Shock and Vibration http://www.hindawi.com The latest articles from Hindawi Publishing Corporation © 2014 , Hindawi Publishing Corporation . All rights reserved. A Numerical Study for Flow Excitation and Performance of Rampressor Inlet considering Rotor Motion Thu, 24 Jul 2014 07:04:15 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/sv/2014/963234/ A unique supersonic compressor rotor with high pressure ratio, termed the Rampressor, is presented by Ramgen Power Systems, Inc. (RPS). In order to obtain the excitation characteristic and performance of Rampressor inlet flow field under external excitation, compression inlet flow of Rampressor is studied with considering Rampressor rotor whirling. Flow excitation characteristics and performance of Rampressor inlet are analyzed under different frequency and amplitude of Rampressor rotor whirling. The results indicate that the rotor whirling has a significant effect for flow excitation characteristics and performance of Rampressor inlet. The effect of rotor whirling on the different inlet location excitation has a definite phase difference. Inlet excitation becomes more complex along with the inlet flow path. More frequency components appear in the excitation spectrum of Rampressor inlet with considering Rampressor rotor whirling. The main frequency component is the fundamental frequency, which is caused by the rotor whirling. Besides the fundamental frequency, the double frequency components are generated due to the coupling between inlet compression flow of Rampressor rotor and rotor whirling, especially in the subsonic diffuser of Rampressor rotor inlet. With the increment of rotor whirling frequency and whirling amplitude, the complexity of Rampressor inlet excitation increases, and the stability of Rampressor inlet performance deteriorates. Weijia Kang, Zhansheng Liu, Jiangbo Lu, Yu Wang, and Yanyang Dong Copyright © 2014 Weijia Kang et al. All rights reserved. Influence of the Wave Form on the Material Response Delay Thu, 24 Jul 2014 00:00:00 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/sv/2014/538127/ To model damping effects in structural dynamics, the literature provides a wide range of alternatives. The different models claim different advantages and fields of use where they are useful but, in the end, the compliance of the model with the experimental results, within a given tolerance, is the ultimate criterion for assessing its quality. In the present paper, the behaviour of a simple steel specimen is studied, taking as a focus the time response of the material. Since the harmonic response is well established, the authors propose to submit the specimen to a trapezoidal periodic load and study the behaviour of the response to the load changes. A simple setup was used, using a steel specimen loaded in the linear regime. A carefull test procedure was carried out in order to characterize the dissipation in a quasi-static periodic load. The experimental results show that the response delay to a ramp load depends on the durations of both the previous flat and the ramp itself. J. R. Azinheira, L. Reis, and A. M. R. Ribeiro Copyright © 2014 J. R. Azinheira et al. All rights reserved. A Simplified Flexible Multibody Dynamics for a Main Landing Gear with Flexible Leaf Spring Wed, 23 Jul 2014 00:00:00 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/sv/2014/595964/ The dynamics of multibody systems with deformable components has been a subject of interest in many different fields such as machine design and aerospace. Traditional rigid-flexible systems often take a lot of computer resources to get accurate results. Accuracy and efficiency of computation have been the focus of this research in satisfying the coupling of rigid body and flex body. The method is based on modal analysis and linear theory of elastodynamics: reduced modal datum was used to describe the elastic deformation which was a linear approximate of the flexible part. Then rigid-flexible multibody system was built and the highly nonlinearity of the mass matrix caused by the limited rotation of the deformation part was approximated using the linear theory of elastodynamics. The above methods were used to establish the drop system of the leaf spring type landing gear of a small UAV. Comparisons of the drop test and simulation were applied. Results show that the errors caused by the linear approximation are acceptable, and the simulation process is fast and stable. Zhi-Peng Xue, Ming Li, Yan-Hui Li, and Hong-Guang Jia Copyright © 2014 Zhi-Peng Xue et al. All rights reserved. A Novel Double-Piston Magnetorheological Damper for Space Truss Structures Vibration Suppression Tue, 22 Jul 2014 00:00:00 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/sv/2014/864765/ The design, fabrication, and testing of a new double-piston MR damper for space applications are discussed. The design concept for the damper is described in detail. The electromagnetic analysis of the design and the fabrication of the MR damper are also presented. The design analysis shows that the damper meets the weight and size requirements for being included in a space truss structure. The prototype design is tested in a damper dynamometer. The test results show that the damper can provide nearly 80 N of damping force at its maximum velocity and current. The test results also show that the seal drag could contribute significantly to the damping forces. Additionally, the test results indicate that both the work by the damper and damping force increase rapidly with increasing current at lower currents and taper off at higher currents as the damper starts to saturate. The damper force versus velocity plots show hysteresis in both pre- and postyield regions and asymmetric forces in jounce and rebound. A model is proposed for representing the force-displacement, force-velocity, and asymmetric forces observed in test results. A comparison of the modeling results and test data indicates that the model accurately represents the force characteristics of the damper. Qiang Wang, Mehdi Ahmadian, and Zhaobo Chen Copyright © 2014 Qiang Wang et al. All rights reserved. A Numerical Study on the Performance of Nonlinear Models of a Microvibration Isolator Tue, 22 Jul 2014 00:00:00 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/sv/2014/531013/ A non-Newton fluid microvibration isolator is studied in this paper and several nonlinear models are firstly presented to characterize its vibration behaviors due to the complicated effects of internal structure, external excitation, and fluid property. On the basis of testing hysteretic loops, the generalized pattern search (GPS) algorithm of MATLAB optimization toolbox is used to identify the model parameters. With the use of the fourth-order Runge-Kutta method, the performance of these nonlinear models is further estimated. The results show that, in the cases of force excitation (FE), the generalized nonlinear model (GNM) and the complicated model (CM) can properly characterize the physical vibration in the frequency band of 5–20 Hz. However, in the frequency band of 30–200 Hz, the Maxwell model shows more excellent performance. After the application of orthogonal testing method, several important factors, for example, damping coefficient and flow index, are obtained; then a parametric analysis is carried out with the purpose of further studying the influences of nonlinear model parameters. It can be seen that only the GNM and CM can consider the above nonlinear effects in both the FE cases and the foundation displacement excitation (FDE) cases, but the CM is not convenient to use in practice. Jie Wang, Shougen Zhao, and Dafang Wu Copyright © 2014 Jie Wang et al. All rights reserved. A Contrast on Conductor Galloping Amplitude Calculated by Three Mathematical Models with Different DOFs Mon, 21 Jul 2014 09:41:15 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/sv/2014/781304/ It is pivotal to find an effective mathematical model revealing the galloping mechanism. And it is important to compare the difference between the existing mathematical models on the conductor galloping. In this paper, the continuum cable model for transmission lines was proposed using the Hamilton principle. Discrete models of one DOF, two DOFs, and three DOFs were derived from the continuum model by using the Garlekin method. And the three models were compared by analyzing the galloping vertical amplitude and torsional angle with different influence factors. The influence factors include wind velocity, flow density, span length, damping ratio, and initial tension. The three-DOF model is more accurate at calculating the galloping characteristics than the other two models, but the one-DOF and two-DOF models can also present the trend of galloping amplitude change from the point view of qualitative analysis. And the change of the galloping amplitude relative to the main factors was also obtained, which is very essential to the antigalloping design applied in the actual engineering. Bin Liu, KuanJun Zhu, XiaoQin Sun, Bing Huo, and XiJun Liu Copyright © 2014 Bin Liu et al. All rights reserved. Spatial Information in Autonomous Modal Parameter Estimation Thu, 17 Jul 2014 10:30:03 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/sv/2014/404132/ Recent work with autonomous modal parameter estimation has shown great promise in the quality of the modal parameter estimation results when compared to results from traditional methods by experienced users. While autonomous modal parameter estimation means slightly different things to different researchers and practitioners, for the purpose of this discussion, autonomous will require an automated procedure which sorts and processes a large number of possible modal parameter solutions to yield one consistent estimate with no user interaction after initial thresholds are chosen. In the work discussed, this final, consistent set of modal parameters is identifiable due to the combination of temporal and spatial information in a domain state vector of relatively high order (5–10). Since this domain state vector has both complex modal frequency and modal vector information as embedded content, sorting consistent estimates from the multitude of possible solutions is relatively trivial. Because this domain state vector can be developed from the results of any modal parameter estimation method, possible solutions from