FVM) simulation for the ideal wedge problem, and both time and frequency domain results are analyzed. We also study the broadband problem with large-scale parallel simulations. The results presented in this paper validate the accuracy of the numerical techniques and show that the direct FVM simulation could be applied to large-scale complex acoustic applications with a high performance computing platform. Hongyu Ji, Xinhai Xu, Xiaowei Guo, Shuai Ye, Juan Chen, and Xuejun Yang Copyright © 2016 Hongyu Ji et al. All rights reserved. Numerical Analysis on Failure Modes and Mechanisms of Mine Pillars under Shear Loading Tue, 10 May 2016 07:17:24 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/sv/2016/6195482/ Severe damage occurs frequently in mine pillars subjected to shear stresses. The empirical design charts or formulas for mine pillars are not applicable to orebodies under shear. In this paper, the failure process of pillars under shear stresses was investigated by numerical simulations using the rock failure process analysis (RFPA) 2D software. The numerical simulation results indicate that the strength of mine pillars and the corresponding failure mode vary with different width-to-height ratios and dip angles. With increasing dip angle, stress concentration first occurs at the intersection between the pillar and the roof, leading to formation of microcracks. Damage gradually develops from the surface to the core of the pillar. The damage process is tracked with acoustic emission monitoring. The study in this paper can provide an effective means for understanding the failure mechanism, planning, and design of mine pillars. Tianhui Ma, Long Wang, Fidelis Tawiah Suorineni, and Chunan Tang Copyright © 2016 Tianhui Ma et al. All rights reserved. Stochastic Modelling as a Tool for Seismic Signals Segmentation Sun, 08 May 2016 13:48:41 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/sv/2016/8453426/ In order to model nonstationary real-world processes one can find appropriate theoretical model with properties following the analyzed data. However in this case many trajectories of the analyzed process are required. Alternatively, one can extract parts of the signal that have homogenous structure via segmentation. The proper segmentation can lead to extraction of important features of analyzed phenomena that cannot be described without the segmentation. There is no one universal method that can be applied for all of the phenomena; thus novel methods should be invented for specific cases. They might address specific character of the signal in different domains (time, frequency, time-frequency, etc.). In this paper we propose two novel segmentation methods that take under consideration the stochastic properties of the analyzed signals in time domain. Our research is motivated by the analysis of vibration signals acquired in an underground mine. In such signals we observe seismic events which appear after the mining activity, like blasting, provoked relaxation of rock, and some unexpected events, like natural rock burst. The proposed segmentation procedures allow for extraction of such parts of the analyzed signals which are related to mentioned events. Daniel Kucharczyk, Agnieszka Wyłomańska, Jakub Obuchowski, Radosław Zimroz, and Maciej Madziarz Copyright © 2016 Daniel Kucharczyk et al. All rights reserved. Fuzzy Multicriteria Model for Selection of Vibration Technology Sun, 08 May 2016 12:51:34 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/sv/2016/6723605/ The benefits of applying the vibration analysis program are well known and have been so for decades. A large number of contributions have been produced discussing new diagnostic, signal treatment, technical parameter analysis, and prognosis techniques. However, to obtain the expected benefits from a vibration analysis program, it is necessary to choose the instrumentation which guarantees the best results. Despite its importance, in the literature, there are no models to assist in taking this decision. This research describes an objective model using Fuzzy Analytic Hierarchy Process (FAHP) to make a choice of the most suitable technology among portable vibration analysers. The aim is to create an easy-to-use model for processing, manufacturing, services, and research organizations, to guarantee adequate decision-making in the choice of vibration analysis technology. The model described recognises that judgements are often based on ambiguous, imprecise, or inadequate information that cannot provide precise values. The model incorporates judgements from several decision-makers who are experts in the field of vibration analysis, maintenance, and electronic devices. The model has been applied to a Health Care Organization. María Carmen Carnero Copyright © 2016 María Carmen Carnero. All rights reserved. Geometrically Nonlinear Aeroelastic Stability Analysis and Wind Tunnel Test Validation of a Very Flexible Wing Wed, 04 May 2016 08:18:18 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/sv/2016/5090719/ VFAs (very flexible aircraft) have begun to attract significant attention because of their good flight performances and significant application potentials; however, they also bring some challenges to researchers due to their unusual lightweight designs and large elastic deformations. A framework for the geometrically nonlinear aeroelastic stability analysis of very flexible wings is constructed in this paper to illustrate the unique aeroelastic characteristics and convenient use of these designs in engineering analysis. The nonlinear aeroelastic analysis model includes the geometrically nonlinear structure finite elements and steady and unsteady nonplanar aerodynamic computations (i.e., the nonplanar vortex lattice method and nonplanar doublet-lattice method). Fully nonlinear methods are used to analyse static aeroelastic features, and linearized structural dynamic equations are established at the structural nonlinear equilibrium state to estimate the stability of the system through the quasimode of the stressed and deformed structure. The exact flutter boundary is searched via an iterative procedure. A wind tunnel test is conducted to validate this theoretical analysis framework, and reasonable agreement is obtained. Both the analysis and test results indicate that the geometric nonlinearity of very flexible wings presents significantly different aeroelastic characteristics under different load cases with large deformations. Changchuan Xie, Yi Liu, Chao Yang, and J. E. Cooper Copyright © 2016 Changchuan Xie et al. All rights reserved. Influences of the Cloud Shape of Fuel-Air Mixtures on the Overpressure Field Wed, 27 Apr 2016 09:59:27 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/sv/2016/9748536/ This paper presents an experiment system in the open field, which comprises a charge structure (approximately 166.2 kg), a high-speed camera subsystem, and a pressure measurement subsystem. Through a series of experiments under the cylindrical clouds with different diameters, heights, and diameter-to-height ratios ( : ), the influences of various cloud shapes on the overpressure field were analyzed and discussed. Based on the experimental results, the overpressure field was divided into two zones: detonation wave zone and shock wave zone. It is found that the overpressure of shock waves at the same distance from the explosion center increased with the diameters, but the variations of heights had little impact on the overpressure. Therefore, the pancake-shaped cloud of fuel-air mixtures is the optimal shape for obtaining the wider overpressure field. Moreover, it is found that the overpressure field gets the maximum under the diameter-to-height ratios of 5.7 in the same distance within the studied range. Chunhua Bai, Ye Wang, Jianping Li, and Mingsheng Chen Copyright © 2016 Chunhua Bai et al. All rights reserved. Phase Space Similarity as a Signature for Rolling Bearing Fault Diagnosis and Remaining Useful Life Estimation Tue, 26 Apr 2016 16:35:10 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/sv/2016/5341970/ Feature extraction from vibration signal is still a challenge in the area of fault diagnosis and remaining useful life (RUL) estimation of rotary machine. In this paper, a novel feature called phase space similarity (PSS) is introduced for health condition monitoring of bearings. Firstly, the acquired signal is transformed to the phase space through the phase space reconstruction (PSR). The similar vibration always exists in the phase space due to the comparable evolution of the dynamics that are characteristic of the system state. Secondly, the normalized cross-correlation (NCC) is employed to calculate the PSS between bearing data with different states. Based on the PSS, a fault pattern recognition algorithm, a bearing fault size prediction algorithm, and a RUL estimation algorithm are introduced to analyze the experimental signal. Results have shown the effectiveness of the PSS as it can better grasp the nature and regularity of the signals. Fang Liu, Bing He, Yongbin Liu, Siliang Lu, Yilei Zhao, and Jiwen Zhao Copyright © 2016 Fang Liu et al. All rights reserved. An Effective Fault Feature Extraction Method for Gas Turbine Generator System Diagnosis Tue, 26 Apr 2016 13:47:13 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/sv/2016/9359426/ Fault diagnosis is very important to maintain the operation of a gas turbine generator system (GTGS) in power plants, where any abnormal