Shock and Vibration http://www.hindawi.com The latest articles from Hindawi Publishing Corporation © 2014 , Hindawi Publishing Corporation . All rights reserved. Certain Type Turbofan Engine Whole Vibration Model with Support Looseness Fault and Casing Response Characteristics Wed, 17 Dec 2014 09:09:16 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/sv/2014/683469/ Support looseness fault is a type of common fault in aeroengine. Serious looseness fault would emerge under larger unbalanced force, which would cause excessive vibration and even lead to rubbing fault, so it is important to analyze and recognize looseness fault effectively. In this paper, based on certain type turbofan engine structural features, a rotor-support-casing whole model for certain type turbofan aeroengine is established. The rotor and casing systems are modeled by means of the finite element beam method; the support systems are modeled by lumped-mass model; the support looseness fault model is also introduced. The coupled system response is obtained by numerical integral method. In this paper, based on the casing acceleration signals, the impact characteristics of symmetrical stiffness and asymmetric stiffness models are analyzed, finding that the looseness fault would lead to the longitudinal asymmetrical characteristics of acceleration time domain wave and the multiple frequency characteristics, which is consistent with the real trial running vibration signals. Asymmetric stiffness looseness model is verified to be fit for aeroengine looseness fault model. H. F. Wang and G. Chen Copyright © 2014 H. F. Wang and G. Chen. All rights reserved. Analysis of Nonlinear Vibration of Hard Coating Thin Plate by Finite Element Iteration Method Mon, 08 Dec 2014 00:10:27 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/sv/2014/941709/ This paper studies nonlinear vibration mechanism of hard coating thin plate based on macroscopic vibration theory and proposes finite element iteration method (FEIM) to theoretically calculate its nature frequency and vibration response. First of all, strain dependent mechanical property of hard coating is briefly introduced and polynomial method is adopted to characterize the storage and loss modulus of coating material. Then, the principle formulas of inherent and dynamic response characteristics of the hard coating composite plate are derived. And consequently specific analysis procedure is proposed by combining ANSYS APDL and self-designed MATLAB program. Finally, a composite plate coated with MgO + Al2O3 is taken as a study object and both nonlinear vibration test and analysis are conducted on the plate specimen with considering strain dependent mechanical parameters of hard coating. Through comparing the resulting frequency and response results, the practicability and reliability of FEIM have been verified and the corresponding analysis results can provide an important reference for further study on nonlinear vibration mechanism of hard coating composite structure. Hui Li, Liu Ying, and Wei Sun Copyright © 2014 Hui Li et al. All rights reserved. The Pore Collapse “Hot-Spots” Model Coupled with Brittle Damage for Solid Explosives Thu, 04 Dec 2014 13:42:07 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/sv/2014/972414/ This paper is devoted to the building of a numerical pore collapse model with “hot-spots” formation for the impacted damage explosives. According to damage mechanical evolution of brittle material, the one-dimensional elastic-viscoplastic collapse model was improved to incorporate the impact damage during the dynamic collapse of pores. The damage of explosives was studied using the statistical crack mechanics (SCRAM). The effects of the heat conduction and the chemical reaction were taken into account in the formation of “hot-spots.” To verify the improved model, numerical simulations were carried out for different pressure states and used to model a multiple-impact experiment. The results show that repeated weak impacts can lead to the collapse of pores and the “hot-spots” may occur due to the accumulation of internal defects accompanied by the softening of explosives. L. R. Cheng, R. Chen, H. J. Shi, and F. Y. Lu Copyright © 2014 L. R. Cheng et al. All rights reserved. New Equivalent Linear Impact Model for Simulation of Seismic Isolated Structure Pounding against Moat Wall Mon, 24 Nov 2014 08:09:29 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/sv/2014/151237/ Base-isolated buildings subjected to extreme earthquakes or near-fault pulse-like earthquakes can exceed their design gap distance and impact against the surrounding moat wall. Based on equating energy dissipation and maximum collision compression deformation of isolated structure with the Hertz-damp model and Kevin-Voigt model in the process of collision, an equivalent linear impact model (ELIM) is proposed to better predict impact response of seismic isolated structure. The formula of the equivalent linear stiffness of ELIM is theoretically derived. The effectiveness of ELIM is verified by comparing the results of numerical analyses with the results of pounding experiments. Four near-fault earthquakes are selected to validate rationality