different traditional methods can be utilized in the autonomous procedure to yield one consistent set of modal parameters. Randall J. Allemang and Allyn W. Phillips Copyright © 2014 Randall J. Allemang and Allyn W. Phillips. All rights reserved. Reduction of Structural Vibrations by Passive and Semiactively Controlled Friction Dampers Thu, 17 Jul 2014 10:00:59 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/sv/2014/870564/ Reduction of structural vibrations is of major interest in mechanical engineering for lowering sound emission of vibrating structures, improving accuracy of machines, and increasing structure durability. Besides optimization of the mechanical design or various types of passive damping treatments, active structural vibration control concepts are efficient means to reduce unwanted vibrations. In this contribution, two different semiactive control concepts for vibration reduction are proposed that adapt to the normal force of attached friction dampers. Thereby, semiactive control concepts generally possess the advantage over active control in that the closed loop is intrinsically stable and that less energy is required for the actuation than in active control. In the chosen experimental implementation, a piezoelectric stack actuator is used to apply adjustable normal forces between a structure and an attached friction damper. Simulation and experimental results of a benchmark structure with passive and semiactively controlled friction dampers are compared for stationary narrowband excitation. For simulations of the control performance, transient simulations must be employed to predict the achieved vibration damping. It is well known that transient simulation of systems with friction and normal contact requires excessive computational power due to the nonlinear constitutive laws and the high contact stiffnesses involved. However, commercial finite-element codes do not allow simulating feedback control in a general way. As a remedy, a special simulation framework is developed which allows efficiently modeling interfaces with friction and normal contact by appropriate constitutive laws which are implemented by contact elements in a finite-element model. Furthermore, special model reduction techniques using a substructuring approach are employed for faster simulation. L. Gaul and J. Becker Copyright © 2014 L. Gaul and J. Becker. All rights reserved. Free-Interface Modal Synthesis Based Substructural Damage Detection Method Tue, 15 Jul 2014 09:58:43 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/sv/2014/741697/ Free-interface modal synthesis method is applied to civil structure, and a substructure method is proposed by introducing the method into global sensitivity method. The substructure expression of the derivatives of eigenvalues and eigenvectors with respect to elemental parameters is obtained. The accuracy of the application of free-interface modal synthesis method is evaluated with different retained modes in substructure, and then the effectiveness of the proposed substructure sensitivity method is illustrated through an 11-storey building under both single- and multidamage cases. Both the damage locations and the extent can be effectively identified. By comparing it with the identical results of global sensitivity method, the proposed method can be faster in detecting the damage location and more stable under multidamage cases. Since this substructure sensitivity method only needs to update sensitivity matrix in the substructure with relative small number of DOFs, it may save much computation effort and become more efficient. Shanghong Chen, Wei Lin, Jiexin Yu, and Ai Qi Copyright © 2014 Shanghong Chen et al. All rights reserved. Chaotic Motions of the Duffing-Van der Pol Oscillator with External and Parametric Excitations Tue, 15 Jul 2014 09:34:48 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/sv/2014/131637/ The chaotic motions of the Duffing-Van der Pol oscillator with external and parametric excitations are investigated both analytically and numerically in this paper. The critical curves separating the chaotic and nonchaotic regions are obtained. The chaotic feature on the system parameters is discussed in detail. Some new dynamical phenomena including the controllable frequency are presented for this system. Numerical results are given, which verify the analytical ones. Liangqiang Zhou and Fangqi Chen Copyright © 2014 Liangqiang Zhou and Fangqi Chen. All rights reserved. Fully Equipped Dynamic Model of a Bus Tue, 15 Jul 2014 07:45:32 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/sv/2014/201952/ Nowadays, the time to market a new vehicle is crucial for every company as it is easier to meet the customers’ needs and expectations. However, designing a new vehicle is a long process which needs to take into account different performances. The most difficult is to predict a dynamic behavior of a vehicle especially when such a big vehicles as urban buses are considered. Therefore, there is a necessity to use a virtual model to investigate different performances. However, there is a lack of urban bus models that can fully reflect a dynamic behavior of the bus. This paper presents a