situations will interrupt the electricity supply. The fault diagnosis of the GTGS faces the main challenge that the acquired data, vibration or sound signals, contain a great deal of redundant information which extends the fault identification time and degrades the diagnostic accuracy. To improve the diagnostic performance in the GTGS, an effective fault feature extraction framework is proposed to solve the problem of the signal disorder and redundant information in the acquired signal. The proposed framework combines feature extraction with a general machine learning method, support vector machine (SVM), to implement an intelligent fault diagnosis. The feature extraction method adopts wavelet packet transform and time-domain statistical features to extract the features of faults from the vibration signal. To further reduce the redundant information in extracted features, kernel principal component analysis is applied in this study. Experimental results indicate that the proposed feature extracted technique is an effective method to extract the useful features of faults, resulting in improvement of the performance of fault diagnosis for the GTGS. Jian-Hua Zhong, JieJunYi Liang, Zhi-Xin Yang, Pak Kin Wong, and Xian-Bo Wang Copyright © 2016 Jian-Hua Zhong et al. All rights reserved. Online Identification and Verification of the Elastic Coupling Torsional Stiffness Tue, 26 Apr 2016 12:52:16 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/sv/2016/2016432/ To analyze the torsional vibration of a diesel engine shaft, the torsional stiffness of the flexible coupling is a key kinetic parameter. Since the material properties of the elastic element of the coupling might change after a long-time operation due to the severe working environment or improper use and the variation of such properties will change dynamic feature of the coupling, it will cause a relative large calculation error of torsional vibration to the shaft system. Moreover, the torsional stiffness of the elastic coupling is difficult to be determined, and it is inappropriate to measure this parameter by disassembling the power unit while it is under normal operation. To solve these problems, this paper comes up with a method which combines the torsional vibration test with the calculation of the diesel shafting and uses the inherent characteristics of shaft torsional vibration to identify the dynamic stiffness of the elastic coupling without disassembling the unit. Analysis results show that it is reasonable and feasible to identify the elastic coupling dynamic torsional stiffness with this method and the identified stiffness is accurate. Besides, this method provides a convenient and practical approach to examine the dynamic behavior of the long running elastic coupling. Wanyou Li, Zhuoye Chai, Mengqi Wang, Xinhuan Hu, and Yibin Guo Copyright © 2016 Wanyou Li et al. All rights reserved. Deformation and Failure Mechanism of Roadway Sensitive to Stress Disturbance and Its Zonal Support Technology Tue, 26 Apr 2016 09:01:01 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/sv/2016/1812768/ The 6163 haulage roadway in the Qidong coal mine passes through a fault zone, which causes severe deformation in the surrounding rock, requiring repeated roadway repairs. Based on geological features in the fault area, we analyze the factors affecting roadway deformation and failure and propose the concept of roadway sensitive to stress disturbance (RSSD). We investigate the deformation and failure mechanism of the surrounding rocks of RSSD using field monitoring, theoretical analysis, and numerical simulation. The deformation of the surrounding rocks involves dilatation of shallow rocks and separation of deep rocks. Horizontal and longitudinal fissures evolve to bed separation and fracture zones; alternatively, fissures can evolve into fracture zones with new fissures extending to deeper rock. The fault affects the stress field of the surrounding rock to ~27 m radius. Its maximum impact is on the vertical stress of the rib rock mass and its minimum impact is on the vertical stress of the floor rock mass. Based on our results, we propose a zonal support system for a roadway passing through a fault. Engineering practice shows that the deformation of the surrounding rocks of the roadway can be effectively controlled to ensure normal and safe production in the mine. Qiangling Yao, Xuehua Li, Fan Pan, Teng Wang, and Guang Wang Copyright © 2016 Qiangling Yao et al. All rights reserved. A Study of Rockburst Hazard Evaluation Method in Coal Mine Sun, 24 Apr 2016 12:48:13 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/sv/2016/8740868/ With the increasing of coal mining depth, the mining conditions are deteriorating, and dynamic hazard