- About this Journal
- Abstracting and Indexing
- Aims and Scope
- Annual Issues
- Article Processing Charges
- Articles in Press
- Author Guidelines
- Bibliographic Information
- Citations to this Journal
- Contact Information
- Editorial Board
- Editorial Workflow
- Free eTOC Alerts
- Publication Ethics
- Submit a Manuscript
- Subscription Information
- Table of Contents
The Scientific World Journal
Volume 2012 (2012), Article ID 173829, 10 pages
A Critical View of Current State of Phytotechnologies to Remediate Soils: Still a Promising Tool?
1Departamento de Ciencia y Tecnología Agraria, Universidad Politécnica de Cartagena, Paseo Alfonso XIII, 48-30203 Cartagena, Spain
2Institute of Terrestrial Ecosystems, Swiss Federal Institute of Technology (ETH Zürich), Universitaestrasse 16, 8092 Zürich, Switzerland
3Agriculture and Life Sciences, Lincoln University, Lincoln, Canterbury 7647, New Zealand
Received 7 October 2011; Accepted 2 November 2011
Academic Editors: R. Clemente and J. Ruelas-Inzunza
Copyright © 2012 Héctor M. Conesa et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
- GACGC (German Advisory Council on Global Change), World in Transition: The Threat to Soils, Economica Verlag GmbH, Bonn, Germany, 1994.
- CEC (Commission of the European Communities), Communication from the Commission to the Council, the European Parliament, the Economic and Social Committee and the Committee of the Regions: Towards a Thematic Strategy for Soil Protection, COM(2002) 179 final, European Commision, Brussels, Belgium, 2002.
- S. Bundesrat, 814.12 Verordnung vom 1. Juli 1998 über Belastungen des Bodens (VBBo), Switzerland, 1998.
- MHSPE (Ministry of Housing, Spatial Planning and Environment), Netherlands: Circular on Target Values and Intervention Values for Soil Remediation, Ministry of Housing, Spatial Planning and Environment, Amsterdam, The Netherlands, 2000.
- BOE (Boletín Oficial del Estado), “Real Decreto 9/2005, de 14 de enero, por el que se establece la relación de actividades potencialmente contaminantes del suelo y los criterios y estándares para la declaración de suelos contaminados,” (BOE no. 15 de 18.01.05), pp. 1833–1843, 2005. Spain. (in Spanish).
- F. A. Swartjes, “Risk-based assessment of soil and groundwater quality in The Netherlands: standards and remediation urgency,” Risk Analysis, vol. 19, no. 6, pp. 1235–1249, 1999.
- EC (European Comission), Guide to Cost-Benetfit Analysis of Investment Projects: Evaluation Unit DG Regional Policy European Commission, Structural Fund-ERDF, Cohesion Fund and ISPA, 2002.
- EU (European Union), “Directive 2008/1/EC of the European Parlament and of the Council of 15 January 2008 concerning integrated pollution prevention and control,” (29-01-2008), 2008.
- UNEP (United Nations Environment Programme), “Freshwater management series no. 7 phytotechnologies: a technical approach in environmental management,” 2003, http://www.unep.or.jp/ietc/publications/freshwater/fms7/index.asp.
- ITRC (Interstate Technology and Regulatory Cooperation), “Phytotechnology technical and regulatory guidance and decision trees, Revised Technical/Regulatory Guidance Interstate Technology & Regulatory Council Phytotechnologies,” U.S. 2009, http://www.itrcweb.org/Documents/PHYTO-3.pdf.
- I. Raskin, “Phytoextraction: the use of plants to remove heavy metals from soils,” Environmental Science and Technology, vol. 29, no. 5, pp. 1232–1238, 1995.
- V. Dushenkov, P. B. A. Nanda-Kumar, H. Motto, and I. Raskin, “Rhizofiltration: the use of planst to remove havy metals from aqueous streams,” Environmental Science and Technology, vol. 29, pp. 1239–1245, 1995.
- I. Raskin, R. D. Smith, and D. E. Salt, “Phytoremediation of metals: using plants to remove pollutants from the environment,” Current Opinion in Biotechnology, vol. 8, no. 2, pp. 221–226, 1997.
- D. E. Salt, M. Blaylock, N. P. B. A. Kumar et al., “Phytoremediation: a novel strategy for the removal of toxic metals from the environment using plants,” Bio-technology, vol. 13, no. 5, pp. 468–474, 1995.
- U. Krämer, “Phytoremediation: novel approaches to cleaning up polluted soils,” Current Opinion in Biotechnology, vol. 16, no. 2, pp. 133–141, 2005.
- E. L. Arthur, P. J. Rice, P. J. Rice et al., “Phytoremediation—an overview,” Critical Reviews in Plant Sciences, vol. 24, no. 2, pp. 109–122, 2005.
- N. M. Dickinson, A. J. M. Baker, A. Doronila, S. Laidlaw, and R. D. Reeves, “Phytoremediation of inorganics: realism and synergies,” International Journal of Phytoremediation, vol. 11, no. 2, pp. 97–114, 2009.
- A. P. G. C. Marques, A. O. S. S. Rangel, and P. M. L. Castro, “Remediation of heavy metal contaminated soils: phytoremediation as a potentially promising clean-up technology,” Critical Reviews in Environmental Science and Technology, vol. 39, no. 8, pp. 622–654, 2009.
- B. Robinson, R. Schulin, B. Nowack et al., “Phytoremediation for the management of metal flux in contaminated sites,” Forest Snow and Landscape Research, vol. 80, no. 2, pp. 221–224, 2006.
- I. Alkorta, J. Hernández-Allica, J. M. Becerril, I. Amezaga, I. Albizu, and C. Garbisu, “Recent findings on the phytoremedation of soils contaminated with environmentally toxic heavy metals and metalloids such as zinc, cadmium, lead, and arsenic,” Reviews in Environmental Science and BioTechnology, vol. 3, pp. 71–90, 2004.
- J. L. Schnoor, “Phytoremediation of soil and groundwater,” Technology Evaluation Report TE-02-01, Ground Water Remediation Technologies Analysis Center (GWRTAC), Pittsburgh, Pa, USA, 2002.
- USEPA (United States Environmental Protection Agency), Introduction to Phytoremediation, EPA/600/R-99/107, Boston, Mass, USA, 2000.
- D. I. Kaplan, A. S. Knox, T. G. Hinton, R. R. Sharitz, B. P. Allen, and S. M. Serkiz, “Proof-of-concept of the phytoimmobilization technology for TNX outfall delta,” Final Report, Westinghouse Savannah River Company, Aiken, SC, USA, 2001.
- E. Manousaki, J. Kadukova, and N. Kalogerakis, “Phytoextraction and phytoexcretion of Cd and Pb by the salt cedar (Tamarix Smyrensis Bunge): a new combined phytoremediation process,” COST Action 859—Phytotechnologies in practice—biomass production, agricultural methods, legacy, legal and economic aspects October 14–17, Verneuil-en-Halatte, France, 2008.
- W. A. Peer, I. R. Baxter, E. L. Richards, J. L. Freeman, and A. S. Murphy, “Phytoremediation and hyperaccumulator plants,” Topics in Current Genetics, pp. 299–340, 2006.
- V. Campos and M. A. F. Pires, “Phytoremoval of arsenic from soil,” Communications in Soil Science and Plant Analysis, vol. 358, no. 15-16, pp. 2137–2146, 2003.
- Z. D. Parris, M. K. Banks, A. P. Schwab, and J. C. White, “Phyto-polishing of land-treated manufactured gas plant (MGP) soil,” Intertational Journal of Phytoremediation, vol. 6, p. 188, 2004.
- W. W. Wenzel, “Rhizosphere processes and management in plant-assisted bioremediation (phytoremediation) of soils,” Plant and Soil, vol. 321, no. 1-2, pp. 385–408, 2009.
- J. L. Gardea-Torresdey, G. De la Rosa, and J. R. Peralta-Videa, “Use of phytofiltration technologies in the removal of heavy metals: a review,” Pure and Applied Chemistry, vol. 76, no. 4, pp. 801–813, 2004.
- L. A. Newman and C. M. Reynolds, “Phytodegradation of organic compounds,” Current Opinion in Biotechnology, vol. 15, no. 3, pp. 225–230, 2004.
- B. H. Robinson, G. Bañuelos, H. M. Conesa, M. W. H. Evangelou, and R. Schulin, “The phytomanagement of trace elements in soil,” Critical Reviews in Plant Sciences, vol. 28, no. 4, pp. 240–266, 2009.
- D. J. Glass, “US and international markets for phytoremediation,” Tech. Rep., D. Glass Associates, Needham, Mass, USA, 1999.
- D. N. Dowling and S. L. Doty, “Improving phytoremediation through biotechnology,” Current Opinion in Biotechnology, vol. 20, no. 2, pp. 204–206, 2009.
- R. L. Chaney, M. Malik, Y. M. Li et al., “Phytoremediation of soil metals,” Current Opinion in Biotechnology, vol. 8, no. 3, pp. 279–284, 1997.
- A. J. M. Baker, S. P. McGrath, C. M. D. Sidoli, and R. D. Reeves, “The possibility of in situ heavy metal decontamination of polluted soils using crops of metal-accumulating plants,” Resources, Conservation and Recycling, vol. 11, no. 1–4, pp. 41–49, 1994.
- S. P. McGrath and F. J. Zhao, “Phytoextraction of metals and metalloids from contaminated soils,” Current Opinion in Biotechnology, vol. 14, no. 3, pp. 277–282, 2003.
- M. M. Lasat, “Phytoextraction of toxic metals: a review of biological mechanisms,” Journal of Environmental Quality, vol. 31, no. 1, pp. 109–120, 2002.
- X. Yang, Y. Feng, Z. He, and P. J. Stoffella, “Molecular mechanisms of heavy metal hyperaccumulation and phytoremediation,” Journal of Trace Elements in Medicine and Biology, vol. 18, no. 4, pp. 339–353, 2005.
- R. R. Brooks, Ed., Plants that Hyperaccumulate Heavy Metals, CAB International Publishing, Oxford University Press, 1998.
- J. W. Huang and S. D. Cunningham, “Lead phytoextraction: species variation in lead uptake and translocation,” New Phytologist, vol. 134, no. 1, pp. 75–84, 1996.
- M. J. Blaylock, D. E. Salt, S. Dushenkov et al., “Enhanced accumulation of Pb in Indian mustard by soil-applied chelating agents,” Environmental Science and Technology, vol. 31, no. 3, pp. 860–865, 1997.
- B. Nowack, R. Schulin, and B. H. Robinson, “Critical assessment of chelant-enhanced metal phytoextraction,” Environmental Science and Technology, vol. 40, no. 17, pp. 5225–5232, 2006.
- M. W. H. Evangelou, M. Ebel, and A. Schaeffer, “Chelate assisted phytoextraction of heavy metals from soil: effect, mechanism, toxicity, and fate of chelating agents,” Chemosphere, vol. 68, no. 6, pp. 989–1003, 2007.
- G. Bañuelos, N. Terry, D. L. Leduc, E. A. H. Pilon-Smits, and B. Mackey, “Field trial of transgenic Indian mustard plants shows enhanced phytoremediation of selenium-contaminated sediment,” Environmental Science and Technology, vol. 39, no. 6, pp. 1771–1777, 2005.
- A. K. Wolfe and D. J. Bjornstad, “Why would anyone object? An exploration of social aspects of phytoremediation acceptability,” Critical Reviews in Plant Sciences, vol. 21, no. 5, pp. 429–438, 2002.
- H. M. Conesa, A. Faz, and R. Arnaldos, “Heavy metal accumulation and tolerance in plants from mine tailings of the semiarid Cartagena-La Unión mining district (SE Spain),” Science of the Total Environment, vol. 36, no. 1, pp. 1–11, 2006.
- H. M. Conesa, A. Faz, and R. Arnaldos, “Initial studies for the phytostabilization of a mine tailing from the Cartagena-La Union Mining District (SE Spain),” Chemosphere, vol. 66, no. 1, pp. 38–44, 2007.
- M. H. Wong, “Ecological restoration of mine degraded soils, with emphasis on metal contaminated soils,” Chemosphere, vol. 50, no. 6, pp. 775–780, 2003.
- M. T. Domínguez, T. Marañón, J. M. Murillo, R. Schulin, and B. H. Robinson, “Trace element accumulation in woody plants of the Guadiamar Valley, SW Spain: a large-scale phytomanagement case study,” Environmental Pollution, vol. 152, no. 1, pp. 50–59, 2008.
- I. Lewandowski, M. Londo, U. Schmidt , and A. P. Faaij, “Biomass production in multiple land use systems: categorization of feasible land use functions and their Quantification by the example of phytoremediation,” in Proceedings of the 2nd World Conference and Technology Exhibition on Biomass for Energy, Industry and Climate Protection, pp. 54–57, Rome, Italy, May 2004.
- N. Witters, S. van Slycken, A. Ruttens et al., “Short-rotation coppice of willow for phytoremediation of a metal-contaminated agricultural area: a sustainability assessment,” Bioenergy Research, vol. 2, no. 3, pp. 144–152, 2009.
- E. Meers, S. van Slycken, K. Adriaensen et al., “The use of bio-energy crops (Zea mays) for 'phytoattenuation' of heavy metals on moderately contaminated soils: a field experiment,” Chemosphere, vol. 78, no. 1, pp. 35–41, 2010.
- M. O. Mendez and R. M. Maier, “Phytoremediation of mine tailings in temperate and arid environments,” Reviews in Environmental Science and Biotechnology, vol. 7, no. 1, pp. 47–59, 2008.