fully equipped urban bus model which can be used to study a dynamic behavior of such vehicles. The model is based on innovative technique called cosimulation, which connects different modeling techniques (3D and 1D). Such a technique allows performing different analyses that require small deformations and large translations and rotations in shorter time and automatic way. The work has been carried out in a project EUREKA CHASING. I. Kowarska, J. Korta, K. Kuczek, and T. Uhl Copyright © 2014 I. Kowarska et al. All rights reserved. Developing Dynamic Digital Image Correlation Technique to Monitor Structural Damage of Old Buildings under External Excitation Tue, 15 Jul 2014 06:49:57 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/sv/2014/954840/ The capacity of buildings to resist external excitation is an important factor to consider for the structural design of buildings. When subject to external excitation, a building may suffer a certain degree of damages, and its residual capacity to resist external excitation cannot be evaluated. In this research, dynamic digital image correlation method combined with parameter evaluation available in system identification is used to evaluate the structural capacity to resist external excitation. The results reveal possible building latent safety problems so that timely structural reinforcement or dismantling of the building can be initiated to alleviate further damages. The results of experiments using the proposed method conform to the results obtained using the conventional method, but this method is more convenient and rapid than the latter in the subsequent procedure of data processing. If only the frequency change is used, the damages suffered by the building can be detected, but the damage location is not revealed. The interstory drift mode shape (IDMS) based on the characteristic of story drift has higher sensitivity than the approximate story damage index (ADSI) method based on modal frequency and vibration type; however, both indices can be used to determine the degree and location of building damages. Ming-Hsiang Shih and Wen-Pei Sung Copyright © 2014 Ming-Hsiang Shih and Wen-Pei Sung. All rights reserved. Updating Finite Element Model of a Wind Turbine Blade Section Using Experimental Modal Analysis Results Tue, 15 Jul 2014 00:00:00 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/sv/2014/684786/ This paper presents selected results and aspects of the multidisciplinary and interdisciplinary research oriented for the experimental and numerical study of the structural dynamics of a bend-twist coupled full scale section of a wind turbine blade structure. The main goal of the conducted research is to validate finite element model of the modified wind turbine blade section mounted in the flexible support structure accordingly to the experimental results. Bend-twist coupling was implemented by adding angled unidirectional layers on the suction and pressure side of the blade. Dynamic test and simulations were performed on a section of a full scale wind turbine blade provided by Vestas Wind Systems A/S. The numerical results are compared to the experimental measurements and the discrepancies are assessed by natural frequency difference and modal assurance criterion. Based on sensitivity analysis, set of model parameters was selected for the model updating process. Design of experiment and response surface method was implemented to find values of model parameters yielding results closest to the experimental. The updated finite element model is producing results more consistent with the measurement outcomes. Marcin Luczak, Simone Manzato, Bart Peeters, Kim Branner, Peter Berring, and Maciej Kahsin Copyright © 2014 Marcin Luczak et al. All rights reserved. On the Seismic Response of Protected and Unprotected Middle-Rise Steel Frames in Far-Field and Near-Field Areas Tue, 15 Jul 2014 00:00:00 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/sv/2014/393870/ Several steel moment-resisting framed buildings were seriously damaged during Northridge (1994); Kobe (1995); Kocaeli, Turkey (1999), earthquakes. Indeed, for all these cases, the earthquake source was located under the urban area and most victims were in near-field areas. In fact near-field ground motions show velocity and displacement peaks higher than far-field ones. Therefore, the importance of considering near-field ground motion effects in the seismic design of structures is clear. This study analyzes the seismic response of five-story steel moment-resisting frames subjected to Loma Prieta (1989) earthquake—Gilroy (far-field) register and Santa Cruz (near-field) register. The design of the frames verifies all the resistance and stability Eurocodes’ requirements and the first mode has been determined from previous shaking-table tests. In the frames two diagonal braces are installed in different positions. Therefore, ten cases with different periods are considered. Also, friction dampers are installed in substitution of the braces. The behaviour of the braced models under the far-field and the near-field records is analysed. The responses of the aforementioned frames equipped with friction dampers and subjected to the