Shock and Vibration The latest articles from Hindawi Publishing Corporation © 2016 , Hindawi Publishing Corporation . All rights reserved. Modeling and Optimization of Vehicle Suspension Employing a Nonlinear Fluid Inerter Wed, 20 Jul 2016 09:04:17 +0000 An ideal inerter has been applied to various vibration engineering fields because of its superior vibration isolation performance. This paper proposes a new type of fluid inerter and analyzes the nonlinearities including friction and nonlinear damping force caused by the viscosity of fluid. The nonlinear model of fluid inerter is demonstrated by the experiments analysis. Furthermore, the full-car dynamic model involving the nonlinear fluid inerter is established. It has been detected that the performance of the vehicle suspension may be influenced by the nonlinearities of inerter. So, parameters of the suspension system including the spring stiffness and the damping coefficient are optimized by means of QGA (quantum genetic algorithm), which combines the genetic algorithm and quantum computing. Results indicate that, compared with the original nonlinear suspension system, the RMS (root-mean-square) of vertical body acceleration of optimized suspension has decreased by 9.0%, the RMS of pitch angular acceleration has decreased by 19.9%, and the RMS of roll angular acceleration has decreased by 9.6%. Yujie Shen, Long Chen, Yanling Liu, and Xiaoliang Zhang Copyright © 2016 Yujie Shen et al. All rights reserved. Shock and Vibration in Transportation Engineering Tue, 19 Jul 2016 09:11:07 +0000 Minvydas Ragulskis, Luis Munoz, Rafał Burdzik, Julia I. Real, Wen-Hsiang Hsieh, and Radosław Zimroz Copyright © 2016 Minvydas Ragulskis et al. All rights reserved. Improved EEMD Denoising Method Based on Singular Value Decomposition for the Chaotic Signal Mon, 18 Jul 2016 14:20:49 +0000 Chaotic data analysis is important in many areas of science and engineering. However, the chaotic signals are inevitably contaminated by complicated noise in the collection process which greatly interferes with the analysis of chaos identification. The chaotic vibration is extremely nonlinear and has a broad range of frequencies; linear filtering methods are not effective for chaotic signal noise reduction. Then an improved ensemble empirical mode decomposition (EEMD) based on singular value decomposition (SVD) and Savitzky-Golay (SG) filtering method was proposed. Firstly, the noise energy of first level intrinsic mode function (IMF) was estimated by “” criterion, and then SVD was used to extract the signal details from first IMF, and the singular value was selected to reconstruct the IMF according to noise energy of the first IMF. Secondly, the remaining IMFs are divided into high frequency and low frequency components based on consecutive mean square error (CMSE), and the useful signals of high frequency components and low frequency components are extracted based on SVD and SG filtering method, respectively. The superiority of the proposed method is demonstrated with simulated signal, two-degree-of-freedom chaotic vibration signals, and the experimental signals based on double potential well theory. Xiulei Wei, Ruilin Lin, Shuyong Liu, and Chunhui Zhang Copyright © 2016 Xiulei Wei et al. All rights reserved. Vibration Analysis as a Diagnosis Tool for Health Monitoring of Industrial Machines Mon, 18 Jul 2016 08:32:54 +0000 Arturo Garcia-Perez, Juan Pablo Amezquita-Sanchez, Daniel Morinigo-Sotelo, and Konstantinos N. Gyftakis Copyright © 2016 Arturo Garcia-Perez et al. All rights reserved. Seismic Proofing Capability of the Accumulated Semiactive Hydraulic Damper as an Active Interaction Control Device with Predictive Control Mon, 18 Jul 2016 07:02:02 +0000 The intensity of natural disasters has increased recently, causing buildings’ damages which need to be reinforced to prevent their destruction. To improve the seismic proofing capability of Accumulated Semiactive Hydraulic Damper, it is converted to an Active Interaction Control device and synchronous control and predictive control methods are proposed. The full-scale shaking table test is used to test and verify the seismic proofing capability of the proposed AIC with these control methods. This study examines the shock absorption of test structure under excitation by external forces, influences of prediction time, stiffness of the auxiliary structure, synchronous switching, and asynchronous switching on the control effects, and the influence of control locations of test structure on the control effects of the proposed AIC. Test results show that, for the proposed AIC with synchronous control and predictive control of 0.10~0.13 seconds, the displacement reduction ratios are greater than 71%, the average acceleration reduction ratios are, respectively, 36.2% and 36.9%, at the 1st and 2nd floors, and the average base shear reduction ratio is 29.6%. The proposed AIC with suitable stiffeners for the auxiliary structure at each floor with synchronous control and predictive control provide high reliability and practicability for seismic proofing of buildings. Ming-Hsiang Shih and Wen-Pei Sung Copyright © 2016 Ming-Hsiang Shih and Wen-Pei Sung. All rights reserved. Investigation on