and accuracy of the proposed model using numerical analysis. The results indicate that the proposed linear model can nearly capture impact behavior of isolated structure in simulating the pounding-involved structural response. Yang Liu, Wen-Guang Liu, Xin Wang, Wen-Fu He, and Qiao-Rong Yang Copyright © 2014 Yang Liu et al. All rights reserved. A Study on the Impact Coefficient of Traffic Flows on a Large Cable-Stayed Bridge in a Windy Environment Mon, 17 Nov 2014 12:42:27 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/sv/2014/124536/ By developing a wind-vehicle-bridge coupling dynamic analysis system, the impact coefficient of traffic flows on a cable-stayed bridge and its probabilistic distribution are studied in the paper. Some important influence factors of the impact coefficient, such as the vehicle-bridge coupling effect, traveling velocity, and traffic density, are analyzed. The influence of the coupling effect between a bridge deck’s buffeting and vehicles’ vibration on the impact coefficient of traffic flows on a cable-stayed bridge is paid due attention to. The results show that vehicle-bridge coupling effect and surface roughness exert important influence on the impact effect of a cable-stayed bridge. Considering that impact coefficient of traffic flows on a bridge bears the characteristics of randomness, the paper, on the basis of a large number of samples, interprets the influence of traveling velocity and traffic density in view of its probabilistic distribution. In view of results derived from the coupling dynamic analysis, it is suggested that the impact coefficient be 25% for all spans of a long cable-stayed bridge like the Sutong Yangtze Bridge. L. Ma, D. J. Zhou, and W. S. Han Copyright © 2014 L. Ma et al. All rights reserved. Subdomain Precise Integration Method for Periodic Structures Sun, 09 Nov 2014 12:34:08 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/sv/2014/657589/ A subdomain precise integration method is developed for the dynamical responses of periodic structures comprising many identical structural cells. The proposed method is based on the precise integration method, the subdomain scheme, and the repeatability of the periodic structures. In the proposed method, each structural cell is seen as a super element that is solved using the precise integration method, considering the repeatability of the structural cells. The computational efforts and the memory size of the proposed method are reduced, while high computational accuracy is achieved. Therefore, the proposed method is particularly suitable to solve the dynamical responses of periodic structures. Two numerical examples are presented to demonstrate the accuracy and efficiency of the proposed method through comparison with the Newmark and Runge-Kutta methods. F. Wu, Q. Gao, and W. X. Zhong Copyright © 2014 F. Wu et al. All rights reserved. Intelligent Diagnosis Method for Centrifugal Pump System Using Vibration Signal and Support Vector Machine Tue, 04 Nov 2014 00:00:00 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/sv/2014/407570/ This paper proposed an intelligent diagnosis method for a centrifugal pump system using statistic filter, support vector machine (SVM), possibility theory, and Dempster-Shafer theory (DST) on the basis of the vibration signals, to diagnose frequent faults in the centrifugal pump at an early stage, such as cavitation, impeller unbalance, and shaft misalignment. Firstly, statistic filter is used to extract the feature signals of pump faults from the measured vibration signals across an optimum frequency region, and nondimensional symptom parameters (NSPs) are defined to represent the feature signals for distinguishing fault types. Secondly, the optimal classification hyperplane for distinguishing two states is obtained by SVM and NSPs, and its function is defined as synthetic symptom parameter (SSP) in order to increase the diagnosis’ sensitivity. Finally, the possibility functions of the SSP are used to construct a sequential fuzzy diagnosis for fault detection and fault-type identification by possibility theory and DST. The proposed method has been applied to detect the faults of the centrifugal pump, and the efficiency of the method has been verified using practical examples. Hongtao Xue, Zhongxing Li, Huaqing Wang, and Peng Chen Copyright © 2014 Hongtao Xue et al. All rights reserved. Numerical Analysis of Dynamic Response of Corrugated Core Sandwich Panels Subjected to Near-Field Air Blast Loading Mon, 27 Oct 2014 13:28:47 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/sv/2014/180674/ Three-dimensional fully coupled simulation is conducted to analyze the dynamic response of sandwich panels comprising equal thicknesses face sheets sandwiching a corrugated core when subjected to localized impulse created by the detonation of cylindrical explosive. A large number of computational cases have been calculated to comprehensively investigate the performance of sandwich panels under near-field air blast loading. Results show that the deformation/failure modes of panels depend strongly on stand-off distance. The beneficial FSI effect can be enhanced by decreasing the thickness of front face sheet. The core configuration has a negligible influence on the peak reflected pressure, but it has an effect on the deflection of a panel. It is found that the benefits of a sandwich panel over an equivalent weight solid plate to withstand near-field air blast loading are more evident at lower stand-off distance. Pan Zhang, Yuansheng Cheng, and Jun Liu Copyright © 2014 Pan Zhang et al. All rights reserved. Active Vibration Suppression of a 3-DOF Flexible Parallel Manipulator Using Efficient Modal Control Mon, 20 Oct 2014 12:40:26 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/sv/2014/953694/ This paper addresses the dynamic modeling and efficient modal control of a planar parallel manipulator (PPM) with three flexible linkages actuated by linear ultrasonic motors (LUSM). To achieve active vibration control, multiple lead zirconate titanate (PZT) transducers are mounted on the flexible links as vibration sensors and actuators. Based on Lagrange’s equations, the dynamic model of the flexible links is derived with the dynamics of PZT actuators incorporated. Using the assumed mode method (AMM), the elastic motion of the flexible links are discretized under the assumptions of pinned-free boundary conditions, and the assumed mode shapes are validated through experimental modal test. Efficient modal control (EMC), in which the feedback forces in different modes are determined according to the vibration amplitude or energy of their own, is employed to control the PZT actuators to realize active vibration suppression. Modal filters are developed to extract the modal displacements and velocities from the vibration sensors. Numerical simulation and vibration control experiments are conducted to verify the proposed dynamic model and controller. The results show that the EMC method has the capability of suppressing multimode vibration simultaneously, and both the structural and residual vibrations of the flexible links are effectively suppressed using EMC approach. Quan Zhang, Jiamei Jin, Jianhui Zhang, and Chunsheng Zhao Copyright © 2014 Quan Zhang et al. All rights reserved. On the Flexural-Torsional Vibration and Stability of Beams Subjected to Axial Load and End Moment Mon, 13 Oct 2014 08:56:17 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/sv/2014/153532/ The free vibration of beams, subjected to a constant axial load and end moment and various boundary conditions, is examined. Based on the Euler-Bernoulli bending and St. Venant torsion beam theories, the differential equations governing coupled flexural-torsional vibrations and stability of a uniform, slender, isotropic, homogeneous, and linearly elastic beam, undergoing linear harmonic vibration, are first reviewed. The existing formulations are then briefly discussed and a conventional finite element method (FEM) is developed. Exploiting the MATLAB-based code, the resulting linear Eigenvalue problem is then solved to determine the Eigensolutions (i.e., natural frequencies and modes) of illustrative examples, exhibiting geometric bending-torsion coupling. Various classical boundary conditions are considered and the FEM frequency results are validated against those obtained from a commercial software (ANSYS) and the data available in the literature. Tensile axial force is found to increase natural frequencies, indicating beam stiffening. However, when a force and an end moment are acting in combination, the moment reduces the stiffness of the beam and the stiffness of the beam is found to be more sensitive to the changes in the magnitude of the axial force compared to the moment. A buckling analysis of the beam is also carried out to determine the critical buckling end moment and axial compressive force. M. Tahmaseb Towliat Kashani, Supun Jayasinghe, and Seyed M. Hashemi Copyright © 2014 M. Tahmaseb Towliat Kashani et al. All rights reserved. Pattern Formation inside a Rotating Cylinder Partially Filled with Liquid and Granular Medium Thu, 11 Sep 2014 08:43:10 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/sv/2014/841320/ The paper focuses on the experimental study of the dynamics of liquid and granular medium in a rapidly rotating horizontal cylinder. In the cavity frame gravity field performs rotation and produces oscillatory liquid flow, which is responsible for the series of novel effects; the problem corresponds to “vibrational mechanics”—generation of steady flows and patterns by oscillating force field. The paper presents the initial results of experimental study of a novel pattern formation effect which is observed at the interface between fluid and sand and which takes the form of ripples extended along the axis of rotation. The initial results of experimental research of a novel effect of pattern formation at the interface between fluid and sand in the form of ripples extended along the axis of rotation are presented. The spatial period of the patterns is studied in dependence on liquid volume, viscosity, and rotation rate. The experimental study of long time dynamics of pattern formation manifests that regular ripples transform into a series of dunes within a few minutes or dozens of minutes. The variety of patterns is determined by the interaction of two types of liquid flows induced by gravity: oscillatory and steady azimuthal flows near the sand surface. Veronika Dyakova, Victor Kozlov, and Denis Polezhaev Copyright © 2014 Veronika Dyakova et al. All rights reserved. International Conference on Structural Engineering Dynamics 2013 Wed, 10 Sep 2014 07:54:43 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/sv/2014/645026/ Nuno M. M. Maia and Miguel M. Neves Copyright © 2014 Nuno M. M. Maia and Miguel M. Neves. All rights reserved. Modeling and Analysis of a Piezoelectric Energy Harvester with Varying Cross-Sectional Area Tue, 09 Sep 2014 11:07:29 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/sv/2014/930503/ This paper reports on the modeling and on the experimental verification of electromechanically coupled beams with varying cross-sectional area for piezoelectric energy harvesting. The governing equations are formulated using the Rayleigh-Ritz method and Euler-Bernoulli assumptions. A load resistance is considered in the electrical domain for the estimate of the electric power output of each geometric configuration. The model is first verified against the analytical results for a rectangular bimorph with tip mass reported in the literature. The experimental verification of the model is also reported for a tapered bimorph cantilever with tip mass. The effects of varying cross-sectional area and tip mass on the electromechanical behavior of piezoelectric energy harvesters are also discussed. An issue related to the estimation of the optimal load resistance (that gives the maximum power output) on beam shape optimization problems is also discussed. Maiara Rosa and Carlos De Marqui Junior Copyright © 2014 Maiara Rosa and Carlos De Marqui Junior. All rights reserved. Liquid Sloshing in a Horizontal Circular Container with Eccentric Tube under External Excitation Sun, 07 Sep 2014 07:29:51 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/sv/2014/507281/ Appropriate conformal mapping transformation in combination with the linear potential theory is employed to develop mathematical model for two-dimensional sloshing in horizontal circular cylindrical containers with overall eccentric hole. The tube-type tank is filled with inviscid incompressible fluid up to its half depth and subjected to lateral accelerations. A ramp-step excitation encountered in a road turning maneuver as well as real seismic event is used to simulate the lateral acceleration excitation. The resulting linear sets of ordinary differential equations are truncated and then solved numerically by employing Laplace transform technique followed by Durbin’s numerical inversion pattern. The effects of excitation input time, eccentricity, and radii ratio on the hydrodynamic responses and suppression of the induced destabilizing lateral forces are examined. Limiting cases are considered and good agreements with available analytic and numerical solutions as well as the simulations performed by using a commercial FEM software package are obtained. Mohammad Nezami, Mohammad Mehdi Mohammadi, and Atta Oveisi Copyright © 2014 Mohammad Nezami et al. All rights reserved. Analysis of Seismic Damage of Underground Powerhouse Structure of Hydropower Plants Based on Dynamic Contact Force Method Tue, 02 Sep 2014 11:35:39 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/sv/2014/859648/ Based on the characteristics of the dynamic interaction between an underground powerhouse concrete structure and its surrounding rock in a hydropower plant, an algorithm of dynamic contact force was proposed. This algorithm enables the simulation of three states of contact surface under dynamic loads, namely, cohesive contact, sliding contact, and separation. It is suitable for the numerical analysis of the dynamic response of the large and complex contact system consisting of underground powerhouse concrete structure and the surrounding rock. This algorithm and a 3D plastic-damage model were implemented in a dynamic computing platform, SUCED, to analyze the dynamic characteristics of the underground powerhouse structure of Yingxiuwan Hydropower Plant. By comparing the numerical results and postearthquake investigations, it was concluded that the amplitude and duration of seismic waves were the external factors causing seismic damage of the underground powerhouse structure, and the spatial variations in structural properties were the internal factors. The existence of rock mass surrounding the underground powerhouse was vital to the seismic stability of the structure. This work provides the theoretical basis for the anti-seismic design of underground powerhouse structures. Yang Yang, Juntao Chen, and Ming Xiao Copyright © 2014 Yang Yang et al. All rights reserved. Free and Forced Vibration Analysis of an Infilled Steel Frame: Experimental, Numerical, and Analytical Methods Thu, 28 Aug 2014 08:29:47 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/sv/2014/439591/ Structural frames with masonry infill panels make up a significant portion of the buildings constructed in earthquake-prone areas prior to the developing of the seismic design standards. In this paper, the effects of masonry panels on the vibration response of an infilled steel-frame building are investigated. Various ambient and steady state forced vibration tests are carried out to realize the dynamic characteristics of the system. 