same ground motions are discussed. The maximum response of the examined model structures with and without passive dampers is analysed in terms of damage indices, acceleration amplification, base shear, and interstory drifts. Dora Foti Copyright © 2014 Dora Foti. All rights reserved. Free Vibration Analysis of Moderately Thick Rectangular Plates with Variable Thickness and Arbitrary Boundary Conditions Mon, 14 Jul 2014 09:46:29 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/sv/2014/572395/ A generalized Fourier series solution based on the first-order shear deformation theory is presented for the free vibrations of moderately thick rectangular plates with variable thickness and arbitrary boundary conditions, a class of problem which is of practical interest and fundamental importance but rarely attempted in the literatures. Unlike in most existing studies where solutions are often developed for a particular type of boundary conditions, the current method can be generally applied to a wide range of boundary conditions with no need of modifying solution algorithms and procedures. Under the current framework, the one displacement and two rotation functions are generally sought, regardless of boundary conditions, as an improved trigonometric series in which several supplementary functions are introduced to remove the potential discontinuities with the displacement components and its derivatives at the edges and to accelerate the convergence of series representations. All the series expansion coefficients are treated as the generalized coordinates and solved using the Rayleigh-Ritz technique. The effectiveness and reliability of the presented solution are demonstrated by comparing the present results with those results published in the literatures and finite element method (FEM) data, and numerous new results for moderately thick rectangular plates with nonuniform thickness and elastic restraints are presented, which may serve as benchmark solution for future researches. Dongyan Shi, Qingshan Wang, Xianjie Shi, and Fuzhen Pang Copyright © 2014 Dongyan Shi et al. All rights reserved. Analysis of Critical Velocities for an Infinite Timoshenko Beam Resting on an Elastic Foundation Subjected to a Harmonic Moving Load Mon, 14 Jul 2014 09:25:15 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/sv/2014/848536/ Critical velocities are investigated for an infinite Timoshenko beam resting on a Winkler-type elastic foundation subjected to a harmonic moving load. The determination of critical velocities ultimately comes down to discrimination of the existence of multiple real roots of an algebraic equation with real coefficients of the 4th degree, which can be solved by employing Descartes sign method and complete discrimination system for polynomials. Numerical calculations for the European high-speed rail show that there are at most four critical velocities for an infinite Timoshenko beam, which is very different from those gained by others. Furthermore, the shear wave velocity must be the critical velocity, but the longitudinal wave velocity is not possible under certain conditions. Further numerical simulations indicate that all critical velocities are limited to be less than the longitudinal wave velocity no matter how large the foundation stiffness is or how high the loading frequency is. Additionally, our study suggests that the maximum value of one group velocity of waves in Timoshenko beam should be one “dangerous” velocity for the moving load in launching process, which has never been referred to in previous work. Bin Zhen, Wei Luo, and Jian Xu Copyright © 2014 Bin Zhen et al. All rights reserved. Optimization of Sound Transmission Loss through a Thin Functionally Graded Material Cylindrical Shell Mon, 14 Jul 2014 07:39:07 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/sv/2014/814682/ The maximizing of sound transmission loss (TL) across a functionally graded material (FGM) cylindrical shell has been conducted using a genetic algorithm (GA). To prevent the softening effect from occurring due to optimization, the objective function is modified based on the first resonant frequency. Optimization is performed over the frequency range 1000–4000 Hz, where the ear is the most sensitive. The weighting constants are chosen here to correspond to an A-weighting scale. Since the weight of the shell structure is an important concern in most applications, the weight of the optimized structure is constrained. Several traditional materials are used and the result shows that optimized shells with aluminum-nickel and aluminum-steel FGM are the most effective at maximizing TL at both stiffness and mass control region, while they have minimum weight. Ali Nouri and Sohrab Astaraki Copyright © 2014 Ali Nouri and Sohrab Astaraki. All rights reserved. On the Vibration of Single-Walled Carbon Nanocones: Molecular Mechanics Approach versus Molecular Dynamics Simulations Mon, 14 Jul 2014 07:26:39 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/sv/2014/410783/ The vibrational behavior of single-walled carbon nanocones is studied using molecular structural method and molecular dynamics simulations. In molecular structural approach, point