the Behavior of Tensile Damage Evolution in T700/6808 Composite Based on Acoustic Emission Technology Sun, 17 Jul 2016 13:36:56 +0000 T700/6808 composite has been widely used in aerospace field and the damage in composite will seriously influence the safety of aircraft. However, the behavior of damage evolution in T700/6808 composite when it suffered from tensile loading is seldom researched. In this paper, the acoustic emission (AE) technology is employed to research the process of damage evolution in T700/6808 composite under tensile loading. Results show that the damage in T700/6808 composite is small in the initial stage of tensile loading, and main damage is the matrix cracking. The composite has serious damage in the middle stage of tensile loading, which mainly includes the matrix cracking and the interface damage as well as the fiber breakage. The number of fiber breakages decreases rapidly in the later stage of tensile loading. When it comes into the stage of load holding, the composite has relatively smaller damage than that in the stage of tensile loading, and the fiber breakage rarely occurs in the composite. Analysis of damage modes shows that the criticality of the matrix cracking and the interface damage is higher than the fiber breakage, which illustrates that the reliability of T700/6808 composite could be improved by the optimization of matrix and interface. Weihan Wang, Weifang Zhang, Shengwang Liu, and Xiaoshuai Jin Copyright © 2016 Weihan Wang et al. All rights reserved. Vortex-Induced Vibration Suppression of a Circular Cylinder with Vortex Generators Wed, 13 Jul 2016 13:58:55 +0000 The vortex-induced vibration is one of the most important factors to make the engineering failure in wind engineering. This paper focuses on the suppression method of vortex-induced vibration that occurs on a circular cylinder fitted with vortex generators, based on the wind tunnel experiment. The effect of the vortex generators is presented with comparisons including the bare cylinder. The experimental results reveal that the vortex generators can efficiently suppress vortex-induced vibration of the circular cylinder. Vortex generator control can make the boundary layer profile fuller and hence more resistant to separation. The selections of skew angles and the angular position have a significant influence on the vortex generator control effect. By correlation analysis, it can be concluded that the vortex generators can inhibit the communication between the two shear layers and produce streamwise vortices to generate a disturbance in the spanwise direction. Shi-bo Tao, Ai-ping Tang, Da-bo Xin, Ke-tong Liu, and Hong-fu Zhang Copyright © 2016 Shi-bo Tao et al. All rights reserved. Multiobjective Optimal Control of Longitudinal Seismic Response of a Multitower Cable-Stayed Bridge Tue, 05 Jul 2016 08:11:40 +0000 The dynamic behavior of a multitower cable-stayed bridge with the application of partially longitudinal constraint system using viscous fluid dampers under real earthquake ground motions is presented. The study is based on the dynamic finite element model of the Jiashao Bridge, a six-tower cable-stayed bridge in China. The prime aim of the study is to investigate the effectiveness of viscous fluid dampers on the longitudinal seismic responses of the bridge and put forth a multiobjective optimization design method to determine the optimized parameters of the viscous fluid dampers. The results of the investigations show that the control objective of the multitower cable-stayed bridge with the partially longitudinal constraint system is to yield maximum reductions in the base forces of bridge towers longitudinally restricted with the bridge deck, with slight increases in the base forces of bridge towers longitudinally unrestricted with the bridge deck. To this end, a multiobjective optimization design method that uses a nondominating sort genetic algorithm II (NSGA-II) is used to optimize parameters of the viscous fluid dampers. The effectiveness of the proposed optimization design method is demonstrated for the multitower cable-stayed bridge with the partially longitudinal constraint system, which reveals that a design engineer can choose a set of proper parameters of the viscous fluid dampers from Pareto optimal fronts that can satisfy the desired performance requirements. Geng Fangfang and Ding Youliang Copyright © 2016 Geng Fangfang and Ding Youliang. All rights reserved. Chaotic Vibration Prediction of a Free-Floating Flexible Redundant Space Manipulator Thu, 30 Jun 2016 15:40:15 +0000 The dynamic model of a planar free-floating flexible redundant space manipulator with three joints is derived by the assumed modes method, Lagrange principle, and momentum conservation. According to minimal joint torque’s optimization (MJTO), the state equations of the dynamic model for the free-floating redundant space manipulator are described. The PD control using the tracking position error and velocity error in the manipulator is introduced. Then, the chaotic dynamic behavior of the manipulator is analyzed by chaotic numerical methods, in which time series, phase plane portrait, Poincaré map, and Lyapunov exponents are used to analyze the chaotic behavior