3D finite element models of the building with and without infill panels are provided based on marcomodeling theorem. A set of analytical approximate formulas are also derived to estimate the vibrational period. The natural frequencies of the building are computed using numerical, analytical, and experimental methods. The results show that neglecting the effect of infill panels leads to considerable error. Moreover, it is shown that there is good agreement among the results obtained by the three methods considering the effect of infill panels. Mohammad Amin Hariri-Ardebili, Hamid Rahmani Samani, and Masoud Mirtaheri Copyright © 2014 Mohammad Amin Hariri-Ardebili et al. All rights reserved. Viscoelastic Characterization of Long-Eared Owl Flight Feather Shaft and the Damping Ability Analysis Thu, 28 Aug 2014 00:00:00 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/sv/2014/709367/ Flight feather shaft of long-eared owl is characterized by a three-parameter model for linear viscoelastic solids to reveal its damping ability. Uniaxial tensile tests of the long-eared owl, pigeon, and golden eagle flight feather shaft specimens were carried out based on Instron 3345 single column material testing system, respectively, and viscoelastic response of their stress and strain was described by the standard linear solid model. Parameter fitting result obtained from the tensile tests shows that there is no significant difference in instantaneous elastic modulus for the three birds’ feather shafts, but the owl shaft has the highest viscosity, implying more obvious viscoelastic performance. Dynamic mechanical property was characterized based on the tensile testing results. Loss factor () of the owl flight feather shaft was calculated to be 1.609 ± 0.238, far greater than those of the pigeon (0.896 ± 0.082) and golden eagle (1.087 ± 0.074). It is concluded that the long-eared owl flight feather has more outstanding damping ability compared to the pigeon and golden eagle flight feather shaft. Consequently, the long-eared owl flight feathers can dissipate the vibration energy more effectively during the flying process based on the principle of damping mechanism, for the purpose of vibration attenuation and structure radiated noise reduction. Jia-li Gao, Jin-kui Chu, Le Guan, Hai-xin Shang, and Zhen-kun Lei Copyright © 2014 Jia-li Gao et al. All rights reserved. Effects of Concrete on Propagation Characteristics of Guided Wave in Steel Bar Embedded in Concrete Wed, 27 Aug 2014 10:55:38 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/sv/2014/910750/ Techniques based on ultrasonic guided waves (UGWs) play important roles in the structural health monitoring (SHM) of large-scale civil infrastructures. In this paper, dispersion equations of longitudinal wave propagation in reinforced concrete member are investigated for the purpose of monitoring steels embedded in concrete. For a steel bar embedded in concrete, not the velocity but the attenuation dispersion curves will be affected by the concrete. The effects of steel-to-concrete shear modulus ratio, density ratio, and Poisson’s ratio on propagation characteristics of guided wave in steel bar embedded in concrete were studied by the analysis of the real and imaginary parts of the wave number. The attenuation characteristics of guided waves of steel bar in different conditions including different bar concrete constraint and different diameter of steel bar are also analyzed. Studies of the influence of concrete on propagation characteristics of guided wave in steel bars embedded in concrete will increase the accuracy in judging the structure integrity and promote the level of defect detection for the steel bars embedded in concrete. Zhupeng Zheng and Ying Lei Copyright © 2014 Zhupeng Zheng and Ying Lei. All rights reserved. Establishment and Application of the Wind and Structural Health Monitoring System for the Runyang Yangtze River Bridge Wed, 27 Aug 2014 08:22:44 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/sv/2014/421038/ Structural health monitoring can provide a practical platform for detecting the evolution of structural damage or performance deterioration of engineering structures. The final objective is to provide reasonable suggestions for structural maintenance and management and therefore ensure the structural safety according to the real-time recorded data. In this paper, the establishment of the wind and structural health monitoring system (WSHMS) implemented on the Runyang Yangtze River Bridge (RYRB) in China is introduced. The composition and functions of the WSHMS are presented. Thereinto, the sensory subsystem utilized to measure the input actions and structural output responses is introduced. And the core functions of the data management and analysis subsystem (DMAS) including model updating, structural condition identification, and structural condition assessment are illustrated in detail. A three-stage strategy is applied into the FE model updating of RYRB, and a two-phase strategy is proposed to adapt to structural health