- About this Journal ·
- Abstracting and Indexing ·
- Aims and Scope ·
- Annual Issues ·
- Article Processing Charges ·
- Author Guidelines ·
- Bibliographic Information ·
- Citations to this Journal ·
- Contact Information ·
- Editorial Board ·
- Editorial Workflow ·
- Free eTOC Alerts ·
- Publication Ethics ·
- Recently Accepted Articles ·
- Reviewers Acknowledgment ·
- Submit a Manuscript ·
- Subscription Information ·
- Table of Contents
Volume 11 (2011), Article ID 450561, 3 pages
The Usefulness of the Source Images of Magnetic Resonance Angiogram in the Carotid Cavernous Fistula
1Department of Neurology, Myongji Hospital, 697-24 HwajungDong DukyangGu Goyang GyeongGi 412-270, Republic of Korea
2Department of Neurology, Kyung Hee University Hospital at Ganggong, Seoul, Republic of Korea
3Department of Neurology, Kyung Hee University Hospital, Seoul, Republic of Korea
Received 14 July 2011; Accepted 24 September 2011
Academic Editor: Jorge Arruga
Copyright © 2011 Bon D. Ku et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
The cortical venous drainage from carotid-cavernous fistula (CCF) is associated with increased risk of intraparenchymal hemorrhage and may be the clue for the urgent indication of an endovascular treatment . However it is difficult to infer direction of venous drainage from the clinical signs or symptoms of a patient with CCF. The source images of magnetic resonance angiogram (MRA) may useful to detect the direction and magnitude of the collateral circulations in the patient with carotid-cavernous fistula (CCF) . A 68-year-old woman presented with progressive bilateral pulsatile tinnitus, headache and diplopia accompanied by swelling of both eyes, the right eye being more severely affected. She underwent surgical reconstruction of fractured facial bone 6 weeks ago due to car accident. From the 30th days after reconstruction, she suffered persistent progressive pulsatile tinnitus and periorbital pain. The MRA revealed marked leakage signals of arterial blood around cavernous sinus (Figure 1). The source image of MRA revealed increased transsellar collaterals, enlarged both sphenoparietal sinus and right side predominant elongated bilateral tortuous superior ophthalmic veins (Figure 2).
This study was supported by a Grant of the Korea Health 21 R&D Project, Ministry of Health & Welfare, Republic of Korea (A102065).
- V. V. Halbach, G. B. Hieshima, R. T. Higashida, and M. Reicher, “Carotid cavernous fistulae: indications for urgent treatment,” American Journal of Roentgenology, vol. 149, no. 3, pp. 587–593, 1987.
- Y. F. Tsai, L. K. Chen, C. T. Su, T. N. Lu, C. C. Wu, and C. J. Kuo, “Utility of source images of three-dimensional time-of-flight magnetic resonance angiography in the diagnosis of indirect carotid-cavernous sinus fistulas,” Journal of Neuro-Ophthalmology, vol. 24, no. 4, pp. 285–289, 2004.