of the manipulator. Under certain conditions for the joint torque optimization and initial values, chaotic vibration motion of the space manipulator can be observed. The chaotic time series prediction scheme for the space manipulator is presented based on the theory of phase space reconstruction under Takens’ embedding theorem. The trajectories of phase space can be reconstructed in embedding space, which are equivalent to the original space manipulator in dynamics. The one-step prediction model for the chaotic time series and the chaotic vibration was established by using support vector regression (SVR) prediction model with RBF kernel function. It has been proved that the SVR prediction model has a good performance of prediction. The experimental results show the effectiveness of the presented method. Congqing Wang and Linfeng Wu Copyright © 2016 Congqing Wang and Linfeng Wu. All rights reserved. Analytical Models for the Response of the Double-Bottom Structure to Underwater Explosion Based on the Wave Motion Theory Wed, 29 Jun 2016 09:47:35 +0000 The aim of this paper is to apply the elastic wave motion theory and the classical one-dimensional cavitation theory to analyze the response of a typical double-bottom structure subjected to underwater blast. The section-varying bar theory and the general acoustic impedance are introduced to get the simplified analytical models. The double-bottom structure is idealized by the basic unit of three substructures which include the simple panel, the panel with stiffener (T-shaped), and the panel associated with girder (I-shaped). According to the simplified models, the analytical models for the corresponding substructures are set up. By taking the cavitation effect into account, the process of fluid-structure interaction can be thoroughly understood, as well as the stress wave propagation. Good agreement between the analytical solution and the finite element prediction is achieved. On the other hand, the Taylor predictions for the panel associated with girder (I-shaped) including the effects of cavitation are invalid, indicating a potential field for the analytical method. The validated analytical models are used to determine the sensitivity of structure response to dimensionless geometric parameters , , and . Based on the dynamic response of the substructures, we establish the approximate analytical models which are able to predict the response of double-bottom structure to underwater explosion. Yingyu Chen, Xiongliang Yao, and Wei Xiao Copyright © 2016 Yingyu Chen et al. All rights reserved. Mechanism Analysis and Parameter Optimization of Mega-Sub-Isolation System Wed, 29 Jun 2016 09:21:33 +0000 The equation of motion of mega-sub-isolation system is established. The working mechanism of the mega-sub-isolation system is obtained by systematically investigating its dynamic characteristics corresponding to various structural parameters. Considering the number and location of the isolated substructures, a procedure to optimally design the isolator parameters of the mega-sub-isolation system is put forward based on the genetic algorithm with base shear as the optimization objective. The influence of the number and locations of isolated substructures on the control performance of mega-sub-isolation system has also been investigated from the perspective of energy. Results show that, with increase in substructure mass, the working mechanism of the mega-sub-isolation system is changed from tuned vibration absorber and energy dissipation to seismic isolation. The locations of the isolated substructures have little influence on the optimal frequency ratio but have great influence on the optimal damping ratio, while the number of isolated substructures shows great impact on both the optimal frequency ratio and damping ratio. When the number of the isolated substructures is determined, the higher the isolated substructures, the more the energy that will be consumed by the isolation devices, and with the increase of the number of isolated substructures, the better control performance can be achieved. Xiangxiu Li, Ping Tan, Xiaojun Li, and Aiwen Liu Copyright © 2016 Xiangxiu Li et al. All rights reserved. Vibration Response Characteristics of the Cross Tunnel Structure Wed, 29 Jun 2016 09:20:27 +0000 It is well known that the tunnel structure will lose its function under the long-term repeated function of the vibration effect. A prime example is the Xi’an cross tunnel structure (CTS) of Metro Line 2 and the Yongningmen tunnel, where the vibration response of the tunnel vehicle load and metro train load to the structure of shield tunnel was analyzed by applying the three-dimensional (3D) dynamic finite element model. The effect of the train running was simulated by applying the time-history curves of vibration force of the track induced by wheel axles, using the fitted formulas for vehicle and train vibration load. The characteristics and the spreading rules of vibration response of metro tunnel structure were researched from the perspectives of acceleration, velocity, displacement, and stress. It was found that vehicle load only affects the metro tunnel within 14 m from the centre, and the influence decreases gradually