mass and beam elements are employed to model the carbon atoms and the connecting covalent bonds, respectively. Single-walled carbon nanocones with different apex angles are considered. Besides, the vibrational behavior of nanocones under various types of boundary conditions is studied. Predicted natural frequencies are compared with the existing results in the literature and also with the ones obtained by molecular dynamics simulations. It is found that decreasing apex angle and the length of carbon nanocone results in an increase in the natural frequency. Comparing the vibrational behavior of single-walled carbon nanocones under different boundary conditions shows that the effect of end condition on the natural frequency is more prominent for nanocones with smaller apex angles. R. Ansari, A. Momen, S. Rouhi, and S. Ajori Copyright © 2014 R. Ansari et al. All rights reserved. Investigation of Seismic Behavior of Container Crane Structures by Shake Table Tests and Mathematical Modeling Sun, 13 Jul 2014 00:00:00 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/sv/2014/682647/ This paper is concerned with the verification of mathematical modeling of the container cranes under earthquake loadings with shake table test results. Comparison of the shake table tests with the theoretical studies has an important role in the estimation of the seismic behavior of the engineering structures. For this purpose, a new shake table and mathematical model were developed. Firstly, a new physical model is directly fixed on the shake table and the seismic response of the container crane model against the past earthquake ground motion was measured. Secondly, a four degrees-of-freedom mathematical model is developed to understand the dynamic behaviour of cranes under the seismic loadings. The results of the verification study indicate that the developed mathematical model reasonably represents the dynamic behaviour of the crane structure both in time and frequency domains. The mathematical model can be used in active-passive vibration control studies to decrease structural vibrations on container cranes. C. Oktay Azeloglu, Ayse Edincliler, and Ahmet Sagirli Copyright © 2014 C. Oktay Azeloglu et al. All rights reserved. International Conference on Acoustics and Vibration 2012 Thu, 10 Jul 2014 07:05:18 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/sv/2014/340285/ Hamid Mehdigholi, Hamid Ahmadian, and Abdolreza Ohadi Copyright © 2014 Hamid Mehdigholi et al. All rights reserved. Numerical Time-Domain Modeling of Lamb Wave Propagation Using Elastodynamic Finite Integration Technique Thu, 10 Jul 2014 00:00:00 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/sv/2014/434187/ This paper presents a numerical model of lamb wave propagation in a homogenous steel plate using elastodynamic finite integration technique (EFIT) as well as its validation with analytical results. Lamb wave method is a long range inspection technique which is considered to have unique future in the field of structural health monitoring. One of the main problems facing the lamb wave method is how to choose the most appropriate frequency to generate the waves for adequate transmission capable of properly propagating in the material, interfering with defects/damages, and being received in good conditions. Modern simulation tools based on numerical methods such as finite integration technique (FIT), finite element method (FEM), and boundary element method (BEM) may be used for modeling. In this paper, two sets of simulation are performed. In the first set, group velocities of lamb wave in a steel plate are obtained numerically. Results are then compared with analytical results to validate the simulation. In the second set, EFIT is employed to study fundamental symmetric mode interaction with a surface braking defect. Hussein Rappel, Aghil Yousefi-Koma, Jalil Jamali, and Ako Bahari Copyright © 2014 Hussein Rappel et al. All rights reserved. Study on Effect of Ultrasonic Vibration on Grinding Force and Surface Quality in Ultrasonic Assisted Micro End Grinding of Silica Glass Tue, 08 Jul 2014 09:49:09 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/sv/2014/418059/ Ultrasonic vibration assisted micro end grinding (UAMEG) is a promising processing method for micro parts made of hard and brittle materials. First, the influence of ultrasonic assistance on the mechanism of this processing technology is theoretically analyzed. Then, in order to reveal the effects of ultrasonic vibration and grinding parameters on grinding forces and surface quality, contrast grinding tests of silica glass with and without ultrasonic assistance using micro radial electroplated diamond wheel are conducted. The grinding forces are measured using a three-component dynamometer. The surface characteristics are detected using the scanning electron microscope. The experiment results demonstrate that grinding forces are significantly reduced by introducing ultrasonic vibration into conventional micro end grinding (CMEG) of silica glass; ultrasonic assistance causes inhibiting effect on variation percentages of tangential grinding force with grinding parameters; ductile machining is easier to be