diagnosis and damage identification. Considering the structural integral security and the fatigue characteristic of steel material, the condition assessment of RYRB is divided into structural reliability assessment and structural fatigue assessment, which are equipped with specific and elaborate module for effective operation. This research can provide references for the establishment of the similar structural health monitoring systems on other cable-supported bridges. Hao Wang, Aiqun Li, Tong Guo, and Tianyou Tao Copyright © 2014 Hao Wang et al. All rights reserved. Damped CAPES 2D Spectral Estimation for Real-Valued Vibration Signals Tue, 26 Aug 2014 10:10:26 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/sv/2014/570347/ We propose a 2D representation in the frequency-decay factor plane of an arbitrary real-world vibration signal. The signal is expressed as the sum of a decayed-attenuation sine term modulated by an amplitude function and a noise residue. We extend the combined approach of Capon estimation and amplitude and phase estimation (CAPES) to damped real vibration signals (DR-CAPES). In the proposed DR-CAPES method, the high-resolution amplitude and phase are estimated simultaneously for both angular frequency and decay factor grids. The performance of the proposed approach is tested numerically with noisy vibration data. Results show that the DR-CAPES method has an excellent frequency resolution, which helps to overcome difficulties in spectrum estimation when vibration modes are very close, and a small bias, which makes it suitable for obtaining accurate amplitude spectrums. The results also indicate that the proposed method can accurately estimate the amplitude spectrum with the use of averaging and denoising processes. Danhui Dan, Jiongxin Gong, and Yiming Zhao Copyright © 2014 Danhui Dan et al. All rights reserved. Detection and Localization of Tooth Breakage Fault on Wind Turbine Planetary Gear System considering Gear Manufacturing Errors Tue, 19 Aug 2014 12:11:30 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/sv/2014/692347/ Sidebands of vibration spectrum are sensitive to the fault degree and have been proved to be useful for tooth fault detection and localization. However, the amplitude and frequency modulation due to manufacturing errors (which are inevitable in actual planetary gear system) lead to much more complex sidebands. Thus, in the paper, a lumped parameter model for a typical planetary gear system with various types of errors is established. In the model, the influences of tooth faults on time-varying mesh stiffness and tooth impact force are derived analytically. Numerical methods are then utilized to obtain the response spectra of the system with tooth faults with and without errors. Three system components (including sun, planet, and ring gears) with tooth faults are considered in the discussion, respectively. Through detailed comparisons of spectral sidebands, fault characteristic frequencies of the system are acquired. Dynamic experiments on a planetary gear-box test rig are carried out to verify the simulation results and these results are of great significances for the detection and localization of tooth faults in wind turbines. Y. Gui, Q. K. Han, Z. Li, and F. L. Chu Copyright © 2014 Y. Gui et al. All rights reserved. Dynamical Jumps in a Shape Memory Alloy Oscillator Mon, 18 Aug 2014 07:38:00 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/sv/2014/656212/ The dynamical response of systems with shape memory alloy (SMA) elements presents a rich behavior due to their intrinsic nonlinear characteristic. SMA’s nonlinear response is associated with both adaptive dissipation related to hysteretic behavior and huge changes in properties caused by phase transformations. These characteristics are attracting much technological interest in several scientific and engineering fields, varying from medical to aerospace applications. An important characteristic associated with dynamical response of SMA system is the jump phenomenon. Dynamical jumps result in abrupt changes in system behavior and its analysis is essential for a proper design of SMA systems. This paper discusses the nonlinear dynamics of a one degree of freedom SMA oscillator presenting pseudoelastic behavior and dynamical jumps. Numerical simulations show different aspects of this kind of behavior, illustrating its importance for a proper understanding of nonlinear dynamics of SMA systems. H. S. Oliveira, A. S. de Paula, and M. A. Savi Copyright © 2014 H. S. Oliveira et al. All rights reserved. Design of Hybrid Dynamic Balancer and Vibration Absorber Sun, 17 Aug 2014 06:25:19 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/sv/2014/397584/ This study proposed a novel hybrid dynamic balancer and vibration absorber that is cheaper than active dampers and more effective than passive dampers. The proposed damping system does not need to be altered structurally to deal with different damping targets. Rather, the proposed vibration absorber is capable of self-adjustment to the optimal damping location in order to achieve balance and, thereby, optimize damping effects. The proposed device includes a groove under the damping target