from vault to spandrel, haunch, and springing. The high-speed driving effect of the train can be divided into the close period, the rising period, the stable period, the declining period, and the leaving period. The stress at haunch should be carefully considered. The research results presented for this case study provide theoretical support for the safety of vibration response of Metro Line 2 structure. Jinxing Lai, Kaiyun Wang, Junling Qiu, Fangyuan Niu, Junbao Wang, and Jianxun Chen Copyright © 2016 Jinxing Lai et al. All rights reserved. Improved Multibody Dynamics for Investigating Energy Dissipation in Train Collisions Based on Scaling Laws Wed, 29 Jun 2016 09:19:24 +0000 This study aimed to investigate energy dissipation in train collisions. A 1/8 scaled train model, about one-dimensional in longitudinal direction, was used to carry out a scaled train collision test. Corresponding multibody dynamic simulations were conducted using traditional and improved method model (IMM) in ADAMS. In IMM, the connection between two adjacent cars was expressed by a nonlinear spring and energy absorbing structures were equivalently represented by separate forces, instead of one force. IMM was able to simulate the motion of each car and displayed the deformation of structures at both ends of the cars. IMM showed larger deformations and energy absorption of structures in moving cars than those in stationary cars. Moreover, the asymmetry in deformation proportion in main energy absorbing structures decreased with increasing collision speed. The asymmetry decreased from 11.69% to 3.60% when the collision speed increased from 10 km/h to 36 km/h. Heng Shao, Ping Xu, Shuguang Yao, Yong Peng, Rui Li, and Shizhong Zhao Copyright © 2016 Heng Shao et al. All rights reserved. Blasting Vibration Generated by Breaking-Blasting Large Barriers with EBBLB Wed, 29 Jun 2016 09:18:43 +0000 Equipment for breaking and blasting large barriers (EBBLB) is new break-blast equipment, which inevitably induces ground vibration and may cause substantial damage to rock mass and nearby structures as well as human beings. The ground vibration induced by break-blast is one of the inevitable outcomes. By monitoring vibration at measuring points at different distances from blasting center, time history curve of vibrating velocity can be obtained; it can be drawn that blasting seismic waves are generated mainly from the explosion of the precharge. Furthermore, different approaches have been adopted to fit relationship between particle peak velocity (PPV) and distance from blasting center, comparative analysis of which provides the most appropriate relation expression to predict attenuation of PPV of vibration with distance from blasting center. The relation between vibration frequency and distance from blasting center is obtained by Fourier transform. And the research decomposes vibrating signals in vertical direction of different distances from blasting center with Hilbert-Huang Transform (HHT), extracting information of empirical mode components of blasting vibration signals; thus vibrating signals are contracted by spectrum information and energy information, three-dimensional energy, and energy attenuation of vibration with different distances from blasting center. The study can predict ground vibration generated by EBBLB and assess its damaging effects of blasting vibration for security and protection. Wang Zhen-xiong, Gu Wen-bin, Liang Ting, Liu Jian-qing, Xu Jing-lin, and Liu Xin Copyright © 2016 Wang Zhen-xiong et al. All rights reserved. Effect of Temperature Variation on Modal Frequency of Reinforced Concrete Slab and Beam in Cold Regions Tue, 28 Jun 2016 12:24:51 +0000 Changes of modal frequencies induced by temperature variation can be more obvious than those caused by structural damage, which will lead to the false damage identification results. Therefore, quantifying the temperature effect on modal frequencies is a critical step to eliminate its interference in damage detection. Due to the nonuniform and time-dependent characteristics of temperature distribution, it is insufficient to obtain the reliable relationships between temperatures and modal frequencies using temperatures in air or at surface. In this paper, correlations between measured temperatures (air temperature, surface temperature, mean temperature, etc.) and modal frequencies for the slab and beam are comparatively analyzed. And the quantitative models are constructed considering nonuniform temperature distribution. Firstly, the reinforced concrete slab and beam were constructed and placed outside the laboratory to be monitored. Secondly, the correlation coefficients between modal frequencies and three kinds of temperatures are calculated, respectively. Thirdly, simple linear regression models between mean temperature and modal frequencies are established for the slab and beam. Finally, five temperature variables are selected to construct the multiple linear regression models. Prediction results reveal that the proposed multiple linear regression models possess favorable accuracy to quantify the temperature effect on modal frequencies considering nonuniform temperature distribution. Hanbing Liu, Xianqiang