is becoming more likely to happen. This paper analyzes the relations and differences between rockburst in the coal mine and rockburst in the metal mine. It divides coal mine rockburst into two types including static loading type during roadway excavation process and dynamic loading type during mining face advancing. It proposes the correlation between the formation process of rockburst and the evolution of overlying strata spatial structure of the stope, criterion of rockburst occurrence, new classification, and predictive evaluation method for rockburst hazard that rockburst damage evaluation (RDE) = released energy capacity (REC)/absorbed energy capacity (AEC). Based on the relationship between RDE value and its corresponding level of rockburst hazard, the rockburst hazard can be divided into five types and evaluation index of each type can be achieved. Then the ongoing rockburst damage level can be classified in one of the five types, and the relative parameters, such as hazard extent, controlling measures also can be achieved. This new quantitative method could not only assess the impacting direction of rockburst occurrence, but also verify the effect of preventive measures for rockburst. Zhijie Wen, Xiao Wang, Yunliang Tan, Hualei Zhang, Wanpeng Huang, and Qinghai Li Copyright © 2016 Zhijie Wen et al. All rights reserved. Study on the Rollover Characteristic of In-Wheel-Motor-Driven Electric Vehicles Considering Road and Electromagnetic Excitation Thu, 21 Apr 2016 14:28:36 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/sv/2016/2450573/ For in-wheel-motor-driven electric vehicles, the motor is installed in the wheel directly. Tyre runout and uneven load can cause magnet gap deformation in the motor, which will produce electromagnetic forces that further influence the vehicle rollover characteristics. To study the rollover characteristics, a verified 16-degree-of-freedom rollover dynamic model is introduced. Next, the vehicle rollover characteristics both with and without electromagnetic force are analyzed under conditions of the Fixed Timing Fishhook steering and grade B road excitation. The results show that the electromagnetic force has a certain effect on the load transfer and can reduce the antirollover performance of the vehicle. Therefore, the effect of the electromagnetic force on the rollover characteristic should be considered in the vehicle design. To this end, extensive analysis was conducted on the effect of the road level, vehicle speed, and the road adhesion coefficient on the vehicle rollover stability. The results indicate that vehicle rollover stability worsens when the above-mentioned factors increase, the most influential factor being the road adhesion coefficient followed by vehicle speed and road level. This paper can offer certain theory basis for the design of the in-wheel-motor-driven electric vehicles. Di Tan, Haitao Wang, and Qiang Wang Copyright © 2016 Di Tan et al. All rights reserved. Feature Extraction and Selection Scheme for Intelligent Engine Fault Diagnosis Based on 2DNMF, Mutual Information, and NSGA-II Thu, 21 Apr 2016 07:48:29 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/sv/2016/3975285/ A novel feature extraction and selection scheme is presented for intelligent engine fault diagnosis by utilizing two-dimensional nonnegative matrix factorization (2DNMF), mutual information, and nondominated sorting genetic algorithms II (NSGA-II). Experiments are conducted on an engine test rig, in which eight different engine operating conditions including one normal condition and seven fault conditions are simulated, to evaluate the presented feature extraction and selection scheme. In the phase of feature extraction, the transform technique is firstly utilized to convert the engine vibration signals to time-frequency domain, which can provide richer information on engine operating conditions. Then a novel feature extraction technique, named two-dimensional nonnegative matrix factorization, is employed for characterizing the time-frequency representations. In the feature selection phase, a hybrid filter and wrapper scheme based on mutual information and NSGA-II is utilized to acquire a compact feature subset for engine fault diagnosis. Experimental results by adopted three different classifiers have demonstrated that the proposed feature extraction and selection scheme can achieve a very satisfying classification performance with fewer features for engine fault diagnosis. Peng-yuan Liu, Bing Li, Cui-e Han, and Feng Wang Copyright © 2016 Peng-yuan Liu et al. All rights reserved. Waveform-Based Condition Assessments in Civil Engineering Tue, 19 Apr 2016 13:58:24 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/sv/2016/3789358/ Sang-Youl