with inertial mass hung from a coil spring beneath. This allows the device to bounce vertically or rotate in order to reduce vibrations in the main body. The coil spring vibration absorber can also slide along the groove in order to adjust its location continuously until the vibrations in the system are minimized and the main body is balanced. Experiments verify the efficacy of the proposed device in improving damping performance beyond what has been achieved using conventional devices. We also provide an explanation of the theoretical underpinnings of the design as well as the implications of these findings with regard to future developments. Y. R. Wang and C. Y. Lo Copyright © 2014 Y. R. Wang and C. Y. Lo. All rights reserved. Determination of Optimal Drop Height in Free-Fall Shock Test Using Regression Analysis and Back-Propagation Neural Network Sun, 17 Aug 2014 06:03:54 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/sv/2014/264728/ The primary purpose of this study is to provide methods that can be used to determine the most suitable drop height for shock testing military equipment, in an efficient and cost ineffective manner. Shock testing is widely employed to assess the performance of electronic systems, including military devices and civilian systems. Determining the height of the drop for a test item is an important step prior to performing the test. Dropping a test item from excessive height leads high G-peak values to damage the test equipment. On the other hand, dropping an item from a low height may not generate the required G-peak value and duration. Therefore, prior to performing shock tests, an optimal drop height must be established to ensure that the resulting G-peak value and duration time match the required test values. The traditional trial-and-error methods are time-consuming and cost-ineffective, often requiring many attempts. To improve the conventional approaches, this study proposes the application of regression analysis and back-propagation neural network for determining the most suitable drop height for free-fall shock tests. A new method is suggested for determining the drop test height. The results of the model are verified, using the results of a series of experiments that are conducted to verify the accuracy of the suggested approaches. The results of the study indicate that both approaches are equally effective in providing an effective guideline for performing drop tests from heights that would result in the peak Gs and duration needed for testing electronic devices. Chao-Rong Chen, Chia-Hung Wu, and Hsin-Tsrong Lee Copyright © 2014 Chao-Rong Chen et al. All rights reserved. Vibration and Instability of Rotating Composite Thin-Walled Shafts with Internal Damping Sun, 17 Aug 2014 00:00:00 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/sv/2014/123271/ The dynamical analysis of a rotating thin-walled composite shaft with internal damping is carried out analytically. The equations of motion are derived using the thin-walled composite beam theory and the principle of virtual work. The internal damping of shafts is introduced by adopting the multiscale damping analysis method. Galerkin’s method is used to discretize and solve the governing equations. Numerical study shows the effect of design parameters on the natural frequencies, critical rotating speeds, and instability thresholds of shafts. Ren Yongsheng, Zhang Xingqi, Liu Yanghang, and Chen Xiulong Copyright © 2014 Ren Yongsheng et al. All rights reserved. Numerical Simulation of Vertical Random Vibration of Train-Slab Track-Bridge Interaction System by PEM Tue, 12 Aug 2014 12:07:45 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/sv/2014/304219/ The paper describes the numerical simulation of the vertical random vibration of train-slab track-bridge interaction system by means of finite element method and pseudoexcitation method. Each vehicle is modeled as four-wheelset mass-spring-damper system with two-layer suspension systems. The rail, slab, and bridge girder are modeled by three-layer elastic Bernoulli-Euler beams connected with each other by spring and damper elements. The equations of motion for the entire system are derived according to energy principle. By regarding rail irregularity as a series of multipoint, different-phase random excitations, the random load vectors of the equations of motion are obtained by pseudoexcitation method. Taking a nine-span simply supported beam bridge traveled by a train consisting of 8 vehicles as an example, the vertical random vibration responses of the system are investigated. Firstly, the suitable number of discrete frequencies of rail irregularity is obtained by numerical experimentations. Secondly, the reliability and efficiency of pseudoexcitation method are verified through comparison with Monte Carlo method. Thirdly, the random vibration characteristics of train-slab track-bridge interaction system are analyzed by pseudoexcitation method. Finally, applying the 3σ rule for Gaussian stochastic process, the maximum responses of train-slab track-bridge interaction system with respect to various train speeds are studied. Zhi-ping Zeng, Zhi-wu Yu, Yan-gang Zhao, Wen-tao Xu, Ling-kun