Wang, and Yubo Jiao Copyright © 2016 Hanbing Liu et al. All rights reserved. Parametric Study on the Influence of Warping Deformation upon Natural Frequencies of Die Springs Tue, 28 Jun 2016 12:24:09 +0000 The free vibrational characteristics of die springs are examined by Riccati transfer matrix method in this study. The warping deformation of spring’s cross section, as a new design factor, is incorporated into the differential equation of motion. Numerical simulations show that the warping deformation is a significant role of the behavior of natural frequencies of die springs and should be considered carefully. Approximately 40% of the errors may occur if warping is neglected. The change laws of warping effect with the parameter variations of springs are also explored, including the height-to-width ratio of the cross section, the cylinder diameter, the helix pitch angle, and the number of coils. The warping effect exhibits the most remarkable changes with the variation in the height-to-width ratio of the cross section. However, this effect is not fairly sensitive to the changes in other parameters, and it is particularly significant when the cross section is relatively narrow regardless of the changes in other parameters. This study evidently answers the key scientific question: “under what working condition should the warping effect be considered or ignored?” The analysis results can be used to guide spring designers in engineering. Ying Hao and Junfeng Guan Copyright © 2016 Ying Hao and Junfeng Guan. All rights reserved. Predictive Modeling of a Two-Stage Gearbox towards Fault Detection Thu, 23 Jun 2016 15:01:43 +0000 This paper presents a systematic approach to the modeling and analysis of a benchmark two-stage gearbox test bed to characterize gear fault signatures when processed with harmonic wavelet transform (HWT) analysis. The eventual goal of condition monitoring is to be able to interpret vibration signals from nonstationary machinery in order to identify the type and severity of gear damage. To advance towards this goal, a lumped-parameter model that can be analyzed efficiently is developed which characterizes the gearbox vibratory response at the system level. The model parameters are identified through correlated numerical and experimental investigations. The model fidelity is validated first by spectrum analysis, using constant speed experimental data, and secondly by HWT analysis, using nonstationary experimental data. Model prediction and experimental data are compared for healthy gear operation and a seeded fault gear with a missing tooth. The comparison confirms that both the frequency content and the predicted, relative response magnitudes match with physical measurements. The research demonstrates that the modeling method in combination with the HWT data analysis has the potential for facilitating successful fault detection and diagnosis for gearbox systems. Edward J. Diehl and J. Tang Copyright © 2016 Edward J. Diehl and J. Tang. All rights reserved. Numerical Investigation on Wheel-Rail Dynamic Vibration Excited by Rail Spalling in High-Speed Railway Thu, 23 Jun 2016 09:10:43 +0000 Spalling in contact surface of rail is a typical form of rolling contact fatigue, which is a difficult problem to solve in railway. Once the spalling occurs in the rail, the wheel-rail dynamic interaction will become more severe. The wheel-rail dynamic interaction is investigated based on the theory of vehicle-track coupled dynamics in this paper, where the excitation modes of the rail spalling failure are taken into consideration for high-speed wheel-rail system. A modified excitation model of rail spalling failure is proposed. It can enable the investigations on two kinds of excitation modes in wheel-rail system due to the rail spalling, including the pulse and the harmonic excitation modes. The excitation mode can be determined by the ratio of the spalling length to its critical length. Thus, the characteristics of wheel-rail dynamic vibration excited by two kinds of excitation are simulated in detail. Consequently, the limited value of the spalling length is suggested for high-speed railway. Kaiyun Wang, Wanming Zhai, Kaikai Lv, and Zaigang Chen Copyright © 2016 Kaiyun Wang et al. All rights reserved. Identification of Torsionally Coupled Shear Buildings Models Using a Vector Parameterization Wed, 22 Jun 2016 08:27:01 +0000 A methodology to estimate the shear model of seismically excited, torsionally coupled buildings using acceleration measurements of the ground and floors is presented. A vector parameterization that considers Rayleigh damping for the building is introduced that allows identifying the stiffness/mass and damping/mass ratios of the structure, as well as their eccentricities and radii of gyration. This parameterization has the advantage that its number of parameters is smaller than that obtained with matrix parameterizations or when Rayleigh damping is not used. Thus, the number of spectral components of the excitation signal required to identity the structural parameters is reduced. To deal with constant disturbances and measurement noise that corrupt acceleration measurements, Linear Integral Filters are used that guarantee elimination