Lee, Guillermo Rus, and Abdollah Shafieezadeh Copyright © 2016 Sang-Youl Lee et al. All rights reserved. Fault Diagnosis and Prognosis of Critical Components Tue, 19 Apr 2016 06:47:59 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/sv/2016/9597656/ Dong Wang, Chuan Li, Achmad Widodo, Pavan Kumar Kankar, and Wahyu Caesarendra Copyright © 2016 Dong Wang et al. All rights reserved. High Response Performance of a Tuned-Mass Damper for Vibration Suppression of Offshore Platform under Earthquake Loads Sun, 17 Apr 2016 11:06:43 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/sv/2016/7383679/ Currently, tuned-mass dampers (TMDs) are widely applied to maintain the stability of offshore platforms in hostile environments; however, the stability system of offshore platforms faces considerable challenges under critical earthquake loads of the initial period. Therefore, this study concentrated on the high response performance of a simple passive TMD system, and numerical and experimental investigations were performed using a 1 : 200-scale prototype. The obtained results indicated that the displacement, acceleration, and their power spectral density all decreased significantly for the offshore platform with the TMD system. By further analyses of its high response characteristics, it was validated that the TMD reactions can commence within the first 3 s of earthquake excitation, while the fundamental natural frequency was consistently tuned for the TMD system dependent on the dynamic magnification factor. The evaluation indices also confirmed that this method is effective in reducing the overall vibration level and the maximum peak values of the offshore platform exposed to earthquake excitations, mainly because of its high response characteristics. Qiong Wu, Xilu Zhao, Rencheng Zheng, and Keisuke Minagawa Copyright © 2016 Qiong Wu et al. All rights reserved. A Hybrid Prognostic Approach for Remaining Useful Life Prediction of Lithium-Ion Batteries Mon, 11 Apr 2016 11:11:46 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/sv/2016/3838765/ Lithium-ion battery is a core component of many systems such as satellite, spacecraft, and electric vehicles and its failure can lead to reduced capability, downtime, and even catastrophic breakdowns. Remaining useful life (RUL) prediction of lithium-ion batteries before the future failure event is extremely crucial for proactive maintenance/safety actions. This study proposes a hybrid prognostic approach that can predict the RUL of degraded lithium-ion batteries using physical laws and data-driven modeling simultaneously. In this hybrid prognostic approach, the relevant vectors obtained with the selective kernel ensemble-based relevance vector machine (RVM) learning algorithm are fitted to the physical degradation model, which is then extrapolated to failure threshold for estimating the RUL of the lithium-ion battery of interest. The experimental results indicated that the proposed hybrid prognostic approach can accurately predict the RUL of degraded lithium-ion batteries. Empirical comparisons show that the proposed hybrid prognostic approach using the selective kernel ensemble-based RVM learning algorithm performs better than the hybrid prognostic approaches using the popular learning algorithms of feedforward artificial neural networks (ANNs) like the conventional backpropagation (BP) algorithm and support vector machines (SVMs). In addition, an investigation is also conducted to identify the effects of RVM learning algorithm on the proposed hybrid prognostic approach. Wen-An Yang, Maohua Xiao, Wei Zhou, Yu Guo, and Wenhe Liao Copyright © 2016 Wen-An Yang et al. All rights reserved. Research on the Rockburst Tendency and AE Characteristics of Inhomogeneous Coal-Rock Combination Bodies Sun, 10 Apr 2016 13:40:04 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/sv/2016/9271434/ In order to research the influence of homogeneity on the rockburst tendency and on AE characteristics of coal-rock combination body, uniaxial compressive tests of inhomogeneous coal-rock combination bodies obeyed by the Weibull distribution were simulated using particle flow code (). Macromechanical properties, energy evolution law, and AE characteristics were analyzed. The results show that (1) the elastic modulus homogeneity has an exponential relation with macroscopic modulus , and the bonding strength homogeneity has an exponential relation with uniaxial compressive strength ; (2) the rockburst tendency of the coal-rock combination body will increase with the increase of or , and is the leading factor influencing this tendency; and (3) both the change law of AE hits and lasting time in different periods of AE characteristics are influenced by , but just