achieved and surface quality is obviously improved due to ultrasonic assistance in UAMEG. Therefore, larger grinding depth and feed rate adopted in UAMEG can lead to the improvement of removal rate and machining efficiency compared with CMEG. Zhang Jianhua, Zhao Yan, Zhang Shuo, Tian Fuqiang, Guo Lanshen, and Dai Ruizhen Copyright © 2014 Zhang Jianhua et al. All rights reserved. Predictive Control for Earthquake Response Mitigation of Buildings Using Semiactive Fluid Dampers Mon, 07 Jul 2014 11:28:18 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/sv/2014/670683/ A predictive control strategy in conjunction with semiactive control algorithms is proposed for damping control of base-isolated structures employing semiactive fluid dampers when subjected to earthquake loads. The controller considers the delays resulting from the device’s dynamics and an observer for state estimation. Twenty artificial accelerograms were generated according to the Eurocode 8 for the Portuguese territory and considered for the numerical simulations of the base-isolated structure representative model. The results of a parametric study on a single degree of freedom model provide an indication for controller design in this type of problems. To evaluate the effectiveness of the proposed strategies, the response of a 10-storey base-isolated dual frame-wall building employing semiactive systems is compared with the original, passive solution and with an earlier proposed optimal controller for this type of problems. It is shown that a well-tuned controller could outperform the original structure, the structural system with a passive device (optimized) as well as with the semiactive optimal controller, in terms of relative displacement and absolute acceleration reductions. F. Oliveira, P. Morais, and A. Suleman Copyright © 2014 F. Oliveira et al. All rights reserved. Some Elements of Operational Modal Analysis Sun, 06 Jul 2014 10:42:58 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/sv/2014/325839/ This paper gives an overview of the main components of operational modal analysis (OMA) and can serve as a tutorial for research oriented OMA applications. The paper gives a short introduction to the modeling of random responses and to the transforms often used in OMA such as the Fourier series, the Fourier integral, the Laplace transform, and the Z-transform. Then the paper introduces the spectral density matrix of the random responses and presents the theoretical solutions for correlation function and spectral density matrix under white noise loading. Some important guidelines for testing are mentioned and the most common techniques for signal processing of the operating signals are presented. The algorithms of some of the commonly used time domain and frequency domain identification techniques are presented and finally some issues are discussed such as mode shape scaling, and mode shape expansion. The different techniques are illustrated on the difficult case of identifying the three first closely spaced modes of the Heritage Court Tower building. Rune Brincker Copyright © 2014 Rune Brincker. All rights reserved. Comparison Study of Vibration Control Effects between Suspended Tuned Mass Damper and Particle Damper Sun, 06 Jul 2014 08:09:37 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/sv/2014/903780/ The vibration control performance and its influencing factors of a tuned mass damper and a particle damper are examined by a single degree of freedom structure with such devices. The vibration control effects between these two dampers are also investigated. Increasing the mass ratio of the damper can improve the damping effects; under the condition of tuning frequency, the damping effects are remarkable. However, the more the deviation from the tuned frequency, the less controlling effects can be obtained. The damping effect of a particle damper is generally better than that of a tuned mass damper. For this test model, the particle damper can improve primary structure’s equivalent damping ratio 19 times to the original one’s, while the tuned mass damper can be 13 times. The reason lies in the fact that the particle damper can dissipate input energy by tuning mass, collision, impact, and friction between particles and the container and the momentum exchange effects between the secondary damper mass and the primary structure. Zheng Lu, Dianchao Wang, and Peizhen Li Copyright © 2014 Zheng Lu et al. All rights reserved. Concept Modelling of Vehicle Joints and Beam-Like Structures through Dynamic FE-Based Methods Sun, 06 Jul 2014 00:00:00 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/sv/2014/303567/ This paper presents dynamic methodologies able to obtain concept models of automotive beams and joints, which compare favourably with the existing literature methods, in terms of accuracy, easiness of implementation, and computational loads. For the concept beams, the proposed method is based on a dynamic finite element (FE) approach, which estimates the stiffness characteristics of equivalent 1D beam elements using the natural frequencies, computed by a modal analysis of the detailed 3D FE model of the structure. Concept beams are then connected to