- B. H. Robinson, S. Bischofberger, A. Stoll et al., “Plant uptake of trace elements on a Swiss military shooting range: uptake pathways and land management implications,” Environmental Pollution, vol. 153, no. 3, pp. 668–676, 2008.
- C. J. French, N. M. Dickinson, and P. D. Putwain, “Woody biomass phytoremediation of contaminated brownfield land,” Environmental Pollution, vol. 141, no. 3, pp. 387–395, 2006.
- I. Lewandowski, U. Schmidt, M. Londo, and A. Faaij, “The economic value of the phytoremediation function—assessed by the example of cadmium remediation by willow (Salix ssp),” Agricultural Systems, vol. 89, no. 1, pp. 68–89, 2006.
- N. Marmiroli, M. Marmiroli, and E. Maestri, “Phytoremediation and phytotechnologies: a review for the present and the future,” in Viable Methods of Soil and Water Pollution Monitoring, Protection and Remediation, I. Twadowska, M. M. Haggblom, and S. Stefaniak, Eds., vol. 69, pp. 403–416, NATO Science Series IV Earth and Environmental Sciences, 2006.
- P. J. White and M. R. Broadley, “Biofortifying crops with essential mineral elements,” Trends in Plant Science, vol. 10, no. 12, pp. 586–593, 2005.
- F. Branca and M. Ferrari, “Impact of micronutrient deficiencies on growth: the stunting syndrome,” Annals of Nutrition and Metabolism, vol. 46, no. 1, pp. 8–17, 2002.
- G. S. Bañuelos, “Phyto-products may be essential for sustainability and implementation of phytoremediation,” Environmental Pollution, vol. 144, no. 1, pp. 19–23, 2006.
- M. Qaim, A. J. Stein, and J. V. Meenakshi, “Economics of biofortification,” Agricultural Economics, vol. 37, no. 1, pp. 119–133, 2007.
- D. N. Cox and K. Bastiaans, “Understanding Australian consumers' perceptions of selenium and motivations to consume selenium enriched foods,” Food Quality and Preference, vol. 18, no. 1, pp. 66–76, 2007.
- F. J. Zhao and S. P. McGrath, “Biofortification and phytoremediation,” Current Opinion in Plant Biology, vol. 12, no. 3, pp. 373–380, 2009.
- L. A. Licht and J. G. Isebrands, “Linking phytoremediated pollutant removal to biomass economic opportunities,” Biomass and Bioenergy, vol. 28, no. 2, pp. 203–218, 2005.
- W. E. Tyner, “Policy update: cellulosic biofuels market uncertainties and government policy,” Biofuels, vol. 1, pp. 389–391, 2010.
- J. Lehmann, “Bio-energy in the black,” Frontiers in Ecology and the Environment, vol. 5, no. 7, pp. 381–387, 2007.
- P. Schröder, R. Herzig, B. Bojinov et al., “Bioenergy to save the world: producing novel energy plants for growth on abandoned land,” Environmental Science and Pollution Research, vol. 15, no. 3, pp. 196–204, 2008.
- B. Klasnja, S. Kopitovic, and S. Orlovic, “Wood and bark of some poplar and willow clones as fuelwood,” Biomass and Bioenergy, vol. 23, no. 6, pp. 427–432, 2002.
- R. R. Brooks, M. F. Chambers, L. J. Nicks, and B. H. Robinson, “Phytomining,” Trends in Plant Science, vol. 3, no. 9, pp. 359–362, 1998.
- R. L. Chaney, J. S. Angle, A. J. M. Baker, and Y.-M. Li, “Method for phytomining of nickel, cobalt, and other metals from soil,” U.S. Patent, no. 5,711,784, 1998.
- Y. M. Li, R. Chaney, E. Brewer et al., “Development of a technology for commercial phytoextraction of nickel: economic and technical considerations,” Plant and Soil, vol. 249, no. 1, pp. 107–115, 2003.
- L. van Nevel, J. Mertens, K. Oorts, and K. Verheyen, “Phytoextraction of metals from soils: how far from practice?” Environmental Pollution, vol. 150, no. 1, pp. 34–40, 2007.
- R. C. González and M. C.A. González-Chávez, “Metal accumulation in wild plants surrounding mining wastes,” Environmental Pollution, vol. 144, no. 1, pp. 84–92, 2006.
- H. M. Conesa, B. H. Robinson, R. Schulin, and B. Nowack, “Growth of Lygeum spartum in acid mine tailings: response of plants developed from seedlings, rhizomes and at field conditions,” Environmental Pollution, vol. 145, no. 3, pp. 700–707, 2007.