of constant disturbances and attenuation of noise. Antonio Concha and Luis Alvarez-Icaza Copyright © 2016 Antonio Concha and Luis Alvarez-Icaza. All rights reserved. Interaction between Walking Humans and Structures in Vertical Direction: A Literature Review Tue, 21 Jun 2016 11:54:39 +0000 Realistic simulation of the dynamic effects of walking pedestrians on structures is still a considerable challenge. This is mainly due to the inter- and intrasubject variability of humans and their bodies and difficult-to-predict loading scenarios, including multipedestrian walking traffic and unknown human-structure interaction (HSI) mechanisms. Over the past three decades, several attempts have been made to simulate walking HSI in the lateral direction. However, research into the mechanisms of this interaction in the vertical direction, despite its higher likelihood and critical importance, is fragmented and incoherent. It is, therefore, difficult to apply and codify. This paper critically reviews the efforts to date to simulate walking HSI in the vertical direction and highlights the key areas that need further investigation. Erfan Shahabpoor, Aleksandar Pavic, and Vitomir Racic Copyright © 2016 Erfan Shahabpoor et al. All rights reserved. A Fault Diagnosis Scheme for Rolling Bearing Based on Particle Swarm Optimization in Variational Mode Decomposition Wed, 15 Jun 2016 06:27:06 +0000 Variational mode decomposition (VMD) is a new method of signal adaptive decomposition. In the VMD framework, the vibration signal is decomposed into multiple mode components by Wiener filtering in Fourier domain, and the center frequency of each mode component is updated as the center of gravity of the mode’s power spectrum. Therefore, each decomposed mode is compact around a center pulsation and has a limited bandwidth. In view of the situation that the penalty parameter and the number of components affect the decomposition effect in VMD algorithm, a novel method of fault feature extraction based on the combination of VMD and particle swarm optimization (PSO) algorithm is proposed. In this paper, the numerical simulation and the measured fault signals of the rolling bearing experiment system are analyzed by the proposed method. The results indicate that the proposed method is much more robust to sampling and noise. Additionally, the proposed method has an advantage over the EMD in complicated signal decomposition and can be utilized as a potential method in extracting the faint fault information of rolling bearings compared with the common method of envelope spectrum analysis. Cancan Yi, Yong Lv, and Zhang Dang Copyright © 2016 Cancan Yi et al. All rights reserved. The Influence of Amplitude- and Frequency-Dependent Stiffness of Rail Pads on the Random Vibration of a Vehicle-Track Coupled System Tue, 14 Jun 2016 11:40:54 +0000 The nonlinear curves between the external static loads of Thermoplastic Polyurethane Elastomer (TPE) rail pads and their compressive deformations were measured. A finite element model (FEM) for a rail-fastener system was produced to determine the nonlinear compressive deformations of TPE rail pads and their nonlinear static stiffness under the static vehicle weight and the preload of rail fastener. Next, the vertical vehicle-track coupled model was employed to investigate the influence of the amplitude- and frequency-dependent stiffness of TPE rail pads on the vehicle-track random vibration. It is found that the static stiffness of TPE rail pads ranges from 19.1 to 37.9 kN/mm, apparently different from the classical secant stiffness of 26.7 kN/mm. Additionally, compared with the nonlinear amplitude- and frequency-dependent stiffness of rail pads, the classical secant stiffness would not only severely underestimate the random vibration acceleration levels of wheel-track coupled system at frequencies of 65–150 Hz but also alter the dominant frequency-distribution of vehicle wheel and steel rail. Considering that these frequencies of 65–150 Hz are the dominant frequencies of ground vibration accelerations caused by low-speed railway, the nonlinear amplitude- and frequency-dependent stiffness of rail pads should be taken into account in prediction of environment vibrations due to low-speed railway. Kai Wei, Pan Zhang, Ping Wang, Junhua Xiao, and Zhe Luo Copyright © 2016 Kai Wei et al. All rights reserved. Study of the Electrical Characteristics, Shock-Wave Pressure Characteristics, and Attenuation Law Based on Pulse Discharge in Water Tue, 07 Jun 2016 11:48:00 +0000 Strong shock waves can be generated by pulse discharge in water. Study of the pressure characteristics and attenuation law of these waves is highly significant to industrial production and national defense construction. In this research, the shock-wave pressures at several sites were measured by experiment under different conditions of hydrostatic pressure, discharge energy, and propagation distance. Moreover, the shock-wave pressure characteristics were analyzed by combining them with the discharge characteristics in water. An attenuation equation for a shock wave as a function of discharge energy, hydrostatic pressure, and propagation distance was fitted. The experimental results indicated