influences the lasting time. The more inhomogeneous the coal-rock combination body is, the shorter the lasting time in booming period of AE characteristics will be. This phenomenon can be used to predict the rockburst tendency of the coal-rock combination body. Yun-liang Tan, Wei-yao Guo, Qing-heng Gu, Tong-bin Zhao, Feng-hai Yu, Shan-chao Hu, and Yan-chun Yin Copyright © 2016 Yun-liang Tan et al. All rights reserved. Dissipation of Impact Stress Waves within the Artificial Blasting Damage Zone in the Surrounding Rocks of Deep Roadway Sun, 10 Apr 2016 13:26:15 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/sv/2016/4629254/ Artificial explosions are commonly used to prevent rockburst in deep roadways. However, the dissipation of the impact stress wave within the artificial blasting damage zone (ABDZ) of the rocks surrounding a deep roadway has not yet been clarified. The surrounding rocks were divided into the elastic zone, blasting damage zone, plastic zone, and anchorage zone in this research. Meanwhile, the ABDZ was divided into the pulverizing area, fractured area, and cracked area from the inside out. Besides, the model of the normal incidence of the impact stress waves in the ABDZ was established; the attenuation coefficient of the amplitude of the impact stress waves was obtained after it passed through the intact rock mass, and ABDZ, to the anchorage zone. In addition, a numerical simulation was used to study the dynamic response of the vertical stress and impact-induced vibration energy in the surrounding rocks. By doing so, the dissipation of the impact stress waves within the ABDZ of the surrounding rocks was revealed. As demonstrated in the field application, the establishment of the ABDZ in the surrounding rocks reduced the effect of the impact-induced vibration energy on the anchorage support system of the roadway. Jianguo Ning, Jun Wang, Yunliang Tan, and Xinshuai Shi Copyright © 2016 Jianguo Ning et al. All rights reserved. The Effect of Rail Fastening System Modifications on Tram Traffic Noise and Vibration Sun, 10 Apr 2016 11:21:22 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/sv/2016/4671302/ Tram system is a backbone of public transportation in the City of Zagreb. In the last decade, its fleet has been renewed by 142 new low-floor trams. Shortly after their introduction, it was observed that they have a negative impact on the exploitation behavior of tram infrastructure, primarily on the durability of rail fastening systems. Because of that, it was decided to modify existing rail fastening systems to the new track exploitation conditions. When the (re)construction of tram infrastructure is carried out by applying new systems and technologies, it is necessary to take into account their impact on the future propagation of noise and vibration in the environment. This paper gives a short overview of the characteristics of the two newly developed rail fastening systems for Zagreb tram tracks, their application in construction of experimental track section, and performance and comparison of noise and vibration measurements results. Measured data on track vibrations and noise occurring during passage of the tram vehicles is analyzed in terms of track decay rates and equivalent noise levels of passing referent vehicle. Vibroacoustic performance of new fastening systems is evaluated and compared to referent fastening system, in order to investigate their ability to absorb vibration energy induced by tram operation and to reduce noise emission. Stjepan Lakušić, Ivo Haladin, and Maja Ahac Copyright © 2016 Stjepan Lakušić et al. All rights reserved. Seismic Behavior of Posttensioned Concrete Bridge Piers with External Viscoelastic Dampers Thu, 07 Apr 2016 13:34:42 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/sv/2016/1823015/ This paper investigates the seismic performance of posttensioned concrete piers with external viscoelastic dampers to improve the energy dissipation capacity of this type of structure. An installation scheme for viscoelastic dampers on bridge piers is proposed, and the mechanical models of the damper are analyzed according to the installation scheme. By attaching the viscoelastic dampers to the posttensioned bridge piers, the analytical model of the hybrid system is established using the OpenSees finite element analysis package. Cyclic behavior and time history analyses are conducted on a posttensioned bridge with and without viscoelastic dampers using the established finite element model. The analysis results indicate that the viscoelastic dampers can effectively improve the seismic performance of the bridge structures with posttensioned piers. Anxin Guo and Huixing Gao Copyright © 2016 Anxin Guo and Huixing Gao. All rights reserved.