each other by a concept joint, which is obtained through a dynamic reduction technique that makes use of its vibration normal modes. The joint reduction is improved through the application of a new interface beam-to-joint element, able to interpolate accurately the nodal displacements of the outer contour of the section, to obtain displacements and rotations of the central connection node. The proposed approach is validated through an application case that is typical in vehicle body engineering: the analysis of a structure formed by three spot-welded thin-walled beams, connected by a joint. G. De Gaetano, D. Mundo, F. I. Cosco, C. Maletta, and S. Donders Copyright © 2014 G. De Gaetano et al. All rights reserved. Influence of Sleepers Shape and Configuration on Track-Train Dynamics Wed, 02 Jul 2014 11:02:35 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/sv/2014/393867/ The paper is devoted to the study of dynamical behaviour of railway tracks as continuous systems (rails) supported by periodically spaced sleepers and subjected to moving concentrated loads. Several cases of dynamical problems, where elastically supported beams are excited by a moving concentrated force, are considered. In particular, the study is focused on interactions with structure periodic in the space. Results on one-dimensional structures are extended to the case of a two-dimensional system. The problems of stopping bands, passing bands, and mistuning are also mentioned. Roman Bogacz, Włodzimierz Czyczuła, and Robert Konowrocki Copyright © 2014 Roman Bogacz et al. All rights reserved. Regular and Chaotic Dynamics of Flexible Plates Tue, 01 Jul 2014 11:29:19 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/sv/2014/937967/ Nonlinear dynamics of flexible rectangular plates subjected to the action of longitudinal and time periodic load distributed on the plate perimeter is investigated. Applying both the classical Fourier and wavelet analysis we illustrate three different Feigenbaum type scenarios of transition from a regular to chaotic dynamics. We show that the system vibrations change with respect not only to the change of control parameters, but also to all fixed parameters (system dynamics changes when the independent variable, time, increases). In addition, we show that chaotic dynamics may appear also after the second Hopf bifurcation. Curves of equal deflections (isoclines) lose their previous symmetry while transiting into chaotic vibrations. J. Awrejcewicz, E. Yu. Krylova, I.V. Papkova, and V. A. Krysko Copyright © 2014 J. Awrejcewicz et al. All rights reserved. The Exact Solutions for a Point Mass Moving along a Stretched String on a Winkler Foundation Mon, 30 Jun 2014 08:54:19 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/sv/2014/136149/ This paper derives the exact solutions for a point mass moving along a stretched infinite string on a Winkler foundation at a constant velocity. The solutions for the contact force between the string and the mass are derived and then the displacement responses of the string can be obtained easily. The solutions cover infinite string subjected to a moving mass at subsonic, sonic, or supersonic velocities. When time tends to infinity, the asymptotical solutions for the contact force between the mass and the string and for the displacement of the contact point are derived. The formulas derived are shown to be correct by comparison with the semianalytical method. Q. Gao, J. Zhang, H. W. Zhang, and W. X. Zhong Copyright © 2014 Q. Gao et al. All rights reserved. Experimental Parametric Identification of a Flexible Beam Using Piezoelectric Sensors and Actuators Sun, 29 Jun 2014 11:00:13 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/sv/2014/718140/ Experimental system identification of a flexible beam based on sweep square excitation is studied. For the purpose of nonparametric identification, an excitation signal is conducted to evaluate the frequency response of the system. The experiment is designed to excite the beam using a piezo actuator, in a way to raise the chance of exciting first three natural modes. In order to find the best linear representation of the real system, two different identification methods are applied. First, autoregressive moving average eXogenous method is employed to identify the transfer function of the beam. Then, the identification is carried out using the subspace identification method to obtain the state space model. A comparison is made between different orders of prediction and the best chosen models of the two identification methods are compared with each other to select the most accurate linear system. Furthermore, as the identified model has to fulfill the controllability and observability conditions, the amenable system is achieved after some order reductions. Two reduction methods called minimum truncation and maximum DC gains matching are utilized to find the most effective reduced order. The outcome of this study will bring in the best linear representation of the beam coupled with piezoelectric sensors/actuators. Sajad Saraygord Afshari, Hadi Nobahari, and Seyed Ali Hosseini Kordkheili Copyright © 2014 Sajad Saraygord Afshari et al. All rights reserved.