that (1) an increase in hydrostatic pressure had an inhibiting effect on discharge breakdown; (2) the shock-wave peak pressure increased with increasing discharge voltage at 0.5 m from the electrode; it increased rapidly at first and then decreased slowly with increasing hydrostatic pressure; and (3) shock-wave attenuation slowed down with increasing breakdown energy and hydrostatic pressure during shock-wave transfer. These experimental results were discussed based on the mechanism described. Dong Yan, Decun Bian, Jinchang Zhao, and Shaoqing Niu Copyright © 2016 Dong Yan et al. All rights reserved. Study on the Seismic Active Earth Pressure by Variational Limit Equilibrium Method Mon, 06 Jun 2016 07:23:06 +0000 In the framework of limit equilibrium theory, the isoperimetric model of functional extremum regarding the seismic active earth pressure is deduced according to the variational method. On this basis, Lagrange multipliers are introduced to convert the problem of seismic active earth pressure into the problem on the functional extremum of two undetermined function arguments. Based on the necessary conditions required for the existence of functional extremum, the function of the slip surface and the normal stress distribution on the slip surface is obtained, and the functional extremum problem is further converted into a function optimization problem with two undetermined Lagrange multipliers. The calculated results show that the slip surface is a plane and the seismic active earth pressure is minimal when the action point is at the lower limit position. As the action point moves upward, the slip surface becomes a logarithmic spiral and the corresponding value of seismic active earth pressure increases in a nonlinear manner. And the seismic active earth pressure is maximal at the upper limit position. The interval estimation constructed by the minimum and maximum values of seismic active earth pressure can provide a reference for the aseismic design of gravity retaining walls. Jiangong Chen, Zejun Yang, Richeng Hu, and Haiquan Zhang Copyright © 2016 Jiangong Chen et al. All rights reserved. Antiknock Performance of Interlayered High-Damping-Rubber Blast Door under Thermobaric Shock Wave Thu, 02 Jun 2016 14:02:40 +0000 The long duration and high impulse shock wave of thermobaric bomb threatens the security of underground structures. To obtain high resistance blast door against thermobaric shock wave, firstly, the dynamic mechanic property of high damping rubber was studied by split Hopkinson pressure bar (SHPB) equipment and the stress-strain relationship of high damping rubber under average strain rate of 5200/s was obtained. Secondly, the numerical model of interlayered high-damping-rubber blast door was established with ANSYS/LS-DYNA code based on test results, and the antiknock performance of interlayered high-damping-rubber blast door under thermobaric shock wave was analyzed by contrast with ordinary blast door. The results showed that the midspan displacement of the blast door decreased firstly and then increased with the increase of thickness of the high-damping-rubber interlayer, and the optimal thickness of the high-damping-rubber interlayer for energy consuming was 150 mm in the calculation condition of this paper. With the increase of the distance between the interlayer and the front surface of the door, the midspan displacement of the blast door decreased continually. The midspan maximum displacement of interlayered high-damping-rubber blast door decreased 74.5% in comparison to ordinary blast door. It showed that the high-damping-rubber structure can effectively improve the antiknock performance of blast door under thermobaric shock wave. Xiudi Li, Chaoyang Miao, Qifan Wang, and Zhengang Geng Copyright © 2016 Xiudi Li et al. All rights reserved. A Method of Calculating Critical Depth of Burial of Explosive Charges to Generate Bulging and Cratering in Rock Wed, 01 Jun 2016 06:03:14 +0000 For underground explosions, a thin to medium thickness layer near the cavity of an explosion can be considered a theoretical shell structure. Detonation products transmit the effective energy of explosives to this shell which can expand thus leading to irreversible deformation of the surrounding medium. Based on mass conservation, incompressible conditions, and boundary conditions, the possible kinematic velocity fields in the plastic zone are established. Based on limit equilibrium theory, this work built equations of material resistance corresponding to different possible kinematic velocity fields. Combined with initial conditions and boundary conditions, equations of motion and material resistance are solved, respectively. It is found that critical depth of burial is positively related to a dimensionless impact factor, which reflects the characteristics of the explosives and the surrounding medium. Finally, an example is given, which suggests that this method is capable of calculating the critical depth of burial and the calculated results are consistent with empirical results. Mingyang Wang, Songlin Yue, Ning Zhang, Kanghua Gao, and Derong Wang Copyright © 2016 Mingyang Wang et al. All rights reserved. Characteristic Analysis and Simulated