Chen, and Ping Lou Copyright © 2014 Zhi-ping Zeng et al. All rights reserved. Vibration Mitigation without Dissipative Devices: First Large-Scale Testing of a State Switched Inducer Tue, 12 Aug 2014 11:38:55 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/sv/2014/135767/ A new passive device for mitigating cable vibrations is proposed and its efficiency is assessed on 45-meter long taut cables through a series of free and forced vibration tests. It consists of a unilateral spring attached perpendicularly to the cable near the anchorage. Because of its ability to change the cable dynamic behaviour through intermittent activation, the device has been called state switched inducer (SSI). The cable behaviour is shown to be deeply modified by the SSI: the forced vibration response is anharmonicc and substantially reduced in amplitude whereas the free vibration decay is largely sped up through a beating phenomenon. The vibration mitigation effect is mainly due to the activation and coupling of various vibration modes, as evidenced in the response spectra of the equipped cable. This first large-scale experimental campaign shows that the SSI outperforms classical passive devices, thus paving the way to a new kind of low-cost vibration mitigation systems which do not rely on dissipation. Daniel Tirelli Copyright © 2014 Daniel Tirelli. All rights reserved. Mobility Matrix of a Thin Circular Plate Carrying Concentrated Masses Based on Transverse Vibration Solution Thu, 07 Aug 2014 06:44:52 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/sv/2014/284367/ When calculating the vibration or sound power of a vibration source, it is necessary to know the point mobility of the supporting structure. A new method is presented for the calculation of point mobility matrix of a thin circular plate with concentrated masses in this paper. Transverse vibration mode functions are worked out by utilizing the structural circumferential periodicity of the inertia excitation produced by the concentrated masses. The numerical vibratory results, taking the clamped case as an instance, are compared to the published ones to validate the method for ensuring the correctness of mobility solution. Point mobility matrix, including the driving and transfer point mobility, of the titled structure is computed based on the transverse vibration solution. After that, effect of the concentrated masses on the mechanical point mobility characteristics is analyzed. Desheng Li and Junhong Zhang Copyright © 2014 Desheng Li and Junhong Zhang. All rights reserved. 3 DOF Spherical Pendulum Oscillations with a Uniform Slewing Pivot Center and a Small Angle Assumption Mon, 04 Aug 2014 07:32:27 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/sv/2014/203709/ The present paper addresses the derivation of a 3 DOF mathematical model of a spherical pendulum attached to a crane boom tip for uniform slewing motion of the crane. The governing nonlinear DAE-based system for crane boom uniform slewing has been proposed, numerically solved, and experimentally verified. The proposed nonlinear and linearized models have been derived with an introduction of Cartesian coordinates. The linearized model with small angle assumption has an analytical solution. The relative and absolute payload trajectories have been derived. The amplitudes of load oscillations, which depend on computed initial conditions, have been estimated. The dependence of natural frequencies on the transport inertia forces and gravity forces has been computed. The conservative system, which contains first time derivatives of coordinates without oscillation damping, has been derived. The dynamic analogy between crane boom-driven payload swaying motion and Foucault’s pendulum motion has been grounded and outlined. For a small swaying angle, good agreement between theoretical and averaged experimental results was obtained. Alexander V. Perig, Alexander N. Stadnik, Alexander I. Deriglazov, and Sergey V. Podlesny Copyright © 2014 Alexander V. Perig et al. All rights reserved. Vibration and Modal Analysis of Low Earth Orbit Satellite Sun, 03 Aug 2014 06:27:47 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/sv/2014/740102/ This paper presents design, modeling, and analysis of satellite model used for remote sensing. A detailed study is carried out for the design and modeling of the satellite structure focusing on the factors such as the selection of material, optimization of shape and geometry, and accommodation of different subsystems and payload. The center of mass is required to be kept within the range of (1-2) cm from its geometric center. Once the model is finalized it is required to be analyzed by the use of Ansys, a tool for finite element analysis (FEA) under given loading and boundary conditions. Static, modal, and harmonic analyses in Ansys are performed at the time of ground testing and launching phase. The finite element analysis results are also validated and compared with the theoretical predictions. These analyses are quite helpful and suggest that the satellite structure does not fail and retains its structural integrity during launch environment. Asif Israr Copyright © 2014 Asif Israr. All rights reserved.