About this Journal Submit a Manuscript Table of Contents
TheScientificWorldJOURNAL
Volume 11 (2011), Article ID 450561, 3 pages
doi:10.1100/2011/450561
Clinical Image

The Usefulness of the Source Images of Magnetic Resonance Angiogram in the Carotid Cavernous Fistula

1Department of Neurology, Myongji Hospital, 697-24 HwajungDong DukyangGu Goyang GyeongGi 412-270, Republic of Korea
2Department of Neurology, Kyung Hee University Hospital at Ganggong, Seoul, Republic of Korea
3Department of Neurology, Kyung Hee University Hospital, Seoul, Republic of Korea

Received 14 July 2011; Accepted 24 September 2011

Academic Editor: Jorge Arruga

Copyright © 2011 Bon D. Ku et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

The cortical venous drainage from carotid-cavernous fistula (CCF) is associated with increased risk of intraparenchymal hemorrhage and may be the clue for the urgent indication of an endovascular treatment [1]. However it is difficult to infer direction of venous drainage from the clinical signs or symptoms of a patient with CCF. The source images of magnetic resonance angiogram (MRA) may useful to detect the direction and magnitude of the collateral circulations in the patient with carotid-cavernous fistula (CCF) [2]. A 68-year-old woman presented with progressive bilateral pulsatile tinnitus, headache and diplopia accompanied by swelling of both eyes, the right eye being more severely affected. She underwent surgical reconstruction of fractured facial bone 6 weeks ago due to car accident. From the 30th days after reconstruction, she suffered persistent progressive pulsatile tinnitus and periorbital pain. The MRA revealed marked leakage signals of arterial blood around cavernous sinus (Figure 1). The source image of MRA revealed increased transsellar collaterals, enlarged both sphenoparietal sinus and right side predominant elongated bilateral tortuous superior ophthalmic veins (Figure 2).

fig1
Figure 1: The magnetic resonance angiogram (MRA) of the patient showed increased flow related signals around both cavernous sinuses.
fig2
Figure 2: The source image of magnetic resonance angiogram (MRA) revealed increased transsellar collaterals (a, b), enlarged both inferior cerebral veins (C; arrow) and right side predominant elongated bilateral tortuous superior ophthalmic veins (c, d; arrow head).

FINANCIAL SUPPORT

This study was supported by a Grant of the Korea Health 21 R&D Project, Ministry of Health & Welfare, Republic of Korea (A102065).

References

  1. V. V. Halbach, G. B. Hieshima, R. T. Higashida, and M. Reicher, “Carotid cavernous fistulae: indications for urgent treatment,” American Journal of Roentgenology, vol. 149, no. 3, pp. 587–593, 1987.
  2. Y. F. Tsai, L. K. Chen, C. T. Su, T. N. Lu, C. C. Wu, and C. J. Kuo, “Utility of source images of three-dimensional time-of-flight magnetic resonance angiography in the diagnosis of indirect carotid-cavernous sinus fistulas,” Journal of Neuro-Ophthalmology, vol. 24, no. 4, pp. 285–289, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar