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TheScientificWorldJOURNAL
Volume 10 (2010), Pages 340-349
http://dx.doi.org/10.1100/tsw.2010.27
Mini-Review Article

Multiple Pathways to the Same End: Mechanisms of Myonuclear Apoptosis in Sarcopenia of Aging

1Department of Aging and Geriatric Research, Institute on Aging, Division of Biology of Aging, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL, USA
2Department of Orthopaedics and Traumatology, Catholic University of the Sacred Heart, Rome, Italy
3Department of Anesthesiology, Catholic University of the Sacred Heart, Rome, Italy

Received 30 September 2009; Revised 4 January 2010; Accepted 12 January 2010

Academic Editor: Paul Schofield

Copyright © 2010 Emanuele Marzetti et al.

Abstract

Sarcopenia, the age-related decline in muscle mass and function, represents a significant health issue due to the high prevalence of frailty and disability associated with this condition. Nevertheless, the cellular mechanisms responsible for the loss of muscle mass in old age are still largely unknown. An altered regulation of myocyte apoptosis has recently emerged as a possible contributor to the pathogenesis of sarcopenia. Studies in animal models have shown that the severity of skeletal muscle apoptosis increases over the course of aging and correlates with the degree of muscle mass and strength decline. Several apoptotic pathways are operative in aged muscles, with the mitochondria- and TNF-α-mediated pathways likely being the most relevant to sarcopenia. However, despite the growing number of studies on the subject, a definite mechanistic link between myocyte apoptosis and age-related muscle atrophy has not yet been established. Furthermore, the evidence on the role played by apoptosis in human sarcopenia is still sparse. Clearly, further research is required to better define the involvement of myocyte apoptosis in the pathogenesis of muscle loss at advanced age. This knowledge will likely help in the design of more effective therapeutic strategies to preserve muscle mass into old age, thus fostering independence of the elderly population and reducing the socioeconomic burden associated with sarcopenia.