Test of Hybrid Bearing with the Introduction of Piezoelectric Controller Mon, 30 May 2016 08:48:42 +0000 A novel hybrid bearing with the introduction of piezoelectric controller and tilting pads to control vibration actively is proposed in this paper, and the feasibility of this scheme is verified by theoretical calculation and experimental data. This scheme can control the vibration of bearing actively by using the electromechanical characteristics of piezoelectric ceramic transducer (PZT) components. The static internal character of PZT and static external characteristic of piezoelectric control component are analyzed, and the calculation equations of preload coefficient and driving force of the new bearing are given. The simulation setup of the new bearing is designed and developed. The data representing the relationship of displacement of pad pivot, driving force, voltage, and the simulation stiffness of liquid film are obtained in the test, and the feature parameters of piezoelectric control component are amended to analyze the relationship between preload coefficient of the bearing and driving voltage. The proposed new bearing has the function of controlling preload actively. The theoretical and experimental research results provide essential guidance for the detail design of this new bearing and also provide a new idea for the vibration control of high speed rotor systems. Runlin Chen, Wu Ouyang, Zhaoyang Shi, Yangyang Wei, and Xiaoyang Yuan Copyright © 2016 Runlin Chen et al. All rights reserved. Analysis and Numerical Simulation on the Reduction Effect of Stress Waves Caused by Water Jet Slotting Near Blasting Source Mon, 30 May 2016 06:46:52 +0000 As one of the most serious “side effects” of blast excavation, blast-induced vibration must be controlled for existing buildings and human beings. This paper proposes a method for blast-induced vibration reduction with water jet assistance according to the cutting characters of low-noised, environment-friendly water jet. The mechanism of vibration-isolation with water jet assistance was analyzed, and the stress wave energy attenuation models were established based on blasting theory and stress wave theory. Influence law on shock wave attenuation by vibration-isolation slot was studied by numerical simulation. Simulation results agree with the theoretical analysis roughly. The results of this study put forward a method for blast-induced vibration near blasting source and provide a certain theoretical basis. Dengfeng Su, Yong Kang, Dongyang Li, Xiaochuan Wang, and Fuwen Yan Copyright © 2016 Dengfeng Su et al. All rights reserved. Exploring New Boundaries to Mitigate Structural Vibrations of Bridges in Seismic Regions: A Smart Passive Strategy Sun, 29 May 2016 11:54:00 +0000 The combined use of two emerging technologies in the field of seismic engineering is investigated. The first is a semiactive control, to reduce smartly the effects induced by earthquakes on structures. The second is the Seismic Early Warning System which allows an estimate of the Peak Ground Accelerations of an incoming earthquake. This paper proposes the exploitation of this information in the framework of a semiactive control strategy based on the use of magnetorheological (MR) dampers. The main idea consists of changing the MR dampers’ behaviour by the PGA estimated by the SEWS, to obtain the optimal seismic response of the structure. The control algorithm needed to drive the variable devices, according to the PGA estimate, is the core issue of the proposed strategy. It has been found that different characteristics of earthquakes that occur at different sites play a significant role in the definition of a control algorithm. Therefore, a design procedure for “regional” control algorithms has been performed. It is based on the results of several nonlinear dynamic simulations performed using natural earthquakes and on the use of a multicriteria decision-making procedure. The effectiveness of the proposed control strategy has been verified with reference to a highway bridge and to two specific worldwide seismic regions. Giuseppe Maddaloni, Nicola Caterino, Gianluca Nestovito, and Antonio Occhiuzzi Copyright © 2016 Giuseppe Maddaloni et al. All rights reserved. Stick-Slip Analysis of a Drill String Subjected to Deterministic Excitation and Stochastic Excitation Sun, 29 May 2016 09:22:36 +0000 Using a finite element model, this paper investigates the torsional vibration of a drill string under combined deterministic excitation and random excitation. The random excitation is caused by the random friction coefficients between the drill bit and the bottom of the hole and assumed as white noise. Simulation shows that the responses under random excitation become random too, and the probabilistic distribution of the responses at each discretized time instant is obtained. The two points, entering and leaving the stick stage, are examined with special attention. The results indicate that the two points become random under random excitation, and the distributions are not normal even when the excitation is assumed as Gaussian white noise. Hongyuan Qiu, Jianming Yang, and Stephen Butt Copyright © 2